Vulgar ichthyosis - genodermatosis inherited in an autosomal dominant principle, characterized by keratinization disorder processes. Clinically manifest dry, visually modified skin, the surface of which there is plenty of light in the form of peeling light gray flakes, while transforming aggravation of the pathological process in the rough, thick, plate-like "panels" with a brown tint. A distinctive feature of ichthyosis vulgaris is the lack of primary cells in the skin folds, popliteal, cubital fossa, the armpits. Diagnose the illness on the basis of a typical clinic. In the treatment of the main courses are vitamin A, external keratolytics, moisturizing.
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans - a malignant tumor of connective tissue origin. Inclined to slow growth and invasion into the surrounding tissue. Distant metastases are rare. Usually dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is localized in the area of the body or upper body. At the initial stage is a dense, reddish, purplish-bluish or brownish stain. Within a few years or decades, it transformed into a nodular tumor formation, projecting above the skin surface. Diagnosis is based on history, examination of the data and the results of additional studies. Treatment operative.
Hip dislocation is around 5% of the total number of dislocations. As a rule, the damage is the result of a significant, high-speed applications traumatic force: In road traffic accidents, falls, collapses, etc. Hip dislocation is accompanied by severe pain, hip joint deformity and limitation of movement in it, the shortening of the limbs on the affected side . To clarify the diagnosis can be assigned X-ray or MRI of the hip joint. Treatment of hip dislocation is reduced to their reduction and fixation of the joint for up to 1 month. In the recovery phase are actively used exercise therapy, physiotherapy and massage.
Dislocation of tooth - traumatic tooth with its displacement and damage to periodontal tissues. Depending on the degree of dislocation of the damage can not be complete, full and impacted. Manifested by severe pain, tooth displacement in the dentition and its pathological mobility. It may be accompanied by inflammation and necrosis of periodontal pulp. Incomplete dislocation of the tooth can be vpravlen when impacted - perhaps self-healing of the tooth in the dentition, with complete dislocation - tooth extraction or replantation (introduction to its original location).
Dislocation of the clavicle are common and account for about 5% of the total number of dislocations. Dislocation of the clavicle is the result of indirect trauma - fall on the shoulder or hand allotted. Less common cause of dislocation becomes a sharp contraction of shoulder girdle region in the transverse direction. Dislocation of the clavicle may occur in the acromial part, and in place of its junction with the sternum. There is pain and swelling, increase vystoyaniya clavicle in place of dislocation. The diagnosis is made by clinical examination and history taking damage, may further be carried out X-rays. The complexity of the treatment of dislocation of the clavicle is problematic hold the clavicle in the right position after the reduction.
Dislocation of the patella up 0.4-0.7% of the total number of dislocations. The likelihood increases with patellar dislocation knee-shallow depression, poor development of the external femoral condyle, violation of the relationships between the axis of the quadriceps and patellar ligament own. Typically, up to the moment of injury, these anatomical features not appear and remain undetected. There are lateral, vertical and torsional dislocation of the patella. Regardless of the type of dislocation, he is accompanied by severe pain, tenderness and limitation of movement in the knee joint, palpation determined displacement of the patella. Treatment consists of reposition and fixation of the patella using a plaster cast.
Dislocated shoulder - a common injury. Shoulder Dislocations make up more than 50% of the total number of dislocations and 3% of all traumatic injuries. Such a high frequency of shoulder dislocations due to the peculiarities of the anatomical structure and a large amount of motion in the shoulder joint. Shoulder dislocation can occur in conjunction with a fractured neck or head of the humerus, fracture of the glenoid cavity, and others. Lesions. It is characterized by pain, deformity and impaired mobility of the shoulder joint. Clarifying the diagnosis of dislocation of the shoulder is performed using X-ray or MRI of the shoulder joint. Shoulder Dislocation Treatment includes its closed or open reduction, wearing bandages desault, rehabilitation with the help of physical therapy and massage.
Dislocation of the forearm has the second highest rate, ranging from 18 to 27% of the total number of dislocations. In children, the dislocation of the forearm is more common, often combined with fractures of the arm and forearm. There are rear, front, side and divergent dislocations of the forearm. Regardless of the type they are accompanied by a set of typical symptoms: a sharp pain, limitation of joint function and deformation. Treatment of dislocation of the forearm is carried out by their reduction and subsequent fixation of the joint plaster cast for 2-3 weeks. After removing the plaster is conducted regenerative therapy: physiotherapy, massage, exercise therapy.
Sprains of the foot make up about 2% of the total number of dislocations, in almost all cases accompanied by damage to the ligaments and often - fractures of the foot. Sprains of the foot include: dislocation of the ankle, subtalar dislocation, dislocation of the tarsal bones, metatarsals and phalanges. Like other sites sprains, dislocations of the foot accompanied by pain, swelling and deformation in dislocation. When the diagnosis of dislocation of the foot produces its reduction, a plaster splint is applied, after removing a prescribed physiotherapy, foot massage and physical therapy.
Dislocations hand bones account for 5% of the total number of dislocations. The cause of the injury usually becomes the fall, with a focus on the brush or a direct blow to the wrist joint. Features dislocated wrist anatomically determined joint position of the hand and the direction of the forces, causing injury. Dislocations bones brush classify as true, perilunarnye, periladevidno-lunarnye, peritrehgranno-lunarnye, chrezladevidno-perilunarnye, chrezladevidno-chrezpolulunnye, sprains metacarpals and phalanges. Clinic brush dislocation consists of swelling and pain in the dislocation, during the inspection revealed the presence of the strain. The diagnosis is confirmed by radiography.
Eversion of the lower eyelid - the location of the anomaly ciliary edge, which is accompanied by its separation from the eyeball and exposing the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva. Clinically, this pathology manifests increased tearing, foreign body sensation, frequent blinking, flushing of the skin and the subsequent development of symptoms of conjunctivitis, keratitis and lagophthalmos. Diagnosis of the disease is to carry out an external inspection, visometry, biomicroscopy, perimetry, and general clinical tests. Specific treatment is eversion of the lower eyelid blepharoplasty.
Hair loss - a physiological or pathological process of hair loss. Abnormal hair loss leads to their uniform thinning, partial or complete absence of, or in limited areas to total baldness. The causes of hair loss may be a lack of vitamins and trace elements, the side effects of medications, hormonal and infectious diseases, stress, heredity, improper hair care. Often the removal of these causes leads to the restoration of hair.
Loss of hemorrhoids - varicose output altered vascular anal nodes beyond arising in the course of chronic hemorrhoids. The main symptom of the disease - the presence in the area of the anus small nodules (lumps), causing a persistent foreign body sensation in the anus. Diagnose abnormalities by anoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, less likely to use endorectal ultrasonography of the rectum and anal canal, conducted laboratory studies. Relief of symptoms of hemorrhoids loss carry conservative methods, later transferred to the surgical treatment of the underlying disease.
Prolapse of the uterus and vagina - the displacement of the internal genital organs with their partial or full exit outward from the genital slit. When uterine prolapse feel pressure on the sacrum, a foreign body in the genital slit, breach of urination and defecation, pain during intercourse, discomfort while walking. Prolapse of the vagina and uterus recognized when gynecological examination. Uterine prolapse surgical treatment according to the degree of prolapse and the patient's age. At impossibility of surgical treatment of women illustrates the use of a pessary (pessary).
Rectal prolapse - a violation of the anatomical position of the rectum, in which the displacement of the distal part of it outside the anal sphincter. Rectal prolapse may be accompanied by pain, urinary intestinal contents, mucous and bloody discharge, foreign body sensation in the anus, false urge to defecate. Diagnosis of rectal prolapse is based on the survey data, digital rectal examination, sigmoidoscopy, barium enema, manometry. Treatment of rectal prolapse is mainly surgical; It is to perform resection and fixation rectal sphincter plasty.
Rectal prolapse in children - a disease characterized by ptosis and eversion of the distal intestine out through the anus. Manifested visible tumor protrusion, which can be uncomfortable and cause pain to the child. Over time, the characteristic acceleration of hair loss, inflammation connection, possible necrosis of the bowel and fecal incontinence. Diagnosis is made during the inspection and collection history. Expansion of the intestinal lumen and anomalies of its structure confirmed by x-ray. Held conservative therapy, the introduction of sclerosing agents that strengthen the pelvic floor, the cases of surgery are rare.
Gas gangrene - an extremely serious infection that is a complication of wound healing process and called anaerobic (without air breeding) microorganisms of the genus Clostridium. As a rule, developed with extensive wounds to crush tissue (ripped, torn, bruised or gunshot). The probability of occurrence increases with the massive destruction of muscle, as well as contamination of the wound surface soil, dust or scraps of clothing. Gas gangrene is accompanied by swelling of tissues, smelly discharge, discharge of gas bubbles and severe intoxication organism products of tissue decay. In the case of gas gangrene shown urgent operative treatment - opening wounds lampasnymi cuts, with the rapid progression of the process of producing an amputation.
Galactosemia - an inherited fermentopathy characterized by disruption of the normal process of carbohydrate metabolism - namely galactose metabolism. The signs of galactosemia are intolerant of breast milk and formula milk, vomiting, anorexia, malnutrition, jaundice, cirrhosis, splenomegaly, edema, cataract, psychomotor retardation. Screening for galactosemia is held all newborns; additional testing includes the determination of galactose in the blood and urine, conducting stress tests to galactose and glucose, genetic testing, abdominal ultrasound, EEG, and others. The basis of the treatment of galactosemia is lactose-free diet, appointed from the first days of life.
Galvanosis - a disease that occurs in the presence of oral metallic prostheses, changing the electrochemical processes and lead to the development of symptoms such as metallic taste in the mouth, taste perversion, tongue burning, decreased salivation, disturbance of the general condition of the body (headaches, irritability, weakness , fatigue, anxiety). Diagnosis involves the study of clinical symptoms and dental checkup data, potentiometric measurement indicators. galvanosis treatment complex: the removal of the causative factor (prosthesis, inlays), immunomodulation, treatment of local inflammatory and somatic diseases.
Hamartoma lightweight - congenital benign neoplasm of the lung, which develops out of the various elements of embryonic tissue with a predominance of cartilage, fat, muscle, or fibrous components. The clinical picture of lung hamartomas varies from no symptoms to severe manifestations, including shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, hemoptysis, and sometimes the development of obstructive pneumonia. The diagnosis of hamartoma of lung based on data from X-ray, CT and MRI scans of the chest, transthoracic needle biopsy. Treatment of lung hamartoma is surgical removal of the tumor.
Ganglionevrit - inflammation of the ganglion (ganglion) with involvement in the inflammatory process associated nerve trunks. The clinical picture consists of ganglionevrita expressed pain, sensitivity disorders, vasomotor, neurotrophic and vegetative-visceral disorders. It is different depending on the localization ganglionevrita. Diagnosed ganglionevrit mainly on the basis of characteristic clinical changes. Additional tests (X-ray, MRI, CT, MDCT, US) are used for the purpose of differential diagnosis ganglionevrita. Treated ganglionevrit mostly conservative ways. If they are ineffective, and expressed pain syndrome shows the surgical removal of the affected ganglion (sympathectomy).
Ganglioneuroma (ganglioma, ganglion neuroma, gangliocytomas) - a benign tumor formed from cells of the sympathetic ganglia (ganglia). Ganglioneuroma can have very different localization. Most often it is associated with the different departments of the spine may be located in the brain, at least - in the adrenal glands, gastrointestinal tract, skin, bladder wall. Clinical symptoms that occur ganglioneuroma not have the specificity and depend on the location of the tumor. Diagnosis is carried out mainly by computer and magnetic resonance tomography, as well as by histological examination of biopsy tissue sample of the tumor. Treatment may ganglioneuroma surgically.
Ganglioneyroblastoma - malignant neurogenic tumors containing neuroblasts and at different stages of differentiation ganglion cells. Ganglioneyroblastoma is characterized by anorexia, weight loss, fever, symptoms of catecholamine excess (increased blood pressure, sweating, facial flushing, tachycardia). Depending on the location of the tumor can be observed symptoms of compression of the abdominal cavity or mediastinum, focal neurological symptoms. Diagnosis is based on ganglioneyroblastomy tumor imaging with ultrasound, CT, MRI, MSCT and its morphological verification of the study of biopsy material. The most effective way to treat ganglioneyroblastomy - is radical or extended removal of the tumor.
Gangliitis pterygopalatine node - inflammation of the pterygopalatine ganglion mainly infectious etiology. Gangliitis pterygopalatine node appears painful attacks in the affected half of the face, which are accompanied by vegetative symptoms (tearing, redness, swelling, salivation). Diagnosis of the disease is based on its clinical presentation and exclusion of other causes of facial pain. Treated gangliitis pterygopalatine node complex application of painkillers, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiallergic agents ganglioblokiruyuschih; lubrication of the nasal cavity dikaina solution; physiotherapy equipment (UHF, electrophoresis, DDT, mud).
Gangrene - necrosis of live tissue (parts of organs or areas of the body) with a characteristic color change affected areas from black to dark brown or bluish. Discoloration is caused by iron sulfide produced by the destruction of hemoglobin. Gangrene can affect any organs and tissues: skin, muscles, subcutaneous tissue, lung, gall bladder, intestines, etc. Developed as a result of infection, exposure to toxins, as well as extremely high or low temperatures, allergies, eating disorders tissues and a number of other reasons . The clinical course may be dry or moist.
Gangrene lung - destructive process in the lungs characterized by purulent putrid necrosis wider area of the lung parenchyma with no clear demarcation, with a tendency to further spread. When gangrene of the lung observed very severe general condition: high fever, chest pain, shortness of breath, pallor and cyanosis of the skin, sweating, progressive weight loss, copious foul-smelling sputum. Diagnosis of lung gangrene includes a physical examination, X-rays, bronchoscopy, CT, scintigraphy, cytological and bacteriological examination of sputum and swabs from the bronchi. Treatment of lung gangrene is a massive antibiotic therapy, infusion therapy, endoscopic rehabilitation tracheobronchial tree; radical treatment of lung gangrene requires lobectomy, or pneumonectomy bilobektomii.
Gangrenous pulpitis - a form of chronic inflammation of coronal and root pulp necrosis accompanied by her tissues. Gangrenous pulpitis is characterized by a change in color of the tooth crown, putrid breath, aching pain, reaction sick tooth hot and cold food. Diagnosis gangrenous pulpitis is performed using dental examination, percussion, palpation, probing the tooth cavity, termoproby, electric pulp test, X-ray diffraction. Treatment of gangrenous pulpitis requires vital pulp extirpation with subsequent filling of root canals and the restoration of the tooth crown.
Bacterial vaginosis - vaginal bacteria overgrowth associated with rapid quantitative and qualitative disturbance of the normal vaginal microflora, reducing the number of lactobacilli and multiplication of opportunistic pathogens, incl gardnerelly It characterized by the appearance of abundant vaginal discharge gray shade with an unpleasant odor. Untreated bacterial vaginosis increase risk of inflammatory diseases of the female reproductive organs and pregnancy loss.
Gastrinoma - functionally active tumor, often localized in the pancreas or duodenum, in excessive amounts secreting gastrin. Gastrinoma clinically Zollinger-Addison: recurrent peptic ulcers, diarrhea and steatorrhea. For the purpose of diagnosing gastrinomas performed to determine the concentration of gastrin in serum, provocative tests, transhepatic selective angiography to determine the content of gastrin in the blood of pancreatic veins, EGD, ultrasound of the pancreas and other radical treatment of gastrinoma is the complete removal of the tumor.; if you can not surgery is performed antiproliferative drug and symptomatic therapy.
Gastritis - acute or chronic inflammatory and degenerative changes of the gastric mucosa, different in origin, symptoms and course. Features inherent to any kind of gastritis include dyspepsia, epigastric pain, heartburn, nausea. The diagnosis is widely used endoscopic and radiologic studies, intragastric pH meter, electrogastrography, antroduodenalnuyu manometry, identifying H.pylori, etc. Treatment involves removal of the etiological factors of the disease, diet therapy; H. pylori, antisecretory, antacid and gastroprotective drugs, symptomatic treatment.