Basal cell carcinoma (basal cell carcinoma) - a malignant skin tumor that develops from cells in the epidermis. It got its name because of the similarity of the tumor cells with the cells of the basal layer of the skin. Basal cell carcinoma has the basic features of malignancy: invades neighboring tissue and destroys them, recurs even after proper treatment performed. But unlike other malignancies bazalioma hardly gives metastases. With regard to possible surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma, cryosurgery, laser ablation and radiation therapy. Medical tactic is chosen individually, depending on the characteristics of basal cell carcinoma.
Basilar Impression - acquired or innate impression inside the skull portion of the occipital bone in craniovertebral transition. The resulting decrease in the volume Impressions basilar skull and cranial (toward the skull) are offset spine cause of hydrocephalus, cerebellar disorders, disorders of the cranial nerves, radicular symptoms and signs of lesions of the upper cervical spinal cord. Basilar Impression diagnosed by X-ray craniovertebral transition, CT and MRI scans of the skull and cervical spine. Basilar Impression treated only by surgery. However, the presence of non-progressive lung clinical changes such treatment is not required.
Basilar migraine - a special variant of migraine caused by transient pathological changes in the area of blood supply to the basilar artery. Headache occurs after the aura that includes dizziness, ataxia, sensory disturbances, visual impairment, hearing impairment. Diagnosis is performed neurological examination methods, REG, Doppler ultrasound or MRI angiography, MRI or brain and spine CT, surdologichesky vestibulogicheskogo and research. Basilar migraine is relieved by inhalation of a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide, taking prednisone. Preventive treatment is carried out in mezhparoksizmalny period.
Bacterial destruction of the lung - complications of bacterial pneumonia, occurring with the development of inflammatory processes in the lung and pleura. Common manifestations of different forms of bacterial destruction of lungs are symptoms of purulent intoxication and respiratory failure. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis based on data from X-ray of lungs, pleural cavity ultrasound, thoracentesis, laboratory sputum, exudates, peripheral blood. Basic principles of treatment of pulmonary bacterial degradation include antibiotics, infusion detoxification, reorganization of the bronchi, according to testimony - puncture and drainage of pleural cavity, surgical treatment.
Bacterial pneumonia - respiratory microbial infection of the lungs, which flows to the development intraalveolar exudation and inflammatory infiltration of the lung parenchyma. Bacterial pneumonia is accompanied by fever, malaise, headache, cough with mucopurulent or rusty sputum, shortness of breath, chest pain, myalgia and arthralgia, pulmonary insufficiency. The diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia is based on physical examination, X-ray light, general and biochemical blood tests, sputum microscopy and culture. The basis of the treatment of bacterial pneumonia is causal antibiotic therapy.
Bacterial keratitis - an acute inflammation of the cornea eye bacterial origin. Clinically manifested by severe pain in the eye, edema, corneal syndrome, severe inflammatory injection of the eyeball, the presence of muco-purulent discharge, corneal opacity, superficial or deep ulcerations. Diagnosis of bacterial keratitis include biometrics eyes microbiological smear with corneal confocal microscopy and endothelial, pachymetry, K measurement, corneal topography, corneal sensitivity determination. The immediate treatment of bacterial keratitis is a local and systemic antibiotic therapy, supplemented by the use of keratoprotektorov, epiteliziruyutsya funds mydriatics, complications - surgery.
Balanoposthitis - acute or chronic inflammatory disease that affects the head of the penis. In almost all cases, the process involves the foreskin. According to statistics, balanoposthitis affects about 3% of the uncircumcised men of all ages. For balanoposthitis characterized by pain and itching in the affected area (glans penis), inflammation and swelling of the foreskin. Often as a result of inflammation of developing narrowing of the foreskin (phimosis). Balanoposthitis may also be complicated by urethritis and paraphimosis. Treatment is carried out by a urologist, it includes local and etiotropic (antifungal, antibacterial or antiviral) therapy. With the development of phimosis operation is shown.
Balanoposthitis boys - inflammation exciting glans penis and the inner layer prepuce (foreskin). Balanoposthitis boys is characterized by itching and burning in the head, swelling and redness of the foreskin difficult urination, purulent discharge from the prepuce. Balanoposthitis boys is diagnosed on the basis of external characteristics and laboratory data (KLA, OAM, bacteriological culture results separated, PCR, ELISA). balanoposthitis treatment in boys include local baths with disinfectant solution, wash the glans penis, the removal of smegma and discharge, the use of anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory ointments; in chronic balanoposthitis shown circumcision.
Balantidiasis - protozoan intestinal infection caused by ciliates - balantidiums. Clinical manifestations are a reflection balantidiasis inflammatory and ulcerative processes in the large intestine, and are characterized by abdominal pain, tenesmus, frequent loose stools with blood and pus, weight loss, intoxication syndrome. For diagnosis "balantidiasis" are important clinical and epidemiological data, the results of sigmoidoscopy, balantidiums detection in the faeces and swabs. Causal treatment is carried balantidiasis metronidazole, tinidazole, tetracycline antibiotics, monomitsin.
Barbitalism - abuse of drugs based on barbituric acid. It may occur as a result of long-term use of medicines prescribed by a doctor (for example, in chronic insomnia) or unsupervised use for the purpose of euphoria. Condition after taking barbiturates resembles alcohol intoxication, accompanied by disinhibition, increased mood, incoordination, decreased blood pressure and slowing heart rate. In overdose possible impairment of consciousness and death as a result of depression of the respiratory center.
Bartolini is a result of infectious and inflammatory processes in a large (Bartholin) gland vestibule. Bartholin glands provide moisturizing vaginal mucosa due to release secret. When defeat comes Bartolini and most ductless gland. Pathogens can be bartholinitis staphylococci, gonococci, Escherichia coli, Trichomonas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. When Bartolini infection can get into the prostate or through blood (in chronic diseases - tonsillitis, sinusitis, dental caries, pyelonephritis), or directly through the ducts (in violation of rules of personal hygiene, promiscuity). Bartholinitis may also occur with the weakening of immunity (stress, hypothermia, vitamin deficiency) and after surgery (surgery medabort).
Femoral hernia - protrusion of the tumor, which is formed at the output of the intestinal loops and omentum beyond the abdominal cavity through the femoral ring. Femoral hernias occur by the presence of the bag-shaped protrusions in the femoral triangle in the vertical position of the body, pain; when the infringement of a hernia may develop intestinal obstruction. Femoral hernia is detected during the inspection of the surgeon and conduct additional diagnostics - ultrasound herniation, barium enema, herniography, pelvic ultrasound and bladder. hernia repair (hernioplasty), the operation is performed in detecting the defect.
White spots on the nails (Leukonychia) - change in the nail plate, characterized by the appearance of point, strip-or extensive white areas. White spots on the nails can not be just a harmless cosmetic defect, and indicate serious health problems. To determine the causes of white spots on the nails necessary to carry out diagnostics, including consultation of the dermatologist, study the spectral analysis of trace elements in the nails, nail scrapings from plates on pathogenic fungi. In order to eliminate the white spots on the nails need to work on the cause of their appearance: to avoid injury to the nail plate, to take a course of vitamin therapy to normalize power supply, etc.
Walleye - eye disease in which there is persistent clouding his cornea. The main reasons for the development of cataracts - a corneal injury, chemical burns, inflammatory or infectious diseases. Clinically shown a sharp decline in visual acuity up to complete blindness, corneal change color. Diagnosis is to conduct the inspection, visometry, tonometry, biomicroscopy with a slit lamp, ultrasound and CT eyeball sockets. Treatment of cataracts cornea surgery alone. Apply various options for keratoplasty or keratoprosthetics.
Female infertility - evident lack of pregnancy for 1.5 - 2 years and a woman, living a regular sexual life without contraception. There are absolute infertility associated with irreversible pathological conditions, exclusive conception (malformations of female genitalia), and relative infertility amenable to correction. Also distinguish between primary (if a woman did not have any pregnancy) and secondary infertility (if there was a history of pregnancy). Female infertility is a serious psychological trauma for men and for women.
Rabies - infectious zoonotic disease of viral etiology, characterized mainly by severe lesion of the central nervous system, threatening death. A person infected with rabies through the bite of animals. Spreading along the nerve fibers, the rabies virus initially increases their excitability, and then causes the development of paralysis. Penetrating into the brain and spinal cord tissue virus causes serious violations in the work of the central nervous system, clinically manifested by various phobias, attacks of aggressive driving, hallucinatory syndrome. Rabies is still an incurable disease. For this reason, it is difficult to overestimate the importance of preventive rabies vaccination carried out by the patient in the event of an animal bite.
Biliary pancreatitis - chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas, that results from liver damage and ZHVP (bile ducts). Manifested biliary colic, dyspepsia, jaundice, diabetes, and weight loss. Diagnosis is made after the hepatobiliary ultrasound, CT scan or MRI of the abdomen, a series of functional tests. Conservative therapy is the introduction of anti-inflammatory and pain medications, enzyme replacement therapy, blood sugar level correction. A prerequisite for treatment is the observance of a strict diet and avoiding alcohol. Surgery is carried out in the presence of stones in the gallbladder. The lack of timely assistance in this disease can lead to serious complications, so patients with biliary pancreatitis must always be under the supervision of a gastroenterologist.
Biliary cirrhosis - a chronic, progressive disease characterized by the gradual replacement of liver tissue by fibrous scar. Pathology long time not seen often diagnosed incidentally during screening examinations. In the later stages characterized by external signs (small signs of liver), portal hypertension, the defeat of other organs and systems, hepatic encephalopathy. Preliminary diagnosis of cirrhosis and its complications is established on the basis of auxiliary examination methods: ultrasound, CT scan of the hepatobiliary system, ERCP, clinical and biochemical analyzes. The definitive diagnosis is made by blood and liver biopsy detection of mitochondrial antibodies. The disease is incurable, in the later stages to save the patient's life can only liver transplantation. Nonsurgical treatment consists of symptomatic therapy, detoxification, vitamin therapy and dieting.
Blastomycosis - a disease from the group of systemic fungal infections, proceeding with a primary lesion of the lungs and hematogenous dissemination of fungal infection in the internal organs, bones and skin. Blastomycosis can occur in different forms: lung (pneumonia), skin (rashes, ulcers of the skin, subcutaneous abscesses), bone (osteomyelitis, arthritis), urogenital (prostatitis, epididymitis) and OE blastomycosis diagnosis is confirmed by isolating the causative agent - the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis at microscopy, culture, biopsy. Therapy is conducted blastomycosis antifungals (itraconazole, amphotericin B); It can be shown to drain abscesses and sanitation.
Ophthalmia - purulent conjunctivitis, commonly called gonococcus. Ophthalmia is accompanied by swelling and redness century, suppuration of the eye; in adverse cases, may be complicated by the development of purulent corneal ulcers, cataracts, panoftalmita with the outcome of the atrophy of the eyeball and blindness. Diagnosis of Infections set using ophthalmologic examination and bacteriological examination of conjunctival discharge. ophthalmia Treatment is abundant washing conjunctival cavity of p-rum potassium permanganate, frequent instilljatsijah r-ra Albucidum and penicillin, conducting systemic antibiotic therapy.
Brilliant shingles - not one of the common chronic skin disease of unknown origin and development mechanism. Ill mostly boys of preschool age. The primary element of the rash is considered granuloma - a tight knot the size of a pinhead, reminiscent of hearth productive inflammation in tuberculosis, rheumatism, syphilis, sarcoidosis and other diseases. It has a tendency to merge, distribution. Localization of lesions typical of: the head of the penis, lower abdomen, elbows, knees. Dermatoses virtually never occurs on the face, scalp, palms and soles. Subjective sensations are not present. Special diagnostics available. Treatment - symptomatic.
Blepharitis - bilateral recurrent inflammation of the ciliary edge of the eyelids. Blepharitis is manifested by redness and swelling of the eyelid margins, feeling of heaviness and itching of the eyelids, a heightened sensitivity to bright light, fatigue the eye, abnormal growth and loss of eyelashes. In the diagnosis of blepharitis leading role played by external examination of the age, visual acuity, biomicroscopy, bacteriological seeding, research eyelashes on Demodex. blepharitis treatment is aimed at eliminating the causes of the disease and usually includes conservative measures (toilet eyelids, massage eyelids, eye drops, ointments, laying, etc.).
Nearsightedness (myopia) - anomaly of the refractive power of the eye (refraction), characterized by the image of subjects focusing not on the retina, but in front of her. When myopia bad people distinguish distant objects, but can clearly see close; celebrated visual fatigue, headache, night blindness, progressive deterioration of visual acuity. Diagnosis of myopia include visometry, skiascopy, refractometers, ophthalmoscopy, biomicroscopy, ultrasound of the eye. When myopia required to comply with hygiene, wearing glasses with spread lenses, contact lenses; surgical correction of myopia surgical methods (lensektomiya, implantation of phakic lenses, radial keratotomy, keratoplasty, kollagenoplastika) or with laser surgery (LASIK, SUPER LASIK, LASEK, PRK, and others.).
Myopia in children - a vision defect caused by mismatch of the optical power of the cornea anterior-posterior axis of the eyeball, resulting in focusing images to the retina, rather than itself. When children are well myopia see near objects and distant - bad; They complain of eye fatigue, headaches. A survey of children with myopia includes assessing visual acuity, ophthalmoscopy, skiascopy, autorefractometry, US eyes. The treatment of myopia in children is carried out in a complex with the aid of glasses or contact lens, optical exercise, drug therapy, FTL, IRT; if necessary - scleroplasty.
Bundle branch block - a violation of intracardiac conduction, characterized by a slowdown or complete cessation of the excitation pulses for one or more branches of the bundle of His. Bundle branch block can be detected only when the tool inspection or symptomatic arrhythmias occur, dizziness, bouts of unconsciousness. Bundle branch block is diagnosed by electrocardiography. Treatment bundle branch block blockade reduced to eliminate the causes conduction abnormalities; in some cases it may be necessary to install an artificial pacemaker.
Bowenoid papulosis - a sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papillomavirus, which manifests itself erythematous patches, papules or plaques and proceeding with genital skin lesions, perineum, perianal region or thighs. Bowenoid papulosis refers to precancerous skin condition. Diagnosis bovenoidogo papulosis is based on the clinical picture, PCR detection of human papillomavirus negative serological tests for syphilis, the results of histological examination. Treatment Bowenoid papulosis is to carry out a total of antiviral therapy and removal of skin cells by laser, electrocoagulation, excision or cryodestruction.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - neurodegenerative disease, which is accompanied by the death of the central and peripheral motor neurons. The main manifestations of the disease - skeletal muscle atrophy, fasciculations, spasticity, hyperreflexia, pathological pyramidal signs in the absence of pelvic and oculomotor disorders. It is characterized by a steady progressive course leading to death. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is diagnosed on the basis of the neurologic status, ENG, EMG, MRI of the spine and brain, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and genetic research. Unfortunately, to date, the medicine has no effective pathogenetic treatment of ALS.
Sweat glands in the human body are distributed unevenly. In the armpit, groin, on the palms and the soles of their most. The function of the sweat glands to cool the skin surface due to the water and bring the exchange of products from the body. Human sweat is sterile, but he quickly shatters microorganisms, and as a result there is a smell. Since then, along with the stands of more than 250 kinds of chemical substances, the smell of sweat, every person is different.
Diseases of the heavy chain (BTC) - rare tumor disease lymphoproliferative nature, in which there is defective synthesis of immunoglobulins (with missing fragments of light chains). There are several variants of the disease - BTC-α, BTC-γ, BTC-μ and BTTS- δ. Clinical manifestations are caused by lesions of the lymphatic system and blood-forming organs (enlargement of the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, diarrhea, edema, exhaustion, and so on. D.). Diagnosis is based on carrying out complex immunopatohimicheskih research. Treatment is directed at suppressing tumor through chemotherapy (cytotoxic drugs, corticosteroids scheme).
Alzheimer's disease - a progressive form of senile dementia, leading to complete loss of cognitive abilities, developing mainly after 60-65 years. Clinically manifested emerging gradually and constantly progressive disorder of cognitive abilities: attention, memory, language, praxis, gnosis, psychomotor coordination, orientation and thinking. Diagnosing Alzheimer's allows a thorough history, brain PET, the exclusion of other types of dementia using EEG, CT or MRI. Treatment is palliative, includes medication (cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine) and psychosocial (art therapy, psychotherapy, sensory integration, presence simulation) therapy.