Familial spastic paraplegia (Adolph Strümpell disease) - a hereditary degenerative myelopathy with bilateral lesions of the lateral and anterior spinal columns primarily on the lumbar level. The basic clinical symptom appears central paraparesis of the lower extremities. To diagnose the disease allows Adolph Strümpell typical symptoms, the presence of family history data electroneuromyographic, evoked potential studies, MRI and genetic analyzes. Treatment is based on continuous reception or intramuscular endolyumbalno administration of muscle relaxants in combination with physical therapy and physiotherapy.
Shulman disease - diffuse connective tissue disease characterized by lesions of the deep fascia, muscles, subcutaneous tissue, the skin and flowing on the background of eosinophilia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. For the clinical picture of the disease Shulman typical thickening of the skin in an "orange peel" skin, swelling of the distal extremities, polyarthralgia, flexion contractures of joints, myalgia. During the diagnosis of the disease are recorded Shulman clinical symptoms, laboratory findings (hypereosinophilia, hypergammaglobulinemia), the results of skin biopsies and muscles. Shulman's disease therapy includes corticosteroids, NSAIDs, cytostatics, extracorporeal blood correction.
Large ears - an increase in the size of the whole or parts of the auricle. Big ears is likely to disrupt the aesthetic proportions of the face; often combined with droopy ears, asymmetry, deformity of the outer ear; are the cause of isolation and zakompleksovannosti, especially in adolescence. Large ears usually can not violate the auditory function, and represent only a cosmetic defect. Reducing the size and shape correction of ears is performed by means and methods of plastic surgery and its specialized direction - otoplasty.
Large buttocks are usually formed with excess fat in this area, and are usually combined with increased weight. However, curvy buttocks can meet and have a pretty slim women, as a feature of their individual shapes. Therefore, the main "claim" the owners of large buttocks have less to do with their size, but with the form and appearance: cellulite, sagging, changes in lower body contours. Reducing the size and shape of the buttocks correction can be performed using hardware techniques (myostimulation elektrolipoliz, LPG-massage, Cryolipolysis, cavitation, etc.) Or plastic surgery (liposuction, tightening).
Large nose - individual features ratio of length, width, height of the outer nose, in which it appears disproportionately in relation to other parts of the face. Too big nose disturbs the harmony of the facial features, attracts attention and causes the ridicule of others, promotes the development of complexes about their appearance from its owner. However, a major outer nose increasingly protects humans from penetrating into the respiratory tract pathogens airborne infections and allergens. When dissatisfaction with individual size and shape of the nose to the aid of plastic nose (rhinoplasty).
Warts ordinary (simple, vulgar) - benign tumors of the skin, towering over its surface and which is a non-inflammatory papules, covered with outgrowths of epithelial cells of the stratum. Warts can occur anywhere on the body, but most often located on the back of the hand, fingers, at least - on the face. Color warts can vary from gray to flesh; dimensions - 0.5 to 1.5 cm; warts surface uneven, rough. For the diagnosis is usually sufficient visual inspection; Additional studies carried out PCR, histology. Wart removal is carried out by cryoablation, electricity and lazerokoagulyatsii, surgical excision.
Verrucose precancer red border - a pathological process in the red border of the lips with a high probability of malignant transformation. Refers to a group of obligate precancerous lesions may undergo malignant transformation within 1-2 months. It is a round tuberous painless nodule, usually on the right or left side of the lower lip. Colour the nodule may vary from the usual, coinciding with the color portion of the lips to the stagnant-red. The diagnosis is established on the basis of the survey, inspection and additional research data. Treatment operative.
Warty skin tuberculosis - chronic infection of the skin, resulting from human contact with infected material or pathogens to patients with open forms of tuberculosis. The main symptom of the disease is the formation on the rear arms round granulomas purple hue, which has a tendency to grow, with the outcome in a large dense papule covered with warty growths. Permission is granted to such "tubercular tubercle" scarring. Subjective well-being of the patient is not disturbed. Warty skin tuberculosis is diagnosed with the help of setting tuberculin tests. Pathogenetic treatment with anti-TB agents.
Botulism is a severe food poisoning that develops as a result of ingestion of human botulinum toxin. Infection occurs through the alimentary, the most commonly by eating canned food containing spores of botulism. Botulism is characterized by damage to the nervous system by blocking acetylcholine receptors botulinum toxin nerve fibers manifests itself in the form of muscle paralysis and paresis. The main danger of botulism is the development of complications such as acute respiratory failure and cardiac arrhythmias. Diagnosis of botulism is based mainly on data from medical history and neurological examination results.
Bradycardia - kind of arrhythmia, a heart rate less than 60 beats per minute. It occurs as a variant of the norm in trained athletes, but often accompanied by a variety of cardiac pathology. It shows weakness, semiconscious state, and transient loss of consciousness, cold sweat, pain in the heart, dizziness, blood pressure instability. In severe bradycardia (heart rate less than 40 beats per minute), leading to the development of heart failure, you may need an operation to implant a pacemaker.
Bradilaliya - a violation rate of speech production, characterized by the slow implementation of the articulatory act. When bradilalii slows down the pace of the domestic and external speech, reading and writing; unmodulated voice becomes monotone, articulation - fuzzy. When bradilalii require complex medical, psychological and speech therapy examination, aimed at clarifying the causes of the violation rate of speech and related disorders. The technique involves overcoming bradilalii medical exposure (drug therapy, FTL, psychotherapy), massage, speech therapy classes, logoritmiku.
Brazilian pemphigus - a chronic dermatosis of the group cystic disease of unknown etiology, which has endemic color. Gender and age are missing components. The main clinical symptom is a rash of flat blisters on the skin clinically not altered. Selectivity in the localization of primary cells is not observed, the distinguishing feature is the absence of lesions on mucous membranes. Symptom positive Nikolsky. Diagnosis is based on clinical use in the method of fingerprint acantholytic cells. Treatment is carried out with the help of corticosteroids, plasmapheresis.
Brachydactyly - a hereditary defect, characterized by hypoplasia of the phalanges and the shortening of the fingers on the hands or feet. Signs brachydactyly is korotkopalost, shortening the brush size or feet, hypoplasia of the nail plate, often stiff joints (simfalangiya), syndactyly, polydactyly. Examination of the patient with brachydactyly involves consultation genetics, DNA diagnostics, X-rays of the hands and feet. Treatment involves brachydactyly division and elongation fingers, exercise and massage.
Bromoderma - drug species dermatosis caused accumulation of bromine in tissues and increased sensitivity to its connections. Symptoms have some variability. There are several clinical forms, in general, skin manifestations are reduced to the development of rashes, plaques or pustules. Bromoderma Diagnosis is based on history and preparation of the patient survey (identifying the source of bromine into the organism), for determining the concentration of this element in tissues. bromoderma Treatment includes avoiding the use of bromine-containing products, desensibiliziruschuyu therapy, prevention of secondary infections of the skin.
Bronchial asthma - a chronic, non-communicable diseases of the respiratory tract inflammatory. Chronic inflammation of the respiratory organs leading to their hyperactivity, a result of which in contact with allergens or irritants, bronchial obstruction develops immediately, which limits the air flow and cause suffocation. The attack of asthma often develops after precursors and is characterized by short sharp breath and noisy long exhalation. Usually it is accompanied by cough with viscous sputum, and loud wheezing. Bronchial asthma can lead to the development of emphysema and pulmonary heart occurrence status asthmaticus.
Asthma in children - chronic allergic airway disease, accompanied by inflammation of the bronchi and the change in reactivity, as well as appearing on this background of bronchial obstruction. Asthma occurs in children with symptoms of expiratory dyspnea, wheezing, paroxysmal cough, choking episodes. Diagnosis of asthma in children is established taking into account the allergic history; spirometry, peak flow, X-rays of the chest, skin allergy tests; determination of IgE, blood gases, sputum. Treatment of asthma in children involves the elimination of allergens, the use of aerosol bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamines, conducting specific immunotherapy.
Bronchial fistula - a pathology of the bronchial tree, which is characterized by the presence of pathological bronchial messages with the external environment, the pleural cavity, or lumen of the internal organs. The clinical picture is determined by the relationship of the bronchus with other anatomical structures. The common symptoms are shortness of breath, cyanosis, cough with contents drained bodies (pus, food masses, bile, etc.). The diagnosis of bronchial fistula was confirmed by X-ray (X-ray light, fistulography, bronhografii, CT), endoscopy (bronchoscopy, endoscopy), pleural puncture with pressure gauge. Tactics against bronchial fistulas can be conservative or surgical.
Bronchitis - diffuse inflammatory disease of the bronchial tubes, which affects the mucous membrane or the entire thickness of the bronchial walls. Damage and inflammation of the bronchial tree may occur as an independent, isolated process (primary bronchitis), or develop as a complication on the background of existing chronic diseases and infections transferred (secondary bronchitis). Damage to the mucosal epithelium of bronchi violates the secret of production, motor activity of the cilia and the process of cleansing the bronchi. Separate the acute and chronic bronchitis, which differ in etiology, pathogenesis and treatment.
Bronchitis is a smoker - a form of chronic inflammation of the large, medium and small bronchi, the development of which is related to the negative effect of smoking on the respiratory tract. For a typical smoker's bronchitis clinic attacks hacking cough with abundant thick sputum, dyspnea with labored breath, chronic respiratory failure. The diagnosis of bronchitis smoker based on data from medical history, examination, X-ray of lungs, sputum examination, spirometry, bronchoscopy. In this form of bronchitis is shown stopping smoking, taking bronchodilators, mucolytics and expectorants, if necessary - antibiotics, physiotherapy.
Bronchitis in children - a non-specific inflammation of the lower respiratory tract, occurring with lesions of the bronchial tubes of various calibers. Bronchitis in children manifested cough (dry or with phlegm different nature), fever, pain in the chest, bronchial obstruction, wheezing. Bronchitis in children diagnosed on the basis of auscultation paintings, lung X-ray data, the general analysis of blood, sputum, respiratory function, bronchoscopy, bronhografii. Pharmacotherapy of bronchitis in children is carried out with antibacterial drugs, mucolytics, antitussives; physiotherapy treatments include inhalation, UFO, electrophoresis, cupping and vibrating massage, exercise therapy.
Bronchogenic cyst - a malformation of the bronchial tubes, which is a thin-walled cavitary education filled with mucous secretion of bronchial glands. Bronchogenic cyst may be asymptomatic or show signs of compression of the trachea, bronchus, esophagus (coughing, shortness of breath, cyanosis, chest pain, dysphagia, and others.). The scan for the most informative polypositional radiography, linear and computed tomography, bronchography, bronchoscopy, ultrasound mediastinum. Treatment of bronchial cysts operative - cystectomy, segmental resection of lung lobectomy.
Bronchiectasis - a disease characterized by irreversible changes (extension, deformation) of the bronchi, accompanied by functional disability and the development of chronic suppurative inflammation in the bronchial tree. Modified bronchi are called bronchiectasis (or bronchiectasis). The main manifestation of bronchiectasis is a constant cough, accompanied by purulent sputum. Perhaps even hemoptysis and pulmonary hemorrhage development. Over time, bronchiectasis can lead to respiratory failure and anemia in children - a lag in physical development. Diagnostic algorithm involves a physical examination of the patient, lung auscultation, X-rays of the chest, bronchoscopy, sputum analysis, Bronchography, ERF study. Treatment of bronchiectasis is aimed at relief of inflammatory processes in the bronchi and the bronchial tree sanitation.
Bruxism - recurrent episodes of involuntary contraction of the masticatory muscles, accompanied by the clenching of the jaws and teeth grinding. Besides the main symptom - gritting his teeth, bruxism can lead to abnormal abrasion and hypersensitivity of the teeth, the formation of wedge-shaped defects, periodontal pathology and TMJ, pain in the masticatory muscles, headaches, etc. Bruxism is detected on the basis of complaints of the patient and his family, characteristic changes teeth, polysomnography, electromyography. In the treatment of bruxism applied therapy, massage, physical therapy, Botulinum wearing mouth guards.
Brucellosis - a zoonotic infection characterized by multiple organ abnormalities and a tendency to chronicity. A significant component of the pathogenetic brucellosis is allergic reactivity. Transmission of Brucella is mainly food and by water, most often through meat and milk of infected animals. In pastoralists can be realized, and the air contact brucellosis transmission path. The diagnosis is the detection of the pathogen in the blood, punctate lymph node or cerebrospinal fluid. Serological diagnosis can be considered reliable with a positive result of several different methods: ELISA, RLA, IHA, IFA, RAC, etc.
Flews - a consequence of the weakening of the skin tone and fatty tissue in the area of the middle part of the face, leading to sagging tissues and disruption of the natural facial contours. Swollen cheeks and "flews" heavier lower part of the face and visually add extra years. Usually this aesthetic disadvantage faced by persons older than 40 years, as age decreases the production of collagen and elastin skin cells. This leads to loss of elasticity and skin sagging cheeks and mandible. Fight Bryl possible with the help of hardware cosmetology (termoliftinga, ultrazvekovogo SMAS-lifting, etc.) Or radical surgical methods - different types of facelift.
Abdominal pregnancy - a pregnancy in which the fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus is not, and in the abdominal cavity. Risk factors are inflammatory diseases of appendages surgery on reproductive organs, prolonged use of IUDs, genital infantilism, pelvic tumors, endocrine disorders and stress. According to their manifestations of complications abdominal pregnancy resembles a normal gestation. There is a high likelihood of developing internal bleeding and damage to the organs of the abdominal cavity. Diagnosis put on the basis of complaints, anamnesis, data general and gynecological examinations and instrumental studies. Treatment operative.
Chronic occlusion of mesenteric vessels (intestinal angina) - chronic ischemia of the intestine, growing in violation of its blood supply due to obstruction or spasm of the mesenteric vessels. Abdominal toad seen bouts of abdominal pain after eating, persistent diarrhea, weight loss. Diagnosis of abdominal toads include plain radiography of the abdominal cavity, mesenteric vessels angiography, radioisotope study of the digestive tract, according to testimony - gastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, etc. Conservative treatment of chronic occlusion aimed at improving the microcirculation and the removal of vascular spasm.; when subcompensation and decompensation conducted reconstructive operations on the mesenteric vessels.
Typhoid fever - an acute intestinal infection, wherein the cyclic course with a primary lesion of the lymphatic system of the intestine, accompanied by the general intoxication and exanthema. Typhoid fever is alimentary route of infection. The incubation period lasts an average of 2 weeks. Clinic typhoid characterizes intoxication syndrome, fever, rash of small red spots (exanthema), hepatosplenomegaly, in severe cases - hallucinations, confusion. Typhoid fever is diagnosed in detecting the pathogen in blood, feces or urine. Serological tests have a value Accessory menu.
Bulimia nervosa - a disease which is based on the neuro-psychiatric disorder, manifested in the uncontrolled consumption of food, focus on food, calories, weight. The patient suffers from bouts of insatiable hunger, use the means for weight loss, take laxatives, causing vomiting. Bulimiki different low self-esteem, feelings of guilt, excessive self-criticism, have a distorted view of their own weight. In severe stages bulimia leads to sharp fluctuations of weight (5 to 10 kg up and down), parotid gland swelling, chronic throat irritation, chronic fatigue and pain in the muscles, loss of teeth.
Bullous emphysema, lung - local changes of the lung tissue, characterized by the destruction of alveolar walls and the formation of air cysts larger than 1 cm (bullae). When uncomplicated bullous emphysema symptoms may be absent until the occurrence of spontaneous pneumothorax. Diagnostic confirmation of bullous emphysema is achieved by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution CT, scintigraphy, thoracoscopy. In asymptomatic possible dynamic observation; in the case of a progressive or complicated course of bullous lung disease surgical treatment (Bullectomy, segmentectomy, lobectomy).