Congenital heart defects - a group of diseases, the combined presence of anatomical defects of the heart, its vessels or valvular encountered in utero, leading to changes in intracardiac and systemic hemodynamics. Manifestations of congenital heart disease depends on its type; the most typical symptoms include paleness, or blueness of the skin, heart murmurs, retarded physical development, signs of respiratory and heart failure. If you suspect a congenital heart defect is performed ECG, PCG, X-ray, echocardiography, cardiac catheterization and aortography, echocardiography, cardiac MRI, etc. The most common congenital heart defects have resorted to cardiac surgery - Rapid correction of anomalies.
Congenital dislocation of the hip are among the most common malformations. According to international research that congenital disorders affect 1 in 7000 newborns. The disease affects girls about 6 times more often than boys. A unilateral lesion occurs 1.5-2 times more often bilateral. Do not diagnosed in infancy hip dislocation appears limp child at the first attempt at self-walk. The most effective conservative treatment of congenital dislocation of the hip in children during the first 3-4 months of life. If it is ineffective or delayed diagnosis of disease is carried out surgical treatment. Lack of timely treatment of congenital hip dislocation leads to a gradual development of coxarthrosis and disability of the patient.
Congenital hypothyroidism - a set of clinical and laboratory manifestations that occur in a child with birth with thyroid hormone deficiency or insensitivity to it isotropic bodies. Symptoms include lag in psychophysical development, miksedemu, trophic disorders of the skin and its appendages, the oppression of the heart, decreased basal metabolism. Diagnosis is based on characteristic clinical, X-ray data, thyroid ultrasound, ECG, laboratory tests, including measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroxine in the blood plasma. Treatment involves a lifelong substitution therapy artificial analogues of thyroid hormones.
Congenital dyskeratosis - an extremely rare genetic disorder, classic clinic which includes local hyperpigmentation of the skin, nail plate dystrophy and leukoplakia. Also, there is bone marrow depression, which manifests itself with aplastic anemia, immune deficiency and bleeding. Most congenital dyskeratosis complicated by malignant neoplasms. Diagnosis involves a comparison of clinical symptoms and detection of karyotype defects using karyotyping or fluorescence hybridization. The treatment is to restore normal function by bone marrow transplantation or its pharmacological stimulation. In parallel, symptomatic therapy.
Congenital ichthyosis - a heterogeneous group of hereditary diseases that are characterized by mutations in the genes responsible for the proper development of the skin, resulting in a specific lesion of the dermis, and other systemic diseases. The main symptoms - enhanced lesions of the skin peeling, formation of thick scales with painful furrows between them, a tendency to hyperpyrexia, systemic failure of internal organs, facial defects. Congenital ichthyosis are diagnosed clinically, confirmed by skin biopsy. The treatment uses drugs retinoids and keratolytics, also held non-specific therapy.
Congenital listeriosis - an infectious disease that occurs when a child's intrauterine infection Listeria. Clinical pathology is characterized by hyperthermia, lymphadenopathy, papular rash or roseolous on the skin, specific granulomas in the mucous membranes, the picture of meningitis, pneumonia. Diagnosis is the identification of Listeria in the body fluids of the child with the help of microscopy studies, planting materials on special nutrient media, of RSK, TPHA, ELISA, PCR. The main treatment is carried out using a combination of antibacterial agents. Drug of choice - ampicillin and gentamicin.
Congenital pyloric stenosis - a malformation of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by organic narrowing of the pyloric part of the stomach, adjacent to the 12-duodenum. Congenital pyloric stenosis manifested at 2-4 weeks of age the child vomit "fountain" that occurs after feeding, weight loss and skin turgor, oliguria, constipation. The methods of diagnosis of congenital pyloric stenosis are ultrasound, X-ray and endoscopic examination of the stomach. Treatment of congenital pyloric stenosis is carried out only by surgery and is performing pyloromyotomy.
Congenital osteopetrosis family - inherited disease with different types of inheritance and clinical course that is characterized by impaired bone ossification processes with their seal and a number of related disorders. Symptoms of this condition are brittle bone (easy development of traumatic or pathological fractures), manifestations of severe anemia with hepato-splenomegaly and, in some cases, observed neurological disorders due to traumatic nerve passing through the bone channels. Diagnosis of congenital osteopetrosis family based on data from X-ray studies, research family history of the patient, molecular genetic and general clinical tests. Specific treatment of this condition does not exist, in some cases, the patient's condition can significantly improve bone marrow transplantation.
Congenital syphilis - clinical form of syphilis infection occurs in utero child Treponema pallidum. Congenital syphilis can manifest itself in different periods of the child's life from prenatal to adolescence. It is characterized by a specific syphilitic skin lesions, mucous membranes, bone, organs and somatic nervous system. Diagnosis of congenital syphilis is based on the allocation of the pathogen from the blood, separated the skin cells and the cerebrospinal fluid; positive results of serological tests and PCR diagnostics, examination of the internal organs. Treatment of congenital syphilis with antibiotics, bismuth preparations, and non-specific agents aimed at increasing immunity.
Congenital stridor - a pathological noisy (whistling or hissing) breathing due to a congenital abnormality of the structure of the larynx or trachea. Congenital stridor appears loud breathing difficulties, which increases with crying, coughing. Diagnosis of congenital stridor held pediatrician, otolaryngologist and pulmonologist considering anamnesis data, laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, esophagoscopy. Treatment of congenital stridor due to functional reasons, not required: as the growth cartilage of the larynx (2-3 years) stridor disappeared. If the pathology associated with organic causes, it may require surgery.
Congenital toxoplasmosis - a parasitic diseases that occur when the baby transplacental infection Toxoplasma gondii. Most of the children are asymptomatic. Possible manifestations of the disease: intoxication syndrome, maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, lower limb edema. Often it provokes the development of organ pathologies of sight, hearing, central nervous system; at least - infarction, lung and liver. Antenatal diagnosis is based on biopsy, postnatal - on the set of medical history, clinical and laboratory data (ELISA, PCR). Etiotropic treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis is performed using schemes based on drugs or pyrimethamine and spiramycin sulfadimezin.
Congenital tuberculosis - an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis as they enter from an infected mother to the fetus during pregnancy. Manifested respiratory failure in the newborn, lethargy and poor appetite, fever, hepatosplenomegaly, a third of cases joined meningitis. For the purpose of diagnosis carried out tuberculin tests, laboratory blood tests, the agent is also detected in urine and other biological fluids. The basis of treatment of congenital tuberculosis - TB drugs while being treated organ failure and immunotherapy.
Congenital hepatic fibrosis (WWF) - is genetically determined pathology, which is characterized by a portal fibrosis violation morphogenesis intrahepatic branches of the portal vein and bile ducts. Clinically it can manifest portal hypertension with gastrointestinal bleeding and /or cholangitis with characteristic symptoms. In the diagnosis of the most informative are laboratory markers of fibrosis, ultrasonography, cholangiography, portal venography and liver biopsy. Treatment is symptomatic. In severe hypertension in the portal vein and massive bleeding carried venous shunting.
Ingrown hair - change of hair growth, in which its rod is growing under the skin and in the opposite direction. Ingrown hairs occur in places of frequent removal of unwanted hair (on the face, legs, neck, armpit, pubic area) and are defined as a portion of the swelling, inflammation, redness and itching. ingrown hair problem calls for refusal from the usual method of home hair removal (shaving, depilation using cream, etc) and the choice in favor of the professional hair removal methods, the use of special cosmetics that prevent ingrown hairs.
Ingrown nail - a disease associated with the growing of the lateral edge of the nail plate in the tissue okolonogtevogo roller. This on-site nail ingrowth occurs inflammation. The pain and swelling resulting in difficulty in walking. Conservative treatment of ingrown nail is held warm baths, ointments, antiseptics and special devices to align the nail plate. At its ineffectiveness require surgery - a partial or complete removal of the nail.
Secondary amenorrhea - cessation of menstruation for six months or more in women of reproductive age with a steady menstrual cycle. The defining feature - absence of menstrual periods for at least six months. Secondary amenorrhea may be accompanied by abdominal pain (uterine form), mental disorders (with psychogenic form), obese (with endocrine form), vegetative disorders (when the ovarian form), and so on. D. Conducted a general and gynecological examination to establish the cause of amenorrhea, hormonal tests, pelvic ultrasound, radiography sella, gistero- and laparoscopy. Treatment is aimed at correcting the factors that led to secondary amenorrhea.
Secondary cardiomyopathy - structural and functional changes in the heart muscle arising from the main primary disease. Symptoms of secondary cardiomyopathy include shortness of breath, dizziness, chest pain, rhythm disturbances, weakness. Diagnosis of secondary cardiomyopathy includes conducting ECG, echocardiography, radiography of the chest, blood biochemistry. Pathogenetic cardiomyopathy secondary treatment consists of exposing the metabolic processes in the myocardium; symptomatic - in the elimination of violations of rhythm and conduction, heart failure.
Secondary immunodeficiencies - is a disease of the immune system that occur in children and adults who are not related to genetic defects and characterized by the development of repeated, prolonged infectious and inflammatory pathological processes, poorly amenable to causal treatment. There are acquired, induced and spontaneous form of secondary immunodeficiencies. Symptoms due to low immunity, and reflects the specific loss of an organ (system). Diagnosis is based on the analysis of clinical and immunological studies. In the treatment of used vaccination, substitution therapy, immunomodulators.
Secondary biliary cirrhosis - a diffuse progressive liver disease with severe fibrous and nodular parenchymal restructuring, which is based on long-term obstruction of the extrahepatic biliary tract. The secondary biliary cirrhosis is characterized by jaundice, pruritus, pyrexia, pain in the right upper quadrant. For the diagnosis of the pathology study conducted blood biochemical parameters, ultrasound, transcutaneous transhepatic cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a liver biopsy. In secondary biliary cirrhosis of the liver, surgical removal of the obstruction of the common bile duct.
Secondary Parkinsonism - a clinical term that combines all the cases of the appearance of Parkinson's syndrome, caused by the influence of various factors affecting the central nervous system or the presence of underlying disease. Unlike Parkinson's disease, secondary parkinsonism is more acute onset, characterized by the initial symmetry Parkinson symptoms and the presence of other CNS symptoms. Diagnosis is based on medical history and clinical data, taking into account the results of MRI of the brain. Treatment is aimed at arresting the main etiological factor and blocking pathogenetic mechanisms of development of parkinsonism.
Secondary syphilis - following the initial period of syphilis, which is characterized by disseminated eruption with lots of elements polymorphism (roseola, papules, vesicles, pustules), the defeat of somatic organs, musculoskeletal system, nervous system and generalized lymphadenitis. Diagnosis of secondary syphilis is performed by detecting Treponema pallidum in the discharge of skin cells, punctate lymph nodes and cerebrospinal fluid; statement of serological tests. Treatment includes penicillin and symptomatic therapy of internal organs lesions.
A second (double) chin form fat and skin folds under the edge of the lower jaw and in the neck. The appearance of double chin considerably reduces the attractiveness of the person does not aesthetic profile, visually adds extra years and weight, so it appears the owners of a great desire as quickly as possible to get rid of this shortcoming. Correction of double chin can be done with the help of conservative cosmetic methods (mesotherapy, ozone therapy, myostimulation termoliftinga) or surgically (liposuction).
Inverted nipples - especially breast development, in which the nipple is on par with the areola or inverted inside. Inverted nipples are aesthetic and psychological problem for women as well as hamper the implementation of breastfeeding because the child can not grab his mouth nipple. Correction of inverted nipples can be performed in a conservative manner (by means of vacuum drawing) or by surgical intervention. Before treatment should be deleted breast disease, which can cause changes in shape of the nipple (for example, breast cancer).
Vulvitis - an inflammation of the vulva (the external female genitalia). It is characterized by the appearance of itching, burning, heavy discharge, redness and swelling of the labia, pain after urination. It may be due to poor hygiene or injury to the external genitalia (primary vulva), genital or extragenital diseases, endocrine disorders (secondary vulvitis). Dangerous infections transition to the internal sexual organs; girls in early childhood vulvitis can cause fusion of the labia minora. Vulvitis may occur in the acute and chronic form. To diagnose vulvitis should consult a gynecologist.
Vulva in girls - acute or recurrent inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the vulva. Vulva in girls manifested by itching and burning in the vulva, swelling and erythema of the labia and surrounding skin, secretions of the different nature of the genital tract. The diagnosis of vulvitis in girls is put on the basis of the inspection data, and vulvo- Vaginoscopy, smear microscopy, bacteriological crop discharge from the genitals, PCR scraping, etc. Local therapy vulvitis in girls include hip baths, UFO vulva, application of ointments.; systemic therapy is determined by the etiology of the inflammatory process.
Vulvovaginitis - primary non-infectious or infectious (specific or non-specific), inflammation of the mucous membranes of the external genitalia and vagina. Symptoms of vulvovaginal any etiology presented erythema, swelling, burning and itching of the vulva. The character of discharge from the genital tract depends on the cause /vulvovaginal pathogen. The disease is diagnosed on the basis of gynecological examination, the results of the research methods of smear microscopy, culturing, PCR. vulvovaginal Treatment consists of causal treatment, local procedures (baths, douches, suppositories administration), restore vaginal microflora.
Vulvodynia - painful sensations in the vulva - the complex female reproductive organs located outside from the entrance to the vagina. The pain is sharp, dull or itchy in nature and long duration, leading to problems in the intimate life of the woman. Determining the cause of vulvodynia is not easy, because the routine gynecological examination (examination in the chair, palpation, testing of smears on the flora and onkotsitologiyu, ultrasound) often do not reveal pathology. Depending on the cause of the pain syndrome, vulvodynia treated with painkillers, antihistamines, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory drugs and antidepressants. In some cases, surgery is required.
Pemphigus vulgaris (pemphigus vulgaris) - an autoimmune disease with the development of a mechanism characterized by the appearance of the mucous membranes and skin blisters, which then burst, turning into bright pink erosion. In pemphigus vulgaris often is an increase in erosion and merging to form large lesions on the area. Diagnosis is made by biopsy of the bladder appeared recently, its histological and immunological study. In the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris used corticosteroids, cytotoxic drugs, methods of extracorporeal blood correction.
Vulgar ecthyma (ecthyma sylvestris) - deep pock strep ulcerative skin lesions, manifested by one or more ulcers with purulent discharge, after the healing which is on the edge of pigmented scars. Vulgar ecthyma diagnosis is based on clinical data, results of seeding discharge ulcers and serology. In the treatment of the disease process and bandaging the lesion is carried out against the background of antibiotic therapy and bracing, physical therapy techniques used.
Vulgar impetigo - a contagious skin disease from the group pyococcus (pustular) infections. It occurs most often in children but can affect adults, neglecting personal hygiene. Clinically manifested pustular rash on the skin unaltered, with raschёsami, erosions, crusts, tending to peripheral growth, education, drop-out chambers. Pustules occur in areas of skin disorders (such as cracks, abrasions, cuts). Diagnosis is based on clinical, taking into account clinical and laboratory examination (KLA, biochemistry, the acidity of the skin surface, dermatoscopy). Antibacterial treatment, it is important to personal hygiene standards.