Gastritis with high acidity - inflammation of the stomach epithelium (acute or chronic), accompanied by an increase in the pH of gastric juice. Most often this condition occurs on the background of constant dieting disorders are closely related to infection by H. pylori. Manifested epigastric pain, dyspepsia (heartburn, belching, diarrhea). The diagnosis can be set through a series of clinical and instrumental investigations, the main of which is FEGDS with pH meter gastric, mucosal biopsy and examination for the presence of H. pylori infection. Treatment is performed by a gastroenterologist hyperacid gastritis, should be comprehensive and timely: diet, antacids and proton pump inhibitors, gastroprotectives, antibiotic treatment of H. pylori infection. In the periods between relapses are being actively spa treatment, physiotherapy.
Gastritis with low acidity - is one of the clinical forms of chronic gastritis, in which there is a decrease production of hydrochloric acid gastric glands. Most often, a decrease of acidity observed in atrophic and autoimmune gastritis. Hypoacid gastritis appears next syndromes: pain, dyspeptic, dyskinetic, dystrophic, anemic, astenovegetative. The leading role in the diagnosis of this disease plays endoscopy with biopsy of the stomach lining and intragastric pH meter. The main areas of treatment of gastritis with low acidity are warning the progression of atrophic processes, restoring the secretion of gastric glands, the normalization of the functioning of other organs of the digestive tract.
Gastritis in children - an inflammation that affects the surface layer of the stomach and leads to morphological changes of the mucous membrane. For acute gastritis in children is characterized by severe epigastric pain, belching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, excessive salivation or dry mouth; for chronic forms - loss of appetite, mild abdominal pain, dyspepsia, and intoxication. Diagnosis of gastritis in children is based on clinical symptoms and history, data gastroscopy with biopsies, gastric radiography, abdominal ultrasound. Treatment of gastritis in children includes compliance with the age and diet treatment regimen, drug therapy, physical therapy and spa treatment.
Gastritis - inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach that occurs under the influence of bacterial, chemical, thermal and mechanical factors. The consequence is a violation of gastritis digestive process (loss of appetite, heartburn, belching, nausea, feeling of heaviness and dull pain in the stomach after a meal), the general state of deterioration, fatigue, fatigue. Cases for further development and transfer of the disease from the acute to the chronic stage, the occurrence of gastric ulcers.
Gastro - combined inflammation of the gastric mucosa (most of his pyloric department) and 12 duodenal ulcer, characterized by violation of secretion and motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastroduodenit proceeds as with the general (fatigue, paleness, weight loss) and local symptoms (pain, dyspeptic syndromes). Diagnosis is based on instrumental methods of inspection of the mucosa, the assessment of the functional state of the stomach and intestines, determining the extent of infection with H. pylori infection. The basis of treatment gastroduodenitis is diet, a healthy lifestyle, drug therapy antibacterial, antacids and other medications.
Gastroduodenitis in children - an inflammatory process, exciting gastric antrum and duodenum. Gastroduodenitis in children manifested heartburn, nausea, decreased appetite, pain in the epigastric region after eating, feeling of fullness and heaviness, in violation of the chair. Diagnosis gastroduodenitis in children involves performing EGD, helicobacter test, duodenal intubation, if indicated - X-ray examination. Medical tactic is at gastroduodenitis in children involves the appointment of a diet, antacids, antisecretory, protective agents, adsorbents; Physiotherapy.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors - a group of rare malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal origin. Clinical manifestations depend on the localization of the neoplasia. There may be a feeling of early satiety, pain, bloating, bleeding and intestinal obstruction phenomena. In the later stages revealed weight loss, fever, anemia, pyrexia, and dysfunction of the organs affected by distant metastases. Diagnosis put on the basis of complaints, physical examination data, CT, ultrasound, endoscopy and biopsy results. Treatment - surgery, chemotherapy.
Gastrocardiac syndrome (Remhelda syndrome) - a set of changes in the nature of reflex cardiovascular system, resulting in the excitation of the esophagus and stomach receptors that are sensitive to mechanical and chemical influences. The cause of seizures is the irritation of the vagus nerve overflow of the stomach or the pressure in the abdominal cavity. The main manifestation - the development of symptoms resembling a heart attack. Diagnosis is based on the exclusion of heart diseases and gastrointestinal tract pathology detection, which can cause Remhelda syndrome. Treatment includes psychotherapy, the use of muscle relaxants, sedatives.
Gastroptosis - ptosis of the stomach, accompanied by its extension and hypotonia. This pathology can be either congenital, caused by constitutional factors and acquired. In the early stages gastroptosis may not occur, and the later start to disturb the patient in pain after eating (especially in the upright position) during exercise and run. Gastroptosis prolapse is often accompanied by other internal organs, then joins the corresponding symptoms. The main method of diagnosis - gastrokinesograph with the introduction of a contrast agent, which allows to identify and determine the degree of ptosis of the stomach. The treatment gastroptosis dominant place occupied by physical therapy and physical therapy, medication drugs are prescribed only as a symptomatic treatment.
Gastroschisis - severe congenital abnormality characterized eventration the abdominal cavity through the abdominal wall defect. Clinic includes an oval opening in the abdomen (usually - the right of the navel) with a diameter of 2-5 cm, through which there is loss of normal or pathologically altered bowel loops. In some cases, the disease is associated with other congenital malformations. Prenatal diagnosis is to conduct ultrasound postnatally diagnosed installed during the inspection. surgical treatment. The essence of operations - dive published bowel loops into the abdominal cavity, followed by plastics anterior abdominal wall.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) - a condition in which inflammation of the lower esophagus wall occurs as a result of the regular reflux (backward movement) of gastric or duodenal contents into the esophagus. GERD manifests heartburn, belching with a sour or bitter taste, pain and difficulty swallowing food, indigestion, pain in the chest and other symptoms are worse after eating and physical activity. Diagnosis of GERD includes EGD, intraesophageal pH-meters, pressure gauges, X-rays of the esophagus and stomach. Treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease may be medical or surgical.
Gastroenteritis - a disease characterized by inflammation in the stomach and small intestine, the cause of which may be bacterial (including H. pylori), viral or protozoan defeat, the effect of chemical and physical factors, the development of allergic reactions. Leading clinical symptoms - dyspeptic, pain, acute infectious gastroenteritis - dehydration. Diagnosis is to study the history of the disease, the epidemiological situation, the identification of the pathogen, endoscopic and other advanced research methods. Treatment is conservative, determined by the shape of pathology.
Hashish addiction - substance abuse, made of hemp. Typically, the psychoactive substance use by inhaling smoke (smoking), rarely chew, taken orally in solid or liquid form. After eating there is euphoria, risibility, feeling the rapid flow of thoughts and fantasies and illusions (including group). There is a loss of contact with others except the members of the group who participated in the reception of a psychoactive substance. Dependence usually develops within a few years. With long-term use of psycho-organic syndrome develops. Often there is a transition to harder drugs.
Geleofizicheskaya dysplasia - a hereditary disease caused by a violation of the cell growth and development, as well as the functioning of some of the connective tissue components. Symptoms of the disease are characteristic facial appearance ( "happy"), short stature, short limbs, muscle hypertrophy, difficulty of movement in the joints. Diagnosis geleofizicheskoy dysplasia is made on the basis of the present status of the patient, study his family history, genetic research. Specific treatment of pathology does not exist, sometimes surgery is performed to correct the defects of the heart valves.
Helminthiases - helminth diseases caused by helminths - round and flat, rarely ringed kolyuchegolovymi and parasitic worms. For helminth infections characterized by chronic and systemic effect on the body with the development of abdominal, allergic, anemic syndromes, chronic toxicity; lung damage, liver, biliary tract, the brain, the organ of vision. In the diagnosis of helminthiasis used laboratory (gelmintoovoskopicheskie, gelmintolarvoskopicheskie, serology) and instrumental (X-ray, endoscopy, ultrasound, etc.). Methods. helminth infections Treatment depends on the type of parasite and includes specific (worming) and pathogenetic therapy.
Helminthiases children - a group of parasitic diseases caused by different kinds of worms, parasites in the body of the child. The flow of helminth infections in children is characterized by the development of cutaneous, abdominal, pulmonary, edema, intoxication, astenoneurotic syndromes. Diagnosis of helminth infections in children is carried out by the laboratory (feces analysis on helminth eggs, scraping on enterobiosis, serology). For the treatment of helminth infections in children are assigned anthelmintic drugs for the type of parasite phase of the disease, duration of infection, the child's age.
Hemangioblastoma - originating in the blood vessels benign brain tumor with preferential localization in the cerebellum. Clinical symptoms of hemangioblastoma depend on its location and may include headaches, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, congestion of the optic nerve, cerebellar syndrome (ataxia, nystagmus, hypotonia, intention tremor), motor and sensory disorders, dysfunction of the cranial nerves and pelvic organs. The basis of the diagnosis of hemangioblastoma of brain MRI and histological examination of the tumor sample. The most effective treatment in respect hemangioblastoma is its complete removal.
Hemangioma of the eye - is a benign vascular tumor, located in the skin of the eyelids or the conjunctiva, consisting of pathological vascular plexus. What causes hemangiomas eyes are uncertain. There are capillary and cavernous hemangiomas, as well as mixed versions. Clinical manifestations depend on the type of hemangioma. Diagnosis is made through visual examination and biomicroscopy of additional methods used ultrasound eyes, MRI or CT scan of the orbits, angiography. Treatment is conservative or operative, depending on the size and location of the hemangioma place. With early treatment and proper treatment, prognosis is favorable.
Hemangioma lung - a rare benign lung tumor formation, represented by sprawling conglomerate and anastomosing blood vessels. Symptoms of the tumor may be coughing up blood, chest pain, shortness of breath, cyanosis, weakness, spontaneous pulmonary hemorrhage. The diagnosis of hemangioma of lung based on data from clinical, radiographic and chest CT, angiography, bronchoscopy, blood flow Doppler ultrasound. Treatment of hemangiomas - operative, is usually performed excision of the tumor, sparing resection of the affected portion of the lung or bronchus, lobectomy.
Liver hemangioma - a benign vascular tumor that affects one or both lobes of the liver. In most cases it does not exceed 5 cm, and erased symptoms only appear when significant amounts of education. Primary diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma is usually random and occurs when the survey about other pathology. Suspected hemangioma liver enable ultrasound, CT or MRI of the hepatobiliary system. Refines the diagnosis by static scintigraphy of the liver - the method allows to prove benign tumors. Treatment of liver hemangioma only operational - when the tumor of large size, compression of blood vessels and adjacent organs, bleeding.
spinal hemangioma - a benign tumor that affects one, sometimes several vertebrae. It is one of the most common neoplasms of the spine. Not prone to malignant transformation. In most cases, spinal hemangioma are asymptomatic. Less common causes pain. Can a cause of pathological fractures of the spine, accompanied by compression of the spinal cord or nerve roots. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of the clinical picture and the results of additional studies. Treatment operative.
Hemangiomas - benign vascular formation that occurs as a result of fetal malformations of blood vessels. Hemangiomas in children looks like red, purple or bluish spots with flat or rising above the skin surface; hemangiomas are prone to intensive growth and bleeding. Examination with hemangiomas in children include children's consultation dermatologist and surgeon, X-ray anatomical area where the tumor vascular, ultrasound, angiography, the study of the state of the blood coagulation system. Hemangiomas in children can be subjected to laser or surgical removal, radiation therapy, electrocautery, cryotherapy, sclerotherapy, hormonal therapy, and others.
Hemarthrosis - bleeding into the joint. It arises as a result of vascular rupture that supply blood to the intra-articular structures. Most often seen in the knee joint. It may be traumatic or non-traumatic. Traumatic hemarthrosis always develops in the intra-articular fractures, and often accompanies lighter injuries (tears and torn ligaments, meniscus tears, contusions of the joints). Non-traumatic hemarthrosis may occur in diseases associated with impaired blood clotting or increased vascular fragility - in scurvy, hemophilia and hemorrhagic diathesis. When hemarthrosis the joint increases in volume and becomes spherical, there is pain and fluctuation (fluctuation). Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of inspection. To clarify the causes of hemarthrosis can be assigned X-ray, MRI, CT scans and other tests. Treatment - puncture of the joint and the imposition of the cast.
Hematoma - accumulation of fluid or clotted blood within the human body, resulting from rupture of blood vessels (such as a bruise) and located in the soft tissues. Bruises are both small and large, to squeeze the soft tissue and adjacent organs. Can be localized under the skin, mucous membranes, muscles in the interior, in the wall of the internal organs, the brain and the like. D. Small hematomas usually resolve independently. Extensive bruising may be organized with the formation of scar tissue, disrupt the activities of adjacent viscera or fester. Particularly dangerous intracranial hematoma which cause compression of the brain and can cause death of the patient. Treatment is usually surgical bruising, rarely performed conservative therapy.
Hematometra - problems with blood evacuation of the uterus, leading to its accumulation in the body. It may develop after birth, abortion, intrauterine interventions. Suspected hematometra possible by comparing history with complaints of sudden cessation of blood discharge after intrauterine intervention, a feeling of heaviness and cramping in the abdomen. Signs of bleeding (tachycardia, hypotension, dizziness, and anemia) can be expressed to varying degrees. Diagnosed hemometra as a result of vaginal examination, ultrasound probing the uterine cavity. At the initial stage the pharmacological stimulation of uterine contractions, the ineffectiveness - vacuum aspiration, therapeutic hysteroscopy.
Hemorrhachis (cerebrospinal hemorrhage) - differ in their etiology bleeding with blood outpouring into matter and spinal cord. Depending on the location hemorrhachis manifested symptoms suddenly appearing lesions of various spinal segments: motor and sensory disorders, pelvic organs, radicular pain syndrome. The main method by which diagnosed hemorrhachis is MRI of the spinal cord. Treated hemorrhachis conservative (coagulants, neostigmine, nootropics, galantamine and so on.) Or surgical (removal of the hematoma and clipping embolization of vascular malformations) methods.
Night blindness (night blindness) - oftalmopatologiya, characterized by impaired visual adaptation to low light conditions (dusk, dark, artificial darkening). At night blindness deteriorating vision of objects in the dark, disturbed spatial orientation in the twilight and the process of light adaptation, narrow field of vision, there are problems with color vision. Examination of patients with night blindness include visometry, and achromatic color perimetry, ophthalmoscopy, biomicroscopy with Goldmann lens, adaptometry, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography, and others Congenital day-blindness is incurable.; held in symptomatic form vitamin, treatment of the primary disease of the retina and optic nerve.
Hemianopsia - polietiologic is a disease that manifests itself or homonymous visual field loss Geteronimnaja. Characteristic symptoms: inability to see certain halves of the eye, visual hallucinations are possible, the phenomenon agnosia, prosopagnosia and "mental paralysis of view." For diagnosis it is necessary to hold the perimeter and computer campimetry. Set etiology hemianopsia possible by means of ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic angiography (CTA). Causal treatment is based on the elimination of organic pathology, caused hemianopsia clinic.
Hemoblastosis - bone marrow and neoplastic processes vnekostnomozgovye presented two groups of diseases - myeloproliferative (leukemia) and lymphoproliferative (gematosarkomami). Common to all forms of Leukemia are hyperplastic, intoxication, bleeding, anemic, immunodeficiency syndromes. Leukemia Diagnosis includes complete blood count; holding the sternal puncture, trepanobiopsy, lymph node biopsy with the study material; instrumental examinations (ultrasonography, radiography, MDCT). Leukemia Treatment mainly chemoradiotherapy; in some cases it may be bone marrow transplantation.
Hemoglobinuria - a number of syndromes which are based on damage intravascular yield erythrocyte hemoglobin outside the vascular bed and urine. The main symptom is hemoglobinuria urine dark color due to the presence therein of oxyhemoglobin. There are arthralgia, fever, vomiting, pale skin, jaundice. Hemoglobinuria diagnosis be confirmed by examining the general analysis of blood and urine, myelogram, for functional and laboratory samples. Taking into account the pathogenic form can be shown hemoglobinuria red blood cell transfusions, use of hormones, anticoagulants, splenectomy, TCM.