Injury of peripheral nerves - the different mechanism of damage of nerve trunks of the peripheral nervous system. Manifest symptoms of pain and reduction or loss of motor, sensory, autonomic and trophic function of nerve distal to the injury site. Diagnosis of peripheral nerve injury based on the results of neurological examination and electrophysiological studies data neuromuscular system. Treatment can be conservative (pain relievers, vitamins, physiotherapy, neostigmine, vasoactive drugs, physical therapy) and surgery (neurolysis, autoplasty nerve, nerve suture, neuroticism).
Injury of the liver - one of the most severe, and difficult to diagnose the patient's life-threatening abdominal injuries. Usually accompanied by massive bleeding from the hepatic parenchyma tissue and major blood vessels of the liver. It is also possible the outpouring of bile into the abdominal cavity with subsequent development of bile peritonitis. The reason for such an injury can be a car accident, a fall from a height, hit in the abdomen, a knife or a gunshot wound, and so on. D. Observed symptoms of acute blood loss in combination with pain and muscle tension in the right hypochondrium. Suspicion of damage to the liver is an indication for immediate delivery of the patient to the hospital. Surgical treatment, performed on an emergency basis. The volume of surgery and the prognosis depends on the nature and severity of liver injury.
Injuries of the penis - different in their origin and severity of damage to the skin, spongy and cavernous bodies, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, muscles and tunica albuginea of the penis. Symptoms of penile injuries depend on the type of damage, and can include swelling, pain, bleeding, hematoma, hematuria, urination disorders. Injuries of the penis are diagnosed on the basis of history, examination, palpation, ultrasound examination. First aid for injuries of the penis is to stop the bleeding, PECVD wounds, removal of foreign bodies; further tactics determined by the type and severity of damage.
Injuries of the joints - a large group of lesions that differ in severity and consequences. It includes injuries, damage to ligaments, sprains and intraarticular fractures. The reason may be a home or a sports injury, an accident, a criminal incident, accident at work, industrial or natural disaster. Most persistent symptoms - pain, swelling and limitation of movement. In some joint injuries detected deformation, hemarthrosis and abnormal mobility. To clarify the diagnosis using X-rays, CT, MRI, ultrasound, arthroscopy and other studies. Treatment can be either conservative or surgical.
Injuries ear - different in character damage the ear, external auditory canal, middle or inner ear. Clinically, depending on the location of the injuries of the ear injury can be manifested by the presence of wound margin of the ear, bleeding, pain, hearing loss, congestion in the ear, ear noise, incoordination, dizziness and nausea. For diagnostic purposes trauma ear held otoscopy, neurological examination, CT scans and X-rays of the skull, brain MRI, the study of the vestibular and auditory function. Treatment may be medical and surgical. It includes a wound treatment, removal of hematoma, restore the integrity of damaged anatomical structures, infection prevention, anti shock, anti-edema, infusion and anti-inflammatory therapy.
Transient ischemic attack - a temporary acute cerebral circulatory disorder, accompanied by the appearance of neurological symptoms that completely regressed, not later than 24 hours clinic varies depending on the vascular pool in which there was a decrease of blood flow The diagnosis is made based on medical history, neurological examination, laboratory data, ultrasonography results, duplex scanning, CT, MRI, PET brain. Treatment includes antiplatelet, vascular, neurometabolic, symptomatic therapy. Conducted operations aimed at the prevention of recurrent attacks and stroke.
Transposition of the great vessels - severe congenital heart disease, characterized by violation of the provisions of the major vessels: the aorta from the discharge of the right heart and the pulmonary artery - the Left. Clinical signs of transposition of the great vessels include cyanosis, shortness of breath, tachycardia, malnutrition, heart failure. Diagnosis of transposition of the great vessels is based on data from PCG, ECG, X-ray examination of the chest, catheterization of heart cavities, ventriculography. The methods of surgical correction of transposition of great vessels are palliative intervention (balloon atrioseptostomiya) and radical surgery (Mustard, Senning, Zhatene, Rastelli, arterial switch).
Tracheitis - an inflammatory disease of the trachea, usually of an infectious nature. Tracheitis accompanied by paroxysmal cough or dry character with the release of a thick mucous or muco-purulent sputum, and pain sensations in the chest during and after coughing. Diagnosis tracheitis includes CBC, laringotraheoskopiyu, bacteriological examination of sputum and throat swabs, X-ray of lungs, consultation phthisiatrician, allergist, pulmonologist. Treatment is carried out etiotropic drugs (antibacterial, antiviral, anti-allergic), mucolytics, expectorants and antitussives, methods of physiotherapy effects.
Tracheitis a child - a respiratory disease characterized by infectious and inflammatory lesions of the trachea of various etiologies. Tracheitis a child runs with bouts of dry cough and rawness in the chest, fever. Diagnosis tracheitis the child is based on the clinical data, auscultation, laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy. Treatment of tracheitis in a child include the appointment etiotropic antiviral or antibacterial drugs, expectorants; physiotherapy (inhalation, UHF, electrophoresis, inductothermy), mustard plasters, rubbing the chest.
Tracheobronchitis - diffuse inflammatory process, covering the lower airways - the trachea and bronchi. The duration and characteristics of the tracheobronchitis is closely related to its form; symptoms usually include cough (dry or productive), soreness and pain in the chest, the reaction temperature, malaise, wheezing, shortness of breath. Verification of diagnosis facilitates evaluation of data auscultation, lung X-ray results, bronchoscopy, sputum, allergodiagnostic. In the treatment of tracheobronchitis used pharmacotherapy (expectorants, mucolytic, anti-viral, anti-histamines) and non-pharmacological methods (inhalation, FTL, massage).
Tracheoesophageal fistula - pathological fistula connecting the lumen of the trachea to the esophagus. It may be an anomaly of development or acquired pathology. Tracheoesophageal fistula manifested bouts of coughing during meals, which are accompanied by dyspnea, cyanosis, frothy sputum release with pieces of food. Often it is developing aspiration pneumonia. Confirmatory diagnosis is carried out using endoscopic techniques (esophagoscopy, bronchoscopy), esophageal radiography. Treatment only operative - the closure of tracheoesophageal fistula, often with simultaneous traheoplastikoy, circular resection of the trachea, esophagoplasty.
Trachoma - chronic chlamydial infection of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye. Trachoma is showing signs of conjunctivitis, keratitis, formation trachomatous grains (follicles) on the conjunctiva. At the end of trachoma can lead to scarring of the mucosa, the destruction of cartilage and age blindness. In the diagnosis of trachoma using biomicroscopy, cytology smears with conjunctival epithelium, ELISA techniques, IEF, PCR. In the treatment of trachoma using local instillation and the imposition of anti-bacterial ointments, vitamin therapy, immunotherapy, expression and diathermocoagulation follicles, epilation eyelash. Complications of trachoma are removed surgically.
Avoidant personality disorder - personality disorder, which is characterized by feelings of inadequacy, social withdrawal, increased sensitivity to the evaluation of other people, avoiding social contact for fear of being rejected, humiliated or mocked. Usually develops in adolescence. It manifests itself in many forms with slightly different symptoms. Often it combined with other anxiety spectrum disorders. Diagnosis is based on interviews and specific test results. Treatment - psychotherapy, drug therapy.
Three - the gaps between the teeth. The main complaints are reduced to having an aesthetic defect. Diagnosis includes three history data analysis, clinical examination, radiography, TWG, anthropometric measurement models. For the aging period of temporary occlusion physiological characteristic of three, which do not require orthodontic intervention. Treatment of three patients with permanent dentition is aimed at restoring tselostnostnosti dentition, to achieve intimate contact between the side surfaces of the teeth. If tremas are one of the symptoms of prognathism or progeny is shown orthodontic bite correction.
Ventricular flutter - ventricular tachyarrhythmia with the right part (up to 200-300 m.) Pace. Ventricular flutter accompanied by a drop in blood pressure, loss of consciousness, pallor or cyanosis of the skin diffuse, agonistic breathing, convulsions, dilated pupils, and can cause sudden cardiac death. The diagnosis of atrial ventricular established on the basis of clinical and electrocardiographic data. Emergency aid for ventricular fibrillation is immediate defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Atrial flutter - tachyarrhythmia with the right part (up to 200-400 in 1 min.), The rhythm of the atria. Atrial flutter is manifested paroxysmal palpitations lasting from a few seconds to several days, hypotension, dizziness, loss of consciousness. To identify atrial fibrillation conducted clinical examination, 12-lead ECG, Holter monitoring, transesophageal electrocardiography, rhythmography, ultrasound of the heart, EFI. For the treatment of atrial fibrillation using drug therapy, radiofrequency ablation and atrial pacing.
Tertiary syphilis - third period syphilis develops in insufficiently treated patients or patients are not treated at all. Manifested form syphilitic infiltrations (granulomas) in the skin, mucous membranes, bones and internal organs. Granulomas with tertiary syphilis compress and destroy the tissue in which there are, which can lead to fatal diseases. Diagnosis of tertiary syphilis include clinical examination of the patient, the formulation of serological and immunological responses, the survey of affected systems and organs. Therapy tertiary syphilis is carried out courses of penicillin-bismuth treatment with the additional use of symptomatic and bracing means.
Trehpredserdnoe heart - congenital cardiac anomaly in which the left atrium has a partition separating it into two chambers. When trehpredserdnom heart patients suffer from recurrent respiratory infections, retarded physical development, dyspnea, peripheral cyanosis, cough, heart failure. Trehpredserdnoe heart detected by integrated diagnostics, including auscultation, ECG, X-ray, echocardiography, cardiac sensing cavities. Surgical correction trehpredserdnogo heart is to remove the membranous septum and atrial septal defect closure.
Cracked nipples - defect, damage the integrity of the skin on the nipple of the mammary glands. Shows sharp soreness radiating to the shoulder blade while feeding your baby. May be complicated by infection of wounds, candidiasis development on the nipple, mastitis. When infected fractures there is a risk of infection of the child during feeding. May lead to the abandonment of breastfeeding. Treatment of cracked nipples begin to eliminate their causes. At the same time carry out the prevention of infection, use tools that promote rapid healing (sea buckthorn oil, vit. E, Bepanten et al.).
Cracks enamel - enamel defects linear nature of non-carious, which occur during operation of the teeth. Typically, the cracks detected by chance during a routine inspection. With deep multiple defects may cause hypersensitivity. Diagnosis of enamel cracking involves collecting complaints, analysis of medical history and clinical examination data. Surface enamel cracks detected by monocular or binocular magnifying glass and using transillumination method. To eliminate hypersensitivity spend remterapiyu. When complaints of aesthetic defect shown lamination teeth with composite or ceramic veneers.
Trilogy of Fallot - a complex congenital heart disease, which is based on morphological three components: atrial septal defect, pulmonary stenosis (usually a valve) and right ventricular hypertrophy. Typical clinical signs of the triad of Fallot are shortness of breath, cyanosis, attacks of breathlessness, fainting. In the diagnosis of Fallot triad are recorded ECG, PCG, radiological examination of the chest, echocardiography, cardiac sensing cameras ventriculography. vice surgical treatment (radical correction of Fallot's triad), preferably at an early age.
Tricuspid insufficiency - loose closing of the tricuspid valve leaflets during systole, resulting in backflow of blood from the ventricle into the atrium. When tricuspid insufficiency there is a weakness, mild shortness of breath, palpitations, pain in the heart; develop cyanosis and heart failure. Tricuspid insufficiency diagnosed by ECG, X-ray, echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, jugular venography, ventriculography. Symptomatic treatment of tricuspid insufficiency is aimed at reducing heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, prevention of bacterial endocarditis; Radical surgical correction involves performing plastic or prosthetic tricuspid valve.
Tricuspid stenosis - a decrease in area of the opening of the tricuspid valve, which leads to the difficulty of blood flow from the cavity of the right atrium to the right ventricle. When tricuspid stenosis develops shortness of breath, weakness, akrotsianoz, venous stasis in the systemic circulation (edema, ascites, swelling of the neck veins, heaviness in the epigastric and right upper quadrant). The methods of diagnosis of tricuspid stenosis are phonocardiography, electrocardiography, radiography, ultrasound of the heart, sensing the right heart. Correction of tricuspid stenosis is made by valvotomy, balloon valvuloplasty, at least - prosthetic tricuspid valve
Trichomoniasis (trichomoniasis) - genital infection causing inflammation of the urogenital system. It shows signs of vaginitis, urethritis, cystitis, proctitis. Often combined with other genital infections: chlamydia, gonorrhea, mycoplasma, candida, etc. In the acute stage marked abundant vaginal discharge, itching and burning - in women and painful urination - men In the absence of adequate treatment becomes chronic, and in the future may cause prostatitis, infertility, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, child morbidity and mortality.
Trichophyton (ringworm) - mycotic defeat smooth skin, hair, nail fungus genus Trichophyton. It is characterized by the formation of inflammatory lesions with clear boundaries, desquamation. Infected hairs become brittle, break off above the skin and stick in the form of stumps. The disease is highly contagious. Deep skin lesions lead to a deterioration in the general condition, the formation of abscesses. Treatment is carried out protivomikoticheskimi means that are assigned locally and internally. In advanced cases may remain persistent alopecia hair on the spot.
Trichocephalosis - intestinal infestation caused by helminth parasitism round - whipworm and flowing with a primary dysfunction of the digestive tract and nervous system. Dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract when trihotsefaleze characterized by loss of appetite, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation; CNS leads to headaches, dizziness, sleep disturbances, sometimes - fainting and convulsions. Trichocephalosis diagnosed based on the detection of whipworm eggs in the feces or adult worms in the intestinal lumen via endoscopy. Treatment is carried out trihotsefaleze anthelmintic drugs (albendazole, mebendazole, karbendatsim et al.).
Thrombosis haemorrhoid - a complication of current hemorrhoids, characterized by the formation of a blood clot in the cavernous vascular plexus of the rectum. The main symptoms - severe pain and foreign body sensation in the anal region. For the diagnosis of thrombosis of hemorrhoids is conducted inspection rectal area, rectoscopy, complete blood count, coagulation. Medical tactic is determined by the severity of the condition. Conservative therapy provides for the appointment of local and systemic anti-inflammatory drugs, local thrombolysis, venotonic drugs and anesthetics. Surgical treatment is to perform thrombectomy or hemorrhoidectomy.
Deep vein thrombosis - a condition in which the veins are formed blood clots (thrombi) that impede the normal flow of blood. In clinical practice, deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs is more common than venous thrombosis of other locations. Clinical symptoms of DVT include pain bursting, edema, cyanosis of the skin, superficial hyperthermia, pain on palpation of the affected veins, swelling of the superficial veins. The definitive diagnosis is established according to Doppler ultrasound of the lower extremities and duplex scanning; carried out to assess the microcirculation rheovasography. Treatment of deep vein thrombosis with heparin conducted under the supervision of coagulation; if necessary, performed surgical removal of the formed clot.
Thrombophilia - a predisposition to the development of recurrent vascular thrombosis (mostly vein) of different localization. The disease is caused by genetic or acquired disorders of blood cells or defective blood coagulation. Clinically manifested by multiple thrombophilia thrombosis very different localization. Repeated thrombosis history of the patient's doctor should bring to mind the presence of thrombophilia, which can be confirmed by blood tests and the coagulation system. thrombophilia Treatment depends on its type. As a rule, used thrombolytics, anticoagulants and aggregation inhibitors.
Thrombophlebitis - inflammation in the inner wall of a venous thrombus formation. It is characterized by redness and seal along the veins, severe tenderness, swelling, increasing local and general body temperature. In the propagation of thrombosis to the deep veins may cause severe complications such as a pulmonary embolism. To diagnose thrombophlebitis assist characteristic clinical symptoms, ultrasound data angioscanning, UZDG veins rheovasography. Conservative treatment of thrombophlebitis is aimed at preventing the spread of it, and the formed clot resorption. Modern surgery removes the affected vein with thrombotic masses.