Thrombocytopathy - a group of inherited and acquired disorders of hemostasis, resulting from qualitative inferiority of platelets in their normal amount. Thrombocytopathy children have a tendency to the formation of petechiae and bruising with minor trauma, bleeding (epistaxis, gastrointestinal, uterine) of varying severity, anemia. Identify thrombocytopathy in children requires careful laboratory study of the hemostatic system, functional tests, punctures and bone marrow research and others. Thrombocytopathy treatment of children held Pediatric Hematology and includes general and local hemostatic therapy.
Thrombocytopenia - a violation of quantitative platelet hemostasis, characterized by a decrease in the number of platelets per unit volume of blood. Clinical signs include thrombocytopenia, increased bleeding from damaged skin and mucous membranes, susceptibility to bruising and purpura, spontaneous bleeding of various locations (nasal, gingival, stomach, uterine, etc.). Hematologic Diagnosis is based on the study of blood count with platelet count, immunological examination, study of the bone marrow puncture. Possible methods of treatment of thrombocytopenia is drug therapy, splenectomy, extracorporeal blood purification.
Thrombocytopenic purpura - a type of hemorrhagic diathesis, characterized by a deficiency of red blood platelets - platelets, often caused by immune mechanisms. Symptoms are spontaneous thrombocytopenic purpura, multiple polymorphic hemorrhages in skin and mucous membranes, as well as nasal, gingival, or other uterine bleeding. For suspected thrombocytopenic purpura assess medical history and clinical data, the total blood test indicators, coagulation, ELISA, blood smear, bone marrow puncture. For therapeutic purposes, patients received corticosteroid, hemostatic agents, cytostatic therapy, splenectomy performed.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) - occlusion of the pulmonary artery or its branches thrombotic masses, leading to life-threatening disorders of pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics. The classic symptoms of pulmonary embolism are chest pain, dyspnea, cyanosis of the face and neck, collapse, and tachycardia. To confirm the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and the differential diagnosis with other similar in symptoms able to conduct an electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, echocardiography, scintigraphy of the lungs, angiography. PE Treatment involves thrombolytic and infusion therapy, inhalation of oxygen; the ineffectiveness - thromboembolectomy from the pulmonary artery.
Trophic ulcer - an open wound on the skin or mucous membranes, which arose after the rejection of dead tissue and do not heal for 6 weeks or more. The cause of trophic ulcers - local poor circulation or nerve supply of tissues. Trophic ulcers develop on the background of various diseases characterized by persistent over a long and difficult to treat. Recovery depends on the underlying disease and the possibility of compensation of violations that led to the appearance of ulcers.
Trophoblastic disease - a general concept that combines various forms of pregnancy-associated proliferative trophoblastic neoplasia. The term "trophoblastic disease" includes hydatidiform mole (partial and complete), invasive hydatidiform mole, horionkartsinomu, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor, tumor of placental site trophoblastic. Trophoblastic disease diagnosis is based on ultrasound and CT data, study the concentration of hCG in the blood. Treatment may include evacuation of hydatidiform mole, chemotherapy and hysterectomy.
Tuberculosis - a chronic infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. With the defeat of Mycobacterium tuberculosis often affects the respiratory system, moreover, found tuberculosis of bones and joints, genitourinary organs, eyes, peripheral lymph nodes. Diagnosis of tuberculosis is to carry out the tuberculin test, X-ray examination of lungs, detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum, swabs from the bronchial tubes, the discharge of skin cells, additional instrumental examination of affected organs tuberculosis. Treatment of tuberculosis is a complex and long-term systemic antibiotic therapy. Under indications of surgical treatment.
Tuberculosis of the bronchi - specific inflammation of the bronchial wall, caused by M. tuberculosis and is usually complicated for tuberculosis of intrathoracic lymph nodes (VGLU) and lungs. For tuberculosis bronchi typical intractable paroxysmal cough with scanty sputum, chest pain, shortness of breath, coughing up blood. Diagnosis is exposed based on the data of X-ray tomography, bronhografii and bronchoscopy, laboratory analysis of the material on the VC, tuberculin. bronchi tuberculosis treatment is carried out anti antibiotics which can be administered systemically and topically (inhalation, intratraheobronhialno).
Tuberculosis of intrathoracic lymph nodes - the primary lesion of tuberculosis infection hilar lymph node localization, occurs without the formation of primary lung infiltration and development of lymphangitis. The disease is manifested by weakness, fever, loss of appetite and weight, sweating, paraspetsificheskimi reactions, sometimes coughing and asphyxia. The diagnosis is established according to the inspection, X-ray and CT scan of the chest, tuberculin tests, biopsy of lymph nodes. Treatment of tuberculosis VGLU long; tuberculostatic includes a combination of drugs, immunomodulators, diet, plasmapheresis, lymphadenectomy.
Tuberculosis of the larynx - throat specific infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are. As a rule, tuberculosis of the larynx has a secondary character and develops the penetration of infection into the larynx upward, hematogenous or lymphogenous way. Tuberculosis of the larynx appears hoarseness, pain and impaired swallowing, choking with a hit of liquid food into the trachea and bronchi, dry painful cough, respiratory disorders arise due to stenosis of the lumen of the larynx, the formation of the external fistula. Diagnosis of tuberculosis of the larynx as a result of laboratory tests, laryngoscopy, CT laryngeal, lung X-ray, the study of vocal function. Treatment consists of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy, pain relief, hanging the body's defenses, for surgical interventions aimed at eliminating tuberculosis lesions.
Tuberculosis of the intestine - a chronic infectious disease caused by mycobacteria; characterized by the formation in the intestinal wall of specific granulomas with subsequent melting chamber, cavity formation and fibrosis during rehabilitation. The clinical picture is characterized by the lack of specific symptoms; typical pain, dyspepsia, intoxication. For the diagnosis is carried out X-ray examination of the intestine, endoscopy with biopsy, tuberculin tests, ultrasound of the abdomen, CT. Tuberculostatic therapy involves the use of drugs in the presence of complications - surgical treatment.
TB skin - severe infection, having a long duration with frequent relapses due to settling of the skin and subcutaneous tissue of tuberculosis mycobacteria. Symptoms of this condition are extremely diverse, for this reason, some researchers believe that the mycobacteria are responsible for a whole group of dermatological pathologies. Diagnosis includes a dermatological examination, determining the presence of antibodies to the causative agent of tuberculosis in the blood, skin lesions separated study. Treatment is carried out by traditional anti-TB drugs, as well as supporting and immunostimulatory agents.
Tuberculosis of bones - the second most common form of tuberculosis after pulmonary tuberculosis. Perhaps the spine and loss of limbs. It may be diagnosed at any age. The disease occurs under the influence of a number of factors, including - Hypothermia, adverse social conditions, hard physical labor, low immunity and so on, but the decisive role played by contact with TB patients. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of X-ray, tomography and other studies. In the initial stages of treatment is conservative, with significant bone destruction operations are conducted.
Pulmonary Tuberculosis - Infectious diseases caused by the bacillus of Koch, characterized in a variety of clinical and morphological variants against destruction of lung tissue. The variety of forms of pulmonary tuberculosis causes the variability of symptoms. The most typical of the pulmonary respiratory problems (cough, coughing up blood, shortness of breath), and symptoms of intoxication (long low-grade fever, sweating, weakness). To confirm the diagnosis using radiation, laboratory tests, tuberculin. Chemotherapy pulmonary tuberculosis conducted by special agents tuberkulostaticheskoy; in destructive forms of surgical treatment.
Tuberculosis of the breast - a specific form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis process, flowing from the breast lesion. Manifested seal and hypertrophy of the affected breast, skin hyperemia, fluctuation, increase in the axillary lymph nodes. Tuberculosis of the breast diagnosed by studying the anamnesis, mammography, biopsy with cytology, tuberculin. Treatment of breast tuberculosis TB includes the administration of chemotherapy; in some cases it shows the execution of sectoral resection.
Tuberculosis of the spine - a form of bone tuberculosis. It may affect any part of the spine. Diagnosed in people of all ages. The first symptoms of the spinal column may appear as a short time later, and a few years after infection. Often, multiple lesions are observed. Manifested by pain, limitation of movement and gait disturbance. In advanced cases, the spinal deformity may develop. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of the tuberculin test and X-ray data. Treatment is usually conservative.
Tuberculosis of the mouth - a chronic infectious disease caused by a bacillus of Koch. Patients complain of a deterioration of general condition, fever, lethargy. Locally detected tubercles, in the central part of which there is a painful shallow ulcer surface with uneven edges and grainy yellow bottom. Diagnosis of tuberculosis of the oral cavity includes the collection of complaints, compiling medical history, clinical examination, cytologic and direct microscopic examination. Treatment of patients with oral tuberculosis is carried out in TB.
Tuberculosis of the kidneys (nephrotuberculosis) - extrapulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and affecting the renal parenchyma. Clinic nonspecific renal tuberculosis; may include malaise, low-grade fever, back pain, makrogemmaturiyu, dysuria. Tuberculosis of the kidney diagnosed by laboratory urinalysis, tuberculin, renal ultrasonography, urography, retrograde ureteropyelography, nefrostsintigrafii, morphological studies. Treatment of renal tuberculosis includes the appointment of a specific anti-TB therapy; at a destructive process in the kidney may need to perform kavernektomii or nephrectomy.
Tuberculosis of the joints - a form of bone tuberculosis, one of the manifestations of general tuberculosis infection. Usually it affects a large or middle joint, and the lower limbs are affected more often higher. Multiple bone-articular lesions are rare. Shows weakness, lethargy, fatigue, gait disturbance, pain, restricted motion and muscle atrophy. Perhaps the formation of sinter abscesses and fistulas. To clarify the diagnosis using tuberculin tests and X-rays. Treatment in the early stages of a conservative, in the later - operative.
Tuberculosis in children - specific infectious inflammation of various tissues and organs, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The main clinical forms of TB in children are early and chronic tuberculous intoxication, primary tuberculosis complex, bronhoadenit tuberculosis, acute miliary tuberculosis; rarer tuberculous meningitis, mesadenitis, tuberculosis of peripheral lymph nodes, skin, kidneys, eyes, bones and joints. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in children include microscopy, bakposev, PCR study of biological fluids; setting tuberculin tests, X-rays, tomography, bronchoscopy, and so on. In tuberculosis in children shows the assignment tuberculostatic drugs.
Tuberculous intoxication - a form of manifestation of tuberculosis infection, which develops during the initial infection of the Office and flowing with signs of intoxication in the absence of local foci of tuberculosis. Tuberculous intoxication is usually diagnosed in children. Its symptoms are fatigue, sweating, swollen lymph nodes, recurrent low-grade fever, retarded physical development, weight loss, and others. The diagnosis is confirmed by a positive tuberculin skin test, changes of the peripheral blood. Detection of tuberculosis intoxication requires chemotherapy three major anti-TB drugs.
Tuberculous arthritis - osteo-articular tuberculosis caused by mycobacteria Koch and having chronic destructive for. In tuberculous arthritis patients concerned about the symptoms of general intoxication, weakness in the extremities, arthralgia, defiguratsiya joints, formation of purulent fistulae. Diagnosis of tuberculous arthritis is based on the particular features of clinical, radiological and laboratory data, the results of tuberculin tests. The basis of the treatment of specific TB therapy with subsequent restoration and rehabilitation activities; additionally held intra puncture surgery.
TB meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges caused by infiltrating them with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Manifested sharply coming after prodromal phenomena deteriorating state of health of the patient with hyperthermia, headache, vomiting, disorders of the cranial nerves, disorders of consciousness, meningeal symptom. TB meningitis is diagnosed primarily by comparing the clinical data and the results of cerebrospinal fluid studies. It held a long and complex treatment consisting of anti-tuberculosis, dehydration, detoxification, vitamin and symptomatic therapy.
Tuberculous pleurisy - inflammation of the pleural tuberculosis etiology, occurring in dry form, and with the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. The main symptoms of tuberculous pleurisy - stabbing pain in his side, a dry cough, shortness of breath, low-grade or febrile body temperature, malaise. When the diagnosis of X-ray picture is taken into account, the results of Mantoux test, MBT detection in sputum or pleural exudate, data plevroskopii. Treatment of tuberculous pleurisy carried tuberkulostaticheskoy drugs, corticosteroids, NSAIDs; with massive exudation shows a series of pleural effusion puncture aspiration; in the resorption phase is assigned to exercise therapy, physiotherapy.
Tuberkulomah easy - encysted caseous lesion in the lung tissue diameter greater than 1 cm, resulting in the outcome of the various forms of tuberculosis. lung tuberculoma often asymptomatic, so in most cases it is found randomly. With the progression is accompanied by signs of toxicity, low-grade fever, cough, hemoptysis. The main way to detect lung tuberculoma - x-ray. The positive tuberculin reaction; MBT in sputum are not always detected. With regard to lung tubercles applied conservative tactics (specific chemotherapy), in some cases - surgical approach (segmentectomy, lobectomy).
Tuberous sclerosis - gene disease characterized by damage to the nervous system in the form of epilepsy and mental retardation, polymorphic skin symptoms, tumor and non-tumor processes in somatic organs. Diagnostic algorithm consists of the examination of the nervous system (MRI, brain CT, EEG), eye examination, examination of the internal organs (ultrasound, cardiac MRI, CT scan of the kidneys, chest X-ray, sigmoidoscopy). The main areas of treatment are: antiepileptic therapy, neuropsychological correction, monitoring and timely surgical treatment of tumors.
Tubular renal cell carcinoma - a type of kidney cancer histological emanating from the renal tubules (loop of Henle). Symptoms of kidney tubular carcinoma are similar to other types of cancer: hematuria, pain and palpable swelling in the kidney projection, anemia, intoxication. Diagnosing tubular carcinoma is based on laboratory tests, renal ultrasonography, urography, aortography, nefrostsintigrafii, CT, MRI. The main form of treatment of kidney tubular carcinomas - surgical that, if necessary, supplemented by radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy.
Hearing loss - a persistent weakening of the hearing, which interferes with the perception of the world of sounds and speech communication. The degree of hearing loss can vary from mild hearing loss to complete deafness. Diagnosis of hearing loss and held otolaryngologist otonevrologa through research complex (otoscopy, audiometry, kamertonalnyh samples, recording the hearing the EP and otoacoustic emissions, impedance, rotational sample stabilography et al.). Depending on the form of hearing loss can be applied conservative (hearing aids, physiotherapy, drug therapy) or surgical (tympanoplasty, myringoplasty, cochlear implants, etc.). Methods.
Hearing loss in children - hearing loss of varying severity, complicating the perception of speech and environmental sounds. Symptoms of hearing loss in children can be a lack of response to sound toys, maternal voice call, request, whispered speech; lack of Gulen and babble; violation of speech and mental development, and others. Diagnosis of hearing loss in children involves performing otoscopy, audiometry, acoustic impedance, the registration of otoacoustic emissions, the definition of hearing the EP. Taking into account the reasons for and the type of hearing loss in children can be used by medical and physiotherapy treatment, hearing aids, methods of functional otohirurgii, cochlear implantation.
Tularemia - natural focal acute infection of the lymph nodes, skin and sometimes mucous membranes of eyes, throat and lungs. Tularemia occurs with severe symptoms of intoxication, prolonged fever, generalized lymphadenitis, hepatosplenomegaly, polymorphous rash and other symptoms. The specific diagnosis of tularemia is conducted using serological tests (ELISA, RA, Phragmites), PCR, skin-allergic test. In the treatment of tularemia antibiotic is used, detoxification therapy, surgical opening and drainage festering bubo.