Cervical myositis - inflammation of muscles in the neck and shoulder girdle. The process may be involved as one or several muscles. The reason usually becomes localized hypothermia, unaccustomed physical exertion, prolonged stay in an uncomfortable position, and infectious diseases. The main symptom is pain, which usually covers only one side of the neck, can be given to the head, shoulder, back and arm. Movement is limited and sometimes detected a slight edema and local hyperthermia. In young children, the temperature rise is possible. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of clinical symptoms. Treatment is conservative.
Cervical plexitis - the defeat of the cervical plexus infection, trauma, compression-ischemic, toxic, dysmetabolic genesis. The clinical picture includes pain, sensory disturbances, hiccup, difficulty when attempting to cough or speak loudly, shallow and rapid breathing. Diagnosis is carried out by means of X-ray, ultrasound, imaging, electrophysiological studies. The main objective of treatment is to eliminate the causative factor in the development and recovery plexitis neuroprotective and vascular therapy.
Cervical spondylosis - degenerative disease of the cervical spine. It includes changes in the intervertebral discs, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament and the emergence of bony growths on the front and side surfaces of the vertebrae. Usually it occurs in the elderly. Maybe a long time asymptomatic. By reducing the height of the disk and joining spondyloarthrosis evident limitation of neck mobility, pain in the neck and head. To clarify the diagnosis using X-ray, MRI, CT, myelography, electromyography and other studies. Treatment is usually conservative.
Cervical spondyloarthrosis - degenerative-dystrophic process in the small joints of the cervical spine. Usually it strikes people between the ages of 50-55 years of age and older. After the injury, in some diseases and pathological conditions spondyloarthrosis signs can be detected in young and middle-aged persons. The disease manifests night pain, pain on movement, and after the static load, morning stiffness and restriction of movement. When compression of the nerve roots emerge neurological disorders. Clarify diagnosis using X-ray, MRI, radioisotope scan, vascular ultrasound and other studies. Treatment is conservative.
Schizoid personality disorder (schizoid personality disorder) - a disorder characterized by insularity, uncommunicative, emotional coldness, poor ability to empathize and to establish a warm relationship of trust, low need for social contact, immersion into the inner world and a tendency toward autistic fantasy. There are persistent unusual hobbies, which the patient is rarely shared with other people. Schizoid personality disorder manifests itself in early childhood and persists throughout life. Diagnosis is based on medical history and interviews with patients. Treatment - psychotherapy, social rehabilitation.
Schizophrenia - a mental disorder, accompanied by the development of fundamental violations of perception, thinking and emotional reactions. It features significant clinical polymorphism. The most common symptoms of schizophrenia include fiction or paranoid delusions, auditory hallucinations, disturbances in thinking and speech, flattened or inadequate affects and gross violations of social adaptation. Diagnosis is based on history, interrogation of the patient and his relatives. Treatment - drug therapy, psychotherapy, social rehabilitation and readaptation.
Shistosomatidny dermatitis - dermatological diseases parasitic nature, caused by infection of the skin by larvae (cercariae) of schistosomes (one of the genera or trematode flatworms). Symptoms of this condition are itching, red spots and papules on the skin, urticaria and allergic swelling. In rare cases, a fever, a dry cough, dizziness. Diagnosis shistosomatidnogo dermatitis is based on the results of the dermatological examination and patient history data. Generally, symptomatic treatment of disease, the use of specific antiparasitic agents is required.
Schistosomiasis - helminth disease caused by blood flukes, schistosomes; proceeding with toxic and allergic reactions, gastrointestinal lesions and urinary organs. Acute period of schistosomiasis is characterized by fever, papular rash and itching of the skin; in the chronic phase may develop cystitis, pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis, coleitis, prostatitis, epididymitis, or colitis, hepatosplenomegaly, ascites. Schistosomiasis is diagnosed through the detection of helminth eggs in the urine or stool samples, carrying out cystoscopy, urography. For the treatment of schistosomiasis used worming agent; Surgical treatment is indicated.
Esophagitis - inflammatory lesion of esophageal mucosa. Manifestations of esophagitis can be a burning pain behind the breastbone, violation of swallowing, heartburn, increased salivation. Complication of esophagitis may be the peptic ulcer, stenosis, perforation of the esophagus, Barrett's disease. Diagnosis is made up of a minimum of esophagoscopy, endoscopic biopsy and esophageal radiography. Treatment is prescribed based on the etiology of esophagitis; It includes diet, medication, physical therapy; if necessary - surgical treatment of esophageal narrowing (probing, dissection of scar stricture, etc).
Eczema - an inflammatory disease of the skin, which has a long chronic course with frequent exacerbations. It is characterized by polymorphic rash, redness extending stage - formation of nodules - bubbles - weeping erosions - scabs - peeling. Eruptions are accompanied by a burning sensation, pruritus. High probability of joining secondary purulent infection. Especially dangerous infections in children, t. To.'s Sarcoma may develop eczema which can be fatal. Launched over can lead to neurosis: insomnia, irritability, as well as resistant cosmetic skin defects. Treatment of eczema depends on its shape and flow. Effective use of systemic corticosteroids, extracorporeal hemocorrection, local therapy and physiotherapy.
Ekkrinnaya Porus - one of the rare species of the dermis mostly benign tumors are localized in the excretory duct ekkrinnoy sweat gland. Generally located in the epidermal portion of the duct. It is characterized by the presence of a slightly painful tumor-elastic formation with a smooth glossy surface or papillomatosis maroon-pink color with a diameter of not more than 2 cm above the level of the dermis healthy. Nodes usually found on the soles, palms, and rarely on the trunk, may be lobed structure include telangiectasia. Clinical diagnosis is based on the inspection data biopsy, cytology. Treatment - radical excision of the tumor.
Ecrins spiradenoma - benign neoplasia originating from tissue ekkrinnyh sweat glands. It has many options histological structure. It is usually solitary, rarely found multiple tumors. It is a small tight knot round. The skin over the node has a normal color, cyanotic, reddish or grayish hue. Palpation is painful. Ekkrinnaya spiradenoma can be located virtually anywhere on the body, often localized at the front surface of the torso, head and limbs. Ozlokachestvlyaetsya rare. Diagnosis is based on the survey data and histological examination. surgical treatment.
Eclampsia - the most severe, critical form of preeclampsia, flowing with seizures, loss of consciousness, coma posteklampsicheskoy development. The risk of eclampsia is a high probability of severe complications in pregnant: cerebral hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, premature detachment of the placenta, kidney and liver failure, and death of the fetus. Eclampsia diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory data. Eclampsia Treatment is aimed at the creation of peace, relief of spasms, restoration and maintenance of vital functions. If eclampsia is shown an early delivery was pregnant.
Exudative-catarrhal diathesis - constitution anomaly, characterized by a tendency to infiltrative desquamative skin changes, lymphoproliferation, deficiency of the immune response and the lability of water-salt metabolism. Children have noted the appearance of various elements of the skin (erythema, gneiss, strofulyus et al.), The nature of which is pseudoallergic. It is also characterized by excess weight, high exposure to SARS, frequent inflammation of the mucous membranes (conjunctivitis, rhinitis, blepharitis). Diagnosis is based on a carefully assembled a history, clinical manifestations and the results of analyzes. complex, treatment involves desensitizing agents, zinc ointment and other drugs, a large role for non-pharmacological treatment.
Pericardial effusion - pleural infection, tumor or other nature occurring with exudation phenomena - the formation and accumulation of pleural effusion. Pericardial effusion manifested by pain and feeling of heaviness in the affected side, cough reflex, increasing shortness of breath, febrile body temperature. Crucial in the diagnosis of exudative pleurisy is chest X-ray, ultrasound of the pleural cavity, diagnostic puncture with cytological and bacteriological examination of exudate, thoracoscopy. Treatment of exudative pleurisy is the evacuation of the accumulated fluid conducting pathogenetic and symptomatic treatment.
Exudative psoriasis - severe kind of psoriasis, characterized by a pronounced exudative component on the background of immune disorders and endocrine disease. Clinically evident formation of inflammatory foci of plaques impregnated with exudate, with thick crusts on the surface in the absence of the primary erythema. When removing the plaques are exposed to erosion, joins a secondary infection. The diagnostic triad is not a phenomenon of stearin spot, terminal saved film, drip bleeding. Diagnosis is based on clinical and immune status of the patient, various instrumental techniques are used to identify complications (radiography, arthroscopy, and so on. D.). Treatment with anti-inflammatory connecting antihistamines, vitamin therapy, ultraviolet irradiation.
Extrasystole - version of heart rhythm disorder, is characterized by the extraordinary cuts the heart or its individual parts (extrasystoles). It manifested a strong sense of heart shock, a sense of fading heart, anxiety, lack of air. Reduced cardiac output during arrhythmia implies a reduction of coronary and cerebral blood flow and can lead to angina and transient ischemic attacks (syncope, paresis, and so on. D.). It increases the risk of developing atrial fibrillation and sudden death.
Bladder exstrophy - malformation of the genitourinary system, in which the formation of the bladder and the anterior abdominal wall in its projection remains incomplete. From birth, there is an open and turned inside out the mucous membrane of the rear wall of the bladder, as well as the permanent separation and drainage of urine from the opening in the bottom of the body of the ureter ducts. Exstrophy of the bladder is often associated with defects of the external and internal sex organs, ureters and kidneys. It is diagnosed by the characteristic external features, additionally performed radiological and ultrasound examination. Treatment operative, performed reconstructive plastic surgery and substitution.
Exfoliative dermatitis Ritter - a serious infectious skin lesions newborns, is a malignant variant of pemphigus. It is characterized by redness of the skin to form a lingering bubbles, transforming in erosion. Beginning in the mouth, the process covers all the skin and is accompanied by severe violation of the child's general condition. The diagnosis of exfoliative dermatitis Ritter is set on the basis of a typical clinic at the exclusion of other dermatological conditions with similar manifestations. Treatment consists of antibiotic therapy, parenteral administration of solutions and tools that increase antistaphylococcal immunity, treatment of affected areas.
Ectopic opening of the ureter - the ureter anomaly topography consisting in atypical or intravesical extracystic location of his mouth. When extracystic ectopic ureteral orifice marked the involuntary leakage of urine on the background Save urination; intravesical types of anomalies are accompanied by the development of pyelonephritis and ureterohydronephrosis. Diagnosis of ectopic ureteral orifice may include conducting ultrasound, cystoscopy and ureteroscopy, excretory urography, cystography, ureteropyelography, renal angiography, pelvic examination in women, sigmoidoscopy, and others. Research. When preserved kidney function is carried out imposing uretero-ureteroanastomoza or ureteropieloanastomoza. In case of loss of kidney function is a partial or total nephroureterectomy.
Cervical Ectopic - atypical location of the cylindrical (cubic) of the epithelium lining the inside of the cervical canal, on the vaginal portion of the cervix that normally covered by squamous epithelium. Uncomplicated cervical ectopia does not give the clinic; in complicated marked whites, contact bleeding, itching in the genital area, dyspareunia. Cervical Ectopic detected during gynecological examination; the diagnosis to be confirmed using the extended colposcopy, cytology scraping, if necessary - biopsy. Treatment of uncomplicated ectopia is not carried out; in complicated forms assigned causal treatment is carried out destruction of altered foci.
Cervical ectropion - a pathological condition of the cervix, at which the inversion mucosa cervical canal into the vaginal cavity. Clinical manifestations of developing ectropion accession inflammatory or premalignant cervical lesions: it may be leucorrhea and contact bleeding, menstrual dysfunction, pain in the pelvis. Cervical ectropion is diagnosed as a result of a pelvic exam, the extended colposcopy, cytological and morphological studies. ectropion Treatment of congenital or minor lesions may include electrocoagulation, laser vaporization and cryosurgery; with pronounced changes - conization, or cervical excision.
Electrocution - a complex of injuries resulting from the defeat of technical or natural electricity. Most often a consequence of work-related injury, although it may occur in the home. Usually accompanied by the appearance of the current label (elektroozhogov). It includes a number of pathological changes in the various organs and systems (cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, digestive). The diagnosis of electric shock exhibit based on history, clinical signs, CT, X-ray, ECG, EhoEG and other studies. Treatment is conservative.
Electric shock in children - a set of local and general pathological effects caused by the defeat of the child electric shock. Local manifestations of electric shock in children presents superficial and deep burns; general -. cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory arrest, paresthesias and paralysis, disorders of consciousness, etc. In establishing the fact of the child's injury electrocution monitored vital signs (ECG, blood pressure control and BH, clinical and biochemical analysis of blood and urine, etc.). When electrical accident it is important to properly and timely render the first aid on the spot and take the child to hospital. Scope for further treatment includes anti shock and symptomatic therapy, treatment of burns.
Empyema of the gallbladder - the accumulation in the cavity of the gall bladder of a large amount of pus, which occurs with the participation of a bacterial infection on the background of the cystic duct obstruction. Manifested by severe pain, an increase in temperature to high numbers, symptoms of intoxication. Diagnosis is based on physical findings, ultrasound of the liver and gall bladder, laboratory testing indicators (general and biochemical blood tests, blood cultures, and the contents of the gallbladder). Treatment of empyema gall bladder surgery with the mandatory appointment of antibacterial drugs before and after surgery.
Empyema (pyothorax) - inflammation of the pleural sheets, accompanied by the formation of purulent exudate in the pleural cavity. Empyema occurs with fever, persistently high or hectic fever, profuse sweating, tachycardia, shortness of breath, weakness. Diagnosis of pleural empyema is carried out on the basis of X-ray data, ultrasound pleural cavity, thoracentesis results of laboratory study of fluid, peripheral blood analysis. Treatment of acute pleural empyema includes drainage and sanitation of the pleural cavity, massive antibiotic therapy, detoxication therapy; torakostomiya can be performed in patients with chronic empyema, thoracoplasty, pleurectomy with decortication of the lung.
Emphysema - a chronic nonspecific lung disease, which is based on a persistent, irreversible expansion pneumatic spaces and increased swelling of lung tissue distal to the terminal bronchioles. Emphysema appears expiratory dyspnea, cough with a small amount of mucous expectoration, signs of respiratory distress, recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. Pathology Diagnosis is made based on the data auscultation, X-ray and CT scan, spirography, blood gas analysis. Conservative treatment of emphysema includes receiving bronchodilators, corticosteroids, oxygen therapy; in some cases shown resection surgery.
Endocarditis - an inflammation of the connective tissue (inner) lining of the heart lining and valves of its cavity, often of an infectious nature. Manifested high fever, weakness, chills, shortness of breath, cough, chest pain, thickening of the nail phalanxes of the type "drumsticks." Often leads to the defeat of the heart valves (aortic or mitral often), the development of heart disease and heart failure. Possible recurrence, mortality in endocarditis is 30%.
Endocrine ophthalmopathy - progressive organ damage soft tissues of the orbit and the eye that develops against the background of autoimmune thyroid disease. Current endocrine ophthalmopathy is characterized by exophthalmos, diplopia, swelling and inflammation of the eye tissues, limiting the mobility of the eyeball, corneal changes, optic disc, intraocular hypertension. Diagnosis of endocrine ophthalmopathy requires an ophthalmological examination (exophthalmometer, biomicroscopy, CT orbit); the study of the immune system (determination of the level of Ig, AT to TG, AT to TPO, antinuclear antibodies, etc.), endocrinological examinations (T4 St., T3 St., thyroid ultrasound, biopsy). endocrine ophthalmopathy Treatment is aimed at achieving the euthyroid state; may include drug therapy or removal of the thyroid gland.
Endocrine infertility - a complex hormonal imbalance, leading to irregular ovulation or her absence in females and sperm in males as a violation. It is based may lie disorders of the thyroid gland, gonads, hypothalamus-pituitary regulation. Treatment of endocrine infertility is to eliminate its causes, correction of existing violations and maintaining normal hormonal levels. The normalization of the disturbed functions resulting in pregnancy in 70-80% of cases of endocrine infertility. In other cases it is currently considered promising the removal of endocrine infertility by IVF.