The vestibular neuronitis - electoral defeat of the vestibular nerve, allegedly having an inflammatory genesis and manifested a single acute paroxysm of intense vertigo and balance disorders with full preservation of hearing. Compensation of vestibular function after an episode of vertigo may take several weeks. Diagnosis is carried out by methods of research of vestibular analyzer, according to testimony carried MRI. Treatment is based on an appointment in the early days of the vestibular suppressor and the subsequent use of vestibular exercises. Weather favorable.
Chickenpox - an acute infectious disease of viral etiology, characterized by the appearance of the characteristic rash bubble in the background of the general intoxication syndrome. The causative agent of chicken pox - herpes simplex virus type 3 that is transmitted from the patient by airborne droplets. Chickenpox is the most common childhood infections. It manifests itself with abundant characteristic itchy blisters that appear at the height of fever and obscheinfektsionnyh manifestations. A typical clinic to diagnose the disease, without conducting any additional studies. Treatment of varicella is mainly symptomatic. To prevent secondary infection is recommended antiseptic elements of an eruption.
Vibration disease - a disease which is based on the pathological changes in the receptor apparatus and the various departments of the central nervous system, resulting in prolonged exposure of local and /or general vibration. The clinical picture of the disease may include vibration polineyropatichesky, angiospastic, angiodistonichesky, asthenia, vegetative vestibular, polyradicular syndromes, functional disorders in the digestive tract, and hearing loss. Vibration disease is diagnosed through a comprehensive examination of the patient with the conduct of thermometry, Capillaroscopy, EMG, ECG, cold test. The choice of treatment tactics based on the prevailing clinical syndromes of disease.
VIPOM - cancer of the pancreatic islet cells. Usually localized in the body or tail of the pancreas, it is rarely in the sympathetic trunk. More than half of the cases is a malignant character. It manifested massive diarrhea, diffuse abdominal pain, severe violations of water-salt metabolism, hypotonia, seizures and kidney failure caused by the loss of salts and fluids. Vipom diagnosis is established on the basis of symptoms, test results, data ultrasound, CT, MRI and other studies. Treatment - drug therapy, surgery.
Viral pneumonia - an infection of the lower respiratory tract caused by respiratory viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus, enterovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, etc.). Viral pneumonia occur acutely with a sudden fever, chills, intoxication syndrome, moist cough, pleural pain, respiratory failure. When the diagnosis takes into account The physical, radiological and laboratory data connection with a viral infection pneumonia. The therapy is based on the appointment of antiviral and symptomatic agents.
Viral hepatitis A (Botkin's disease) - an acute infectious liver disease characterized by benign course, accompanied by necrosis of hepatocytes. Viral hepatitis A is part of a group of intestinal infections as a fecal-oral mechanism of infection. The clinical course of hepatitis A virus isolated dozheltushny and jaundice period and convalescence. Diagnosis is carried out according to the biochemical analysis of blood, results of RIA and EIA. Hospitalization of patients with viral hepatitis A is required only in severe cases. Outpatient treatment includes diet and symptomatic therapy.
Viral hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) - a contagious liver disease, occurring in various clinical variants (from asymptomatic carriage to the destruction of the liver parenchyma). When hepatitis B liver damage cells is autoimmune in nature. Sufficient for the concentration of the virus infection is only in the biological fluids of a patient. Therefore, infection with hepatitis B can occur during blood transfusion and parenterally conducting various traumatic procedures (dental procedures, tattooing, pedicure, piercing), as well as sexually. In the diagnosis of hepatitis B plays a crucial role in the detection of blood HbsAg antigen and antibodies HbcIgM. Treatment of hepatitis B antiviral therapy includes the basic, mandatory compliance with diet, detoxification and symptomatic treatment.
Viral hepatitis D (delta hepatitis) is an infectious liver disease, coinfection or superinfection of hepatitis B, it is much worse course and prognosis. Viral hepatitis D refers to a group of transfusion hepatitis, a prerequisite of hepatitis D is the presence of the active form of the hepatitis virus V.Vyyavlenie hepatitis D is carried out by PCR. Always held liver research: biochemical tests, ultrasound, MRI, reogepatografiya. Treatment of hepatitis D is similar to treatment of hepatitis B, but requires large doses of drugs and longer receive them. In most cases there chronicity of the disease with subsequent cirrhosis outcome.
Viral hepatitis E - defeat the infectious nature of the liver. The infection is fecal-oral transmission mechanism is acute, cyclical and quite dangerous for pregnant women. The incubation period for hepatitis E can last up to 2 months. The clinical picture of the disease is very much similar to the symptoms of hepatitis A. Differential diagnosis is carried out by detection of specific viral antigens by PCR. In parallel, a survey is made of the liver (ultrasound, liver biochemical tests, MRI of the liver). Treatment of hepatitis E include diet therapy, detoxification and symptomatic treatment.
Hepatitis C - a viral infection of the liver disease transmitted by transfusion, different light, often subclinical, rarely moderate course in the phase of initial infection and prone to chronic, cirrhosis and malignancy. In most cases, hepatitis C has anicteric oligosymptomatic beginning. In this regard, it may not be diagnosed for several years and is detected when he or cirrhosis occurs in malignant transformation of hepatocellular carcinoma in the liver. The diagnosis of hepatitis C is considered to be sufficiently justified in detecting viral RNA in the blood and antibodies to it as a result of repeated studies using PCR and various serological tests.
Viral keratitis - inflammatory cornea of the eye caused by a viral infection. Viral keratitis manifests blisters, swelling and redness of the eyes, corneal syndrome, corneal ulceration and clouding, reduced vision, neuralgic pains. In order to carry out diagnostics of viral keratitis biomicroscopy, confocal microscopy and endothelial, pachymetry and K measurement, visual acuity test, determination of corneal sensitivity by culture, PCR, ELISA studies. For the treatment of viral keratitis administered antiviral, immunomodulating, antibacterial agents, analgesics, NSAIDs, anti-oxidants, vitamins, physiotherapy; if necessary, carry out or scraping of the affected epithelial keratoplasty.
Viral meningitis - the defeat of the brain membranes, occurring on the type of serous inflammation and caused by a viral infection. Like other etiology meningitis viral meningitis is manifested by headache, nausea, repeated vomiting, the presence of meningeal symptoms. Its distinctive features are acute onset, mild disturbance of consciousness, within a short period and a favorable outcome. Viral meningitis is diagnosed based on clinical data, results of the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid and its PCR studies. Treatment of patients with viral meningitis is to conduct of symptomatic therapy (antipyretics, analgesics), according to testimony carried antiviral therapy.
Viral enteritis - an acute infectious disease caused by viruses enterotropnymi, which can occur as an isolated lesion of the small intestine, or with the involvement of other organs and systems. The most common causative agents of viral enteritis is rotavirus, enterovirus, Coxsackie virus and ECHO. The source of infection - a sick person or carrier. Characteristic symptoms of intoxication, diarrhea syndrome, vomiting. The diagnosis is confirmed by the detection of the genetic material of a microorganism, and a fourfold increase in titer of specific antibodies. viral enteritis treatment is based on detoxification and symptomatic events. Specific antiviral therapy is not.
Viral Encephalitis - diffuse or focal inflammatory changes in the structures of the brain caused by penetration of these viral agents. The clinical picture is variable, depending on the type of the virus and the immune system of the sick; It consists of obscheinfektsionnyh, general cerebral and focal symptoms. Diagnostic algorithm including EEG, Echo-EH, CT scan or MRI of the brain, lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid analysis, the analysis is to identify the causative agent. Combined Treatment: antiviral, anti, Anticonvulsant, Antihypoxanth, neuroprotective, psychotropic.
Temporal lobe epilepsy - a form of epilepsy in which the hearth is localized epileptic activity in the temporal lobe of the brain. Temporal lobe epilepsy is characterized by simple and complex partial seizures epi-and the further development of the disease secondary generalized seizures, and mental disorders. To establish the diagnosis "temporal lobe epilepsy" allows comparison of complaints, the data of neurological status, EEG, polysomnography, MRI and PET brain. Temporal lobe epilepsy is treated by mono- or polytherapy with antiepileptic medications. If their inefficiency applied surgical technique is to remove cells that region of the temporal lobe, where the epileptic focus is located.
Vitiligo - a disease characterized by the appearance on the skin areas of depigmentation (white patches), its gradual growth and fusion. Hair lesion areas also lack pigment. The disease brings inconveniences mainly cosmetic. Possible aggravation of the disease and sunburn depigmented areas at long insolyatsii.Vitiligo begins with the appearance of depigmented area, subsequently increasing in size. Diagnosis is based on a visual inspection, vitiligo differentiation from other dermatological diseases may skin biopsy. Vitiligo Treatment includes photo and hormone therapy, however, it remains ineffective.
HIV infection is a disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by contributing to the emergence of secondary infections and malignancies in connection with a profound inhibition of the body's property. HIV infection has diverse variants of the course. The disease may last for a few months or stretch up to 20 years. The main method of diagnosis of HIV infection is the detection of specific antiviral antibodies and viral RNA. Currently the treatment of patients with HIV is antiretroviral drugs able to reduce the reproduction of the virus.
HIV infection of the oral cavity - pathological changes of the oral cavity, observed in HIV infected patients. In secondary immunodeficiency begins active reproduction of conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic flora. This leads to the development of infectious and inflammatory, degenerative and cancer processes in the mouth:. Gingivitis, periodontitis, cheilitis, viral and fungal infections, Kaposi's sarcoma and other HIV diagnosis is made by laboratory methods and is aimed at detecting in the virus blood antibodies thereto and assessment of the cellular component of the immune system. Effective treatment to date has not been developed, are the mainstay of therapy antiretroviral drugs.
Sudden rash - an acute infectious disease of young children, caused by the herpes virus type 6 and 7 proceeding with the reaction temperature, and skin rashes. With the sudden exanthema consistently appearing febrile temperature, then - papular rash on the skin of the trunk, face and extremities. Specific methods of diagnosis of sudden exanthema are PCR detection of HHV-6 and ELISA titers of IgM and IgG. Treatment of sudden exanthema, mainly symptomatic (antipyretics), perhaps the appointment of antiviral drugs.
Ectopic pregnancy is called, is characterized by the development and implantation of the ovum outside the uterus - in the abdomen, ovary, fallopian tube. Ectopic pregnancy - a serious and dangerous pathology, fraught with complications and relapses (re-emergence), entailing the loss of fertility and even threaten a woman's life. Localized in addition to the uterine cavity, which is the only physiologically adapted to the full development of the fetus, the fertilized egg can rupture the organ in which it develops.
Vneorgannye retroperitoneal tumor - a group of malignant and benign tumors of mesodermal, and embryogenic neurogenic origin, localized in the retroperitoneal space. Characteristically long asymptomatic. When retroperitoneal tumors of large size are observed dyspeptic disorders, urination, shortness of breath, neurological symptoms, and swelling of the lower extremities. In malignant lesions in the late stages of cancer are detected signs of intoxication. Diagnosis is exposed to the light of CT, MRI, ultrasound, biopsy and other investigations. Treatment - surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy.
Internal bleeding - a condition in which blood is poured out either in a natural cavity of the body (stomach, bladder, uterus, lung, joint cavity, etc.), Or in space artificially formed extravasated blood (retroperitoneal, intermuscular, etc). It may develop as a result of injury or chronic disease. Symptoms of internal bleeding depends on its location and extent of bleeding. Most often they are of a general nature Dizziness, weakness, drowsiness, loss of consciousness, etc. Due to the absence of characteristic signs of internal bleeding is much harder to diagnose. In a significant number of cases represent a direct threat to the life of the patient.
Internal hemorrhoids - a pathology of veins of the rectum, in which the varicose changed nodes are located under the mucous membrane inside the lumen of the colon. Specific symptoms are: pain aggravated by defecation; bleeding; loss of internal nodes; signs of anemia. Hemorrhoids are determined by digital examination, anoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, barium enema. Conservative treatment of internal hemorrhoids effectively at an early stage, effective sclerotherapy procedure, cryoablation. In severe cases, surgical excision or ligation sites.
Nosocomial pneumonia - lung infection, which developed after two or more days after admission of the patient to the hospital, with no evidence of disease at the time of hospitalization. Manifestations of nosocomial pneumonia are similar to those in other forms of pneumonia: Fever, cough, tachypnea, leukocytosis, infiltrative changes in the lungs, and so forth, but may be indistinct, blurred. Diagnosis is based on clinical, physical, radiological and laboratory criteria. Treatment of nosocomial pneumonia includes adequate antibiotics, sanitation of the airways (lavage, inhalation, fiziometody) infusion therapy.
Nosocomial infections - various infectious diseases, the contamination that occurred in the conditions of the facility. Depending on the extent of distinguished generalized (bacteremia, septicemia, septicopyemia, bacterial shock) and localized form of nosocomial infections (skin lesions and subcutaneous tissue, respiratory, cardiovascular, genitourinary system, bones and joints, central nervous system, and so on. D.) . Identification of pathogens of nosocomial infections is carried out by a laboratory diagnostic techniques (microscopy, microbiological, serological, molecular biology). In the treatment of nosocomial infections using antibiotics, preservatives, adjuvants, physiotherapy, extracorporeal hemocorrection and so on. D.
Intrauterine septum - the anomaly of fetal development, which is characterized by the presence in the two halves of the uterus (gemipolostey), separated by a partition. The presence of an intrauterine septum may appear algomenorrhea, uterine bleeding, infertility or miscarriage. Intrauterine septum diagnosed during the ultrasound, ultrasound hysterosalpingoscopy, hysteroscopy, MRI or spiral CT, laparoscopy. Treatment of the defect is reduced to transcervical septum resection through the hysteroscope. After excision of an intrauterine septum chances for child bearing and natural childbirth is significantly increased.
Intrauterine adhesions (Asherman's syndrome) - intrauterine adhesions, leading to full or partial obliteration of the uterine cavity. When intrauterine adhesions observed hypomenstrual or amenorrhea syndrome, tuberculosis, impaired fertility (miscarriage, infertility), sometimes develops hemometra. Asherman's syndrome is diagnosed by ultrasound, hysteroscopy, ultrasound hysterosalpingoscopy, hormonal tests. Treatment consists of hysteroscopic dissection of adhesions, conduct cyclic hormone therapy. The prognosis for subsequent fertility due to the severity and prevalence of intrauterine adhesions.
Intracerebral hematoma - a limited accumulation of blood in the brain matter, rendering compressive biasing and damaging effect on the brain tissue located near. Intracerebral hematoma is clinically characterized by cerebral and focal symptoms, which depend on the location of the hematoma and its volume. Most significantly intracerebral hematoma diagnosed by combined use of CT and MRI of the brain, as well as angiographic studies of the brain vessels. Mostly intracerebral hematoma can be treated conservatively, a large intracerebral hematoma - only surgically, by removing or aspiration.
Intracerebral tumor cerebral hemispheres - benign and malignant tumors, which are located directly in the brain tissue. Tumors occur cerebral hemispheres of the brain (headache, optic disc congestion, dizziness, vomiting, mental disorders) and focal (motor disorders, sensory loss, visual disturbances, speech disorders, neuro-endocrine syndrome, etc.) Symptoms. Diagnosis hemispheres of brain tumors include ophthalmoscopy, EEG, Echo-EH, CT and brain MRI, stereotactic biopsy. Treatment of tumors of the brain hemispheres may include radical or partial its removal, surgical decompression of the brain, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and symptomatic treatment.
Intraductal papilloma - Intraductal papillary tumor that develops in the milk ducts. The presence of intraductal papilloma accompanied by profuse discharge from the nipple milk, yellowish-greenish or brownish color. Diagnosis of intraductal papilloma involves performing ductography, mammography, ultrasound, cytological study of emissions. Treatment intraductal papilloma - operative includes sectoral resection of the breast.