Fetal pneumonia - inflammation of the lung tissue, which arose antenatally, accompanied by the development of clinical manifestations in the first 72 hours of life. Manifested severe respiratory failure phenomena respiratory distress syndrome, intoxication, neurological disorders due to brain edema and others. Fetal pneumonia, diagnosed radiologically, laboratory tests can detect a particular pathogen. Shown causal treatment (antibiotics, antivirals, and others.), Oxygen therapy, correction of multiple organ failure symptoms.
Intrauterine infection - a group of diseases of the fetus and newborn, developing as a result of infection in prenatal or childbirth. Intrauterine infection can lead to fetal death, spontaneous abortion, intrauterine growth retardation, premature birth, birth defects form, the defeat of the internal organs and the central nervous system. Methods of diagnosis of intrauterine infections include microscopic, culture, immuno and molecular-biological research. Treatment of intrauterine infections is carried out using immunoglobulins, immunomodulators, antiviral, antibacterial drugs.
Intracranial hypertension - increased intracranial pressure syndrome. It may be idiopathic or occur with various brain lesions. The clinical picture consists of a headache with pressure on the eyes, nausea and vomiting, and sometimes - transient vision disorders; in severe cases, there is disturbance of consciousness. Diagnosis is exposed to the light of clinical data, results of Echo EG, tomography, analysis of CSF, intraventricular monitoring of intracranial pressure, cerebral vascular Doppler ultrasound. Treatment includes diuretics, etiotropic and symptomatic therapy. According to the testimony of a brain operation.
Intracranial birth trauma - traumatic damage to the central nervous system of the fetus and newborn, resulting in bleeding and destruction of brain tissue. Intracranial birth trauma can include epidural, subdural, intraventricular, parenchymal, subarachnoid hemorrhage; characterized by cerebral and focal symptoms. When the diagnosis is taken into account during pregnancy and childbirth, newborn examination of the data, the results of instrumental diagnostics (lumbar puncture, ophthalmoscopy, EEG, EhoEG, REG). Treatment of intracranial birth injury includes physical rest, kraniotserebralnuyu hypothermia, oxygen therapy, hemostatic, dehydration, metabolic therapy.
Blisters - is a clear liquid containing a bubble formed on the skin due to its mechanical damage by friction. Simply put, this is what is popularly called "dropsy". Most often blisters are formed in contact with the shoes and places foot on the palm and fingers, holding the tool when working. With the right approach to the treatment and caring for damaged skin blisters heal quickly, leaving no trace.
Hydrops of the gallbladder - a non-inflammatory disease caused by a partial or complete obstruction of the cystic duct, resulting in gall bladder accumulated mucus and exudate. Dropsy of the gall bladder is formed long, long time the symptoms may be absent. Accumulation of a large number of contents causes an increase in bubble size, stretching and thinning its walls, pain, morbidity (bleeding, peritonitis). For the diagnosis is carried out X-ray, ultrasound, CT scan of the abdominal cavity, the ERCP and laparoscopy. Surgical treatment - cholecystectomy.
Hydrocele (hydrocele, hydrocele) - a disease in which serous fluid accumulates between the parietal and visceral leaf of his own (inner) shell eggs, leading to an increase in the corresponding half of the scrotum. The volume of accumulated fluid usually ranges from 20-200 mL and rarely increases to 1-3 liters. The disease affects both children and adults. Children are usually diagnosed congenital hydrocele, adults - acquired. Hydrocele is diagnosed by visual inspection, transillumination and ultrasound. The main method of treatment is surgical intervention.
Hydrocele in boys - the accumulation of serous fluid produced by the tunica vaginalis testis, between her sheets. Hydrocele in boys is accompanied by an increase in the size of the scrotum on one or two sides, sometimes - difficulty urinating. Diagnosis of hydrocele in boys held children whether urologist surgeon, includes inspection and palpation of the scrotum, transillumination, ultrasound of the scrotum. When hydrocele in boys expectant management may be used, carried out hydrocele puncture or surgical treatment.
The excitable personality disorder - personality disorder, accompanied by temper, quarrelsome, conflict and increased aggressiveness. Violations of resistant behavior, not controlled by an effort, make it difficult to adapt to the team and the creation of harmonious family relations. Intelligence is stored. The changing nature of sustainable, can not be a deep correction and progresses throughout life, but can be exacerbated by the influence of traumatic circumstances. In the compensation stage carried out a social, personal and work adaptation. In decompensation stage applied psychotherapy and drug therapy.
Relapsing fever - diseases group spirochetosis including epidemic (lousy) and endemic (tick-borne) recurrent fever. The main features of relapsing fever are multiple febrile seizures, alternating with intervals apyrexia. Also a marked intoxication, skin rash, hepatosplenomegaly, mild jaundice of the skin and sclera. Crucial to confirm the diagnosis of relapsing fever spirochetes detection is in the patient's blood. Causal treatment of relapsing fever is carried antibacterial drugs (penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin).
Hairy leukoplakia - a disease of the oral mucosa caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and develop on the background of immunosuppressive states. The most common abnormality is diagnosed in patients with HIV, acute leukemia and receiving immunosuppressive drugs. The lesion is a whitish or gray patina that forms folds and plaques with a rough surface. For diagnosis using biopsy followed by histological analysis, stroke research and the identification of markers of HIV. Treatment involves taking antiviral drugs, local medical and surgical exposure.
Tons throat polyp - benign tumor of the pharynx innate nature, which is the result of violations occurring during the formation of the embryo. Externally hairy throat polyp appears as a rounded education on the leg. The main symptoms of the disease is respiratory failure, sucking and swallowing food. Because of the pronounced respiratory disorders up to asphyxia newborn hairy throat polyp is usually diagnosed in 1-2 days of life. This requires examination of ENT doctor to conduct pharyngoscope. Upon confirmation of the diagnosis of surgical treatment - removal of the polyp by ligation and crossing his legs.
Cleft palate - a congenital deformity, which is a splitting of tissue hard and soft palate, in which there is a communication between the oral and nasal cavity. Children born with such a defect from birth have difficulties with spontaneous breathing and nutrition; lag behind in physical development, gain weight poorly, often sick, and in older age suffer from speech disorders (nasality). Correction of cleft palate (cleft palate) is carried out surgically using reconstructive surgery (uranoplasty, velofaringoplastiki), followed by orthopedic, speech therapy, physical therapy rehabilitation.
Villous tumors of the colon - a benign tumor originating from the glandular mucosa epithelium. Most localized in the rectum. Over time, often exposed to malignant transformation. It appears a lot of mucus from the rectum. Sometimes separation stained with blood. Perhaps a feeling of heaviness, constipation, and foreign body sensation. In low-lying tumor may fall out during a bowel movement. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of clinical symptoms, digital examination of the rectum and the data of the results of additional studies. Treatment operative.
Inflammation of the appendages - inflammation in the pelvis, which is localized in the ovaries and tubes (appendages). Causes of disease are bacteria and viruses that penetrate in the epididymis, and the main trigger factors - hypothermia, thereby reducing the overall and local immunity. The disease manifests various symptoms, from pulling pain in the abdomen and meager selections to disruptions of the menstrual cycle and acute inflammation. Therefore, only a comprehensive diagnosis, including laboratory, differential and instrumental methods of research, helps to make a correct diagnosis. The main treatment is to link specific causal therapy is acute stage plays an important role prevention. The disease also has other medical designation - adnexitis, salpingo (from a combination of the terms "salpingitis" - an inflammation of the fallopian (uterine) tubes and "oophoritis" - an inflammation of the ovaries).
Inflammatory myopathies - inflammation that occurs primarily in skeletal muscle and leads to degenerative changes in them. Inflammatory myopathy is characterized by muscle weakness, muscle pain, a sharp decline in the volume of active movements, the development of contractures, seal and swelling muscles. Of the methods of diagnosis of inflammatory myopathy most informative to determine the level of CK and myoglobin, electromyography and muscle biopsy. Treatment of inflammatory myopathy is performed with high doses of glucocorticosteroids followed by maintenance therapy. However, quite often there are resistant to corticosteroids form of the disease.
Inflammatory polyneuropathy - multiple lesions of the nerve trunks, the substrate which acts as an inflammatory reaction autoimmune origin. Manifested quickly or slowly progressive flaccid paresis with sensitivity disorder, sometimes with cranial nerves, paralysis of respiratory muscles. Diagnosis is performed using the electrophysiological studies, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, blood analysis and immunological studies. Pathogenetic therapy (corticosteroids, the immunoglobulin G, plasmapheresis, cytotoxic agents) and symptomatic (analgesics, anticholinesterase, lipoic acid, physiotherapy).
Congenital aplasia of the skin - a group of conditions of unknown etiology, characterized by the formation of focal disorders of the skin with the development of scars. Symptoms of this condition are detected immediately after birth, which occurs one or more erosions or ulcers on the scalp or, very rarely, in other parts of the body. Diagnosis of congenital aplasia of the skin is carried out on the basis of examination by a dermatologist, histological study of tissues in the lesion. Treatment is symptomatic only in order to prevent the development of secondary infections, but possible surgical correction to reduce scarring cosmetic defect.
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy - a heterogeneous group of hereditary diseases that combines metabolic disorder in fat until it is completely atrophy. Symptoms of this condition are the disappearance of subcutaneous fat in most parts of the body, black acanthosis skin folds, diabetes. Some forms are also accompanied by varying degrees of mental retardation, disturbance of the heart, liver and skeletal muscles. Diagnosis of congenital generalized lipodystrophy is carried out on the basis of the inspection data, family history, laboratory tests, and genetic diagnostics. Specific treatment is not available, use diet therapy and symptomatic therapy.
Congenital glaucoma - often a hereditary disease, accompanied by a gradual increase in intraocular pressure and the resulting accompanying visually impaired. The main symptoms of this disease include increasing the size of the eyes (in infants), pain that leads to anxiety and tearfulness child, photophobia, myopia, or astigmatism. Diagnosis of congenital glaucoma is based on an ophthalmological examination data, the study of hereditary patient's medical history and the course of pregnancy, genetic research. Only surgical treatment, and it must be done as early as possible before the onset of irreversible disturbances in the body of the secondary view.
Congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma Brock - a form of congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, a distinctive feature is the predominance of hyperkeratosis over the rest of the clinical symptoms, the absence of lesions on mucous membranes. The primary elements are erythematous patches, which have a tendency to peripheral growth, with hyperkeratotic or layers of small vesicles. The decisive moment in the diagnosis of a family history and clinic, as a confirmation of performed histological examination. Treatment is symptomatic - moisturizing and skin softening, periodic courses of vitamin A, corticosteroids.
Congenital cataracts - a partial or complete clouding of the eye's lens that develops in utero. In varying degrees manifests itself from birth: from barely noticeable whitish spot to fully affected lens. Congenital cataract is characterized by reduced vision or complete loss of it, as noted in children strabismus and nystagmus. Initial diagnosis is prenatal, birth diagnosis confirms ophthalmoscopy and slit biomicroscopy. Surgical treatment; lensvitrektomiya held in the first months of life in uncomplicated cases.
Congenital rubella - virus spread from an infected mother to child in utero. Infection occurs in women during pregnancy or to her. The disease is manifested by multiple internal vices and defects of the fetus, especially the defeat of the organs of sight and hearing, as well as cardiovascular and nervous system. In the majority of cases seen in the first days of life, but possibly later detection of symptoms. Diagnosed at birth with special laboratory tests and clinical (for the above symptoms). Specific treatment is not available, use interferon, and symptomatic therapy.
Congenital myopathy - congenital disorder caused by genetically determined abnormalities in the structure of the muscle tissue. Congenital myopathy diffuse manifested by muscle weakness and decreased muscle tone, whose intensity varies considerably depending on the type of myopathy. In severe cases of congenital myopathy can lead to the child's death from respiratory failure. Congenital myopathy is diagnosed mainly on the results of morphological examination of samples obtained by muscle biopsy; electromyography, ergometry and research in muscle tone are only of secondary importance. Congenital myopathy may require measures to combat respiratory problems, provide tube feeding, correction of existing orthopedic deformities and others.
Congenital muscular torticollis - a species of torticollis, a group of conditions characterized by a change in the normal position of the head. Congenital muscular torticollis begins to emerge with a 2-3 weeks of a child's life by progressive thickening of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. For single-sided torticollis head tilted to the affected side and a bit is set in the healthy side of the face. When double-sided torticollis (less common) of the patient's head leans back. Treatment of congenital muscular torticollis holds orthopedist. From conservative methods actively applied massage, exercise therapy, physiotherapy, according to testimony - wearing collar Schantz. Surgical treatment consists in extending the sternocleidomastoid muscle on the affected side.
Congenital paramyotonia - separate clinical variant of myotonia, inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and is characterized by the occurrence of myotonic episodes under the influence of cold. The clinic of the disease are also present paroxysmal transient muscle weakness. Diagnostic algorithm includes an assessment of the neurological status, biochemical blood analysis, electroneuromyography, genealogical analysis, if necessary - search for mutations in the gene SCN4A. Treatment is symptomatic. Perhaps the use of local anesthetics and diuretics. Weather favorable for life.
Congenital pachyonychia - a heterogeneous group of genetic abnormalities that have the character of ecto- and mesodermal dysplasia with different types of inheritance. The symptoms of this disease is the thickening and subsequent degeneration of nails on the hands and feet, keratoderma, especially on the feet, plantar pain, warty growths, and skin peeling. Diagnosis of congenital pachyonychia made by examination of the skin, as well as with the help of genetic analysis - for forms, for which identified key genes. No specific treatment exists not use symptomatic and supportive therapy vitamin preparations, processing keratinized skin and nails.
Congenital sensory neuropathy with anhidrosis - an extremely rare inherited disorder characterized by impairment of the peripheral innervation and sweating process. One of the main symptoms of this condition is the absence of nociceptive sensitivity, fever due to impaired thermoregulation, sudden bouts of breathlessness. Diagnosis of the disease is based on a physical examination, checking the body's response to various external stimuli, genetic research. Treatment of congenital sensory neuropathy with anhidrosis does not exist, but patients need special care.
Congenital salivary gland disease - an infectious disease that develops in utero or intrapartum infection of cytomegalovirus child and is characterized by multiple malformations and lesions of the internal organs. The disease is often asymptomatic, with severe clinical symptoms are primary brain damage (encephalopathy, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, etc.), Hepatitis, pneumonia, nephritis, sialadenitis, pathology of the organs of sight and hearing. Congenital salivary gland disease is diagnosed by ELISA and PCR, the virus is found in blood, urine, swabs from the throat. The basis of a specific treatment - antitsitomegalovirusny immunoglobulin.
Congenital abnormalities of the upper limbs caused by disruption of the normal limb formation in utero. Often, the cause of congenital abnormalities of the upper limbs is unknown. For congenital anomalies include congenital upper limb amputation, hypoplasia, shortening of one or both arms, the presence of congenital false joint, amniotic constriction, clubhand, phocomelia, kampomeliya, abnormal number of fingers or fusion. Treatment of congenital abnormalities of the upper limbs often surgical. It is important prosthetics and child training in the use of abnormal limb for self-service and at home.