Chronic respiratory failure - a secondary syndrome, respiratory failure occurs when the gas system to maintain homeostasis, leading to a decrease in PaO2 and PaCO2 increase in arterial blood. Developed over a number of years; show signs of dyspnea (shortness of breath), hypoxemia and hypercapnia (cyanosis, tachycardia, CNS effects by), the weakness of the respiratory muscles (the change of the black hole, the participation of auxiliary muscles). Assess the degree of chronic respiratory insufficiency helps blood gas analysis, respiratory function tests, pulse oximetry. Therapy includes correction of causal factors, the appointment of bronchodilators, mukoregulyatorov, long-term O2 therapy. Individually addressed the issue of lung transplantation.
Chronic cerebral ischemia - cerebrovascular insufficiency caused by progressive deterioration of blood supply to brain tissue. The clinical picture of chronic cerebral ischemia is composed of headaches, dizziness, decreased cognitive function, emotional lability, and motor coordination disorders. Diagnosis is based on symptoms exhibited on the data and Doppler ultrasound /USDS vessels of the brain, CT scan or MRI of the brain, hemostasiogram research. Therapy of chronic brain ischemia involves a antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, antiplatelet therapy; surgical tactics elected if necessary.
Under chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are now realizing a progressive disease characterized by an inflammatory component, bronchial obstruction at the level of distal bronchi and structural changes in the lung tissue and blood vessels. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease today is isolated as a distinct disease of the lungs and distinguished from a number of chronic respiratory system processes that occur with obstructive syndrome (obstructive bronchitis, secondary pulmonary emphysema, bronchial asthma and others.).
Chronic liver failure - gradually developing liver dysfunction associated with progressive chronic diseases of the parenchyma. Chronic liver failure manifested symptoms of the underlying disease, dyspepsia (anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea), fever, jaundice, encephalopathy. In the diagnosis of chronic liver disease are taken into account the data of biochemical analyzes, liver ultrasound, gepatostsintigrafii, liver biopsy, EEG. Treatment of chronic liver failure is aimed at detoxification, elimination of metabolic disorders and phenomena of multiple organ failure.
Chronic pneumonia - a local non-specific inflammation of lung tissue, morphological features which are carnification, pulmonary fibrosis and deforming bronchitis. Is the outcome is not completely resolved acute pneumonia. Clinically manifested by periodic relapses of inflammation (rise in temperature, sweating, weakness, cough with muco-purulent sputum). Chronic pneumonia diagnosed based on radiological and laboratory signs, the results of bronchoscopy and spirography. In periods of exacerbation is assigned to antimicrobial therapy, bronchodilators, mukoregulyatory; performed bronchoscopic brushing, massage, FTL. When frequent exacerbations is a lung resection.
Chronic ulcerative pyoderma vegetans - deep chronic inflammatory disease of the skin caused by STAF-streptococcal infection and manifests the formation of long-existing ulcers with vegetative growths on the periphery. Diagnosis of chronic ulcerous vegetating pyoderma is to conduct the inspection, study separated ulcers with the definition of the causative agent, the identification of concomitant diseases and disorders of the immune system. Treatment includes antibiotics, immunocorrection, treatment of opportunistic diseases, local antimicrobial, proteolytic and healing therapy, laser treatment, and UHF.
Chronic nonspecific lung diseases (COPD) - a variety in the etiological and pathologic against diseases of the respiratory system, proceeding with a constant productive cough and dyspnea due to a primary lesion of the bronchi and parenchyma. Include such nosologically independent forms as chronic bronchitis, BEB, bronchial asthma, pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, chronic pneumonia. COPD diagnosed according to the results spirography, X-ray and endoscopic examination. Methods of treatment of COPD may include drug therapy, bronchoscopic sanitation, physiotherapy, exercise therapy; when persistent morphological changes - surgical treatment.
Chronic lung abscess - Chronic suppurative destructive process, which is a consequence of incomplete elimination of acute abscess in the lung. Proceeds with remissions and exacerbations; in the acute phase expressed cough with a lot of purulent sputum, chest pain, high fever, purulent intoxication, respiratory failure. When the diagnosis of "chronic lung abscess" guided by history, physical findings, radiographic and endoscopic examination. Surgical treatment of chronic lung abscess is carried out after a thorough preoperative preparation.
Chronic appendicitis - indolent form of inflammation in the appendix of the cecum, most often associated with the previously transferred an attack of acute appendicitis. The clinical picture of chronic appendicitis is characterized by discomfort, aching pain in the right iliac region, aggravated by physical exertion; nausea, flatulence, diarrhea or constipation, vesical, vaginal or rectal symptoms. Diagnosis of chronic appendicitis is based on the exclusion of other possible causes of the symptoms and can include a medical history, conduct a review X-rays, barium enema, colonoscopy, ultrasound and other differential diagnostic examinations of the abdominal cavity. Treatment of chronic appendicitis with unexpressed forms - conservative, with persistent pain syndrome shows appendectomy.
Chronic arthritis - an inflammatory disease of the joints characterized by a long, progressive course with periodic exacerbations activity of pathological process. Regardless of location, chronic arthritis is characterized by local pain, stiffness when moving, swelling of tissues and eventually leads to joint deformities, contractures, subluxations. Diagnosis of the various forms of chronic arthritis involves a complex X-ray, ultrasound, tomographic examination, laboratory analysis. The basis of treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic arthritis is a temporary immobilization of the joint, the appointment of non-steroidal and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, basic equipment. The remission periods shown restorative treatment (FTL, exercise therapy, massage).
Chronic atrophic acrodermatitis - atrophic skin lesion character corresponding to the third stage of borreliosis. The first clinical symptom of the pathological process is cyanotic erythema, developing on the background of unpleasant subjective sensations, minor skin pain, arthralgia. With the passage of time in the spots appear phenomenon of atrophy, bluish tinge to the skin is replaced by a whitish, epidermis and dermis become thinner, easy to begin to gather in folds, shelled. Diagnosis is based on history, clinical, histological data, RNIF, ELISA, PCR, immunoblotting. The treatment - antibiotics, physiotherapy, vitamin therapy.
Chronic atrophic gastritis - a disease characterized by atrophy of the gastric glands, degeneration of the stomach into the intestinal epithelium, moderately severe inflammation. Manifestations depend on the location and etiology of atrophic processes: basically, this heaviness in the stomach after eating, fast satiety, belching, nausea, unpleasant taste in the mouth, anemia. Gold standard of diagnosis - endoscopy with biopsy of the mucosa, intragastric pH monitoring, detection of H.pylori; other methods are complementary. Treatment consists in the introduction of glucocorticoid hormones, natural gastric juice, vitamin B12 the use of H. pylori regimens.
Chronic cholecystitis without stones - inflammation of the gall bladder, occurring without the formation of gallstones, and accompanied by tonic-motor dysfunction of the biliary tract by type psoriasis and diskholii. Chronic cholecystitis without stones occurs with pain in the right upper quadrant, dyspeptic disorders, low-grade fever. Diagnosis nekalkuleznogo cholecystitis is built taking into account the laboratory data, duodenal sounding results holetsistografii, tseliakografii, ultrasound gallbladder holestsintigrafii. Treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic cholecystitis acalculous includes receiving antispasmodics, antibiotics, enzymes, or holetsistokinetikov choleretic, phytotherapy. In cases of persistent currents produced cholecystitis cholecystectomy.
Chronic bronchitis - a progressive diffuse inflammation in the bronchial tubes leading to the morphological rearrangement of the bronchial wall and peribronchial tissue. Exacerbations of chronic bronchitis occur several times a year and proceed with increased cough, purulent sputum, shortness of breath, bronchial obstruction, low-grade fever. A survey of chronic bronchitis includes radiography lung, bronchoscopy, microscopic and bacteriological analysis of sputum, respiratory function, and others. In the treatment of chronic bronchitis combined medical therapy (antibiotics, mucolytics, bronchodilators, immunomodulators), sanation bronchoscopy, oxygen therapy, physiotherapy (inhalations, massages, breathing gymnastics, iontophoresis, etc.).
Chronic viral hepatitis - a group of infectious liver disease with inflammatory-proliferative degenerative changes in parenchymal organ. Clinical manifestations of chronic viral hepatitis are dyspeptic, asthenovegetative and hemorrhagic syndromes, persistent hepatosplenomegaly, abnormal liver function. Diagnosis includes determination of serum markers of hepatitis B, C, D, F and G; biochemical assessment of liver samples, liver ultrasound, reogepatografiyu, liver biopsy, gepatostsintigrafiyu. Treatment of chronic viral hepatitis conservative, including diet, intake of eubiotics, enzymes, hepatic, antivirals.
Chronic gastroduodenitis - combined lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach pyloric and duodenal inflammatory. Symptoms of this disease include dyspepsia, bad breath, epigastric pain, unstable chair. The diagnostic program usually include endoscopy, endoscopic biopsy morphological study of biopsy specimens, EGG, antroduodenalnuyu manometry, intragastric pH-meter, tests for Helicobacter. Treatment long, is in compliance with the regime of the day and the food, a special diet, correction of gastric acidity, carrying H. pylori and symptomatic therapy.
Chronic gastroenteritis - stomach mucosal pathology and small intestine caused by the process of inflammation. The disease is manifested dyspeptic disorders, intense pain in the abdomen, symptoms of intoxication. In the diagnosis of primary importance are the laboratory methods (analysis of blood, coprogram, bacteriological seeding feces, H. pylori detection and so on. D.), Instrumental studies (FEGDS, pH-metry of the stomach, antroduodenalnaya manometry, ultrasound of the abdomen). The treatment is based on eliminating the causes of disease, relieving symptoms and restoring the functions of the digestive system.
Chronic hemorrhoids - long-term expansion of the existing cavernous plexus, located in the submucosal layer of the lower part of the rectum and into the subcutaneous tissue of the exit area of the anal canal. Manifested bleeding, itching, burning sensation in the anus, and increasing loss of hemorrhoids. There may be pain in the anus area. Chronic hemorrhoids diagnosed based on history, clinical symptoms, examination data, digital rectal examination, anoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and other studies. Treatment - drug therapy, ligation, cryotherapy, photocoagulation, hemorrhoidopexy, hemorrhoidectomy.
Chronic hepatitis - an inflammatory disease characterized by fibrotic and necrotic changes in tissues and cells of the liver lobules without disrupting the structure and signs of portal hypertension. In most cases, patients complain of discomfort in the right upper quadrant, nausea, vomiting, appetite disorders and stool, weakness, decreased performance, weight loss, jaundice, itchy skin. Diagnostic activities consist in carrying out biochemical blood test, ultrasound of the abdomen, liver biopsy. Therapy is aimed at neutralizing the causes of disease, improving the patient's condition and the achievement of stable remission.
Chronic gingivitis - inflammation of the gingival papilla and gingival margin, occurring with periods of exacerbation and remission. Chronic gingivitis is manifest congestive hyperemia and edema of the mucous membrane of the gums, bleeding, deformation (swelling, atrophy) gums, bad breath. The diagnosis of chronic gingivitis put periodontist on the basis of history and examination of the oral cavity. Treatment of chronic gingivitis include professional oral hygiene, local treatment with antiseptics, taking anti-inflammatory, decongestants, immunomodulators, physical therapy, if indicated - removal of growths gums.
Chronic glomerulonephritis - a progressive diffuse immunoinflammatory defeat glomerular apparatus of the kidneys with the outcome in multiple sclerosis and renal failure. Manifestations of chronic glomerulonephritis depends on which developed forms of the disease: hypertension, nephrotic, hematuric, latent. The diagnosis of chronic glomerulonephritis used clinical and biochemical examination of urine, renal ultrasound, morphological examination of renal tissue (biopsy), excretory urography, renografii. chronic glomerulonephritis Treatment involves regulating power, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive, anticoagulant, diuretic, antihypertensive therapy.
Chronic suppurative otitis media - a purulent inflammation of the middle ear cavity, having a chronic course. Chronic suppurative otitis media is characterized by a conductive or mixed hearing loss, suppuration of the ear canal, pain and noise in the ear, sometimes dizziness and headache. Chronic suppurative otitis media is diagnosed according to otoscopy, hearing research, bacteriological sowing ear discharge, X-ray and tomography of the temporal bone survey, analysis of vestibular function and neurological status of the patient. Patients with chronic suppurative otitis media, are treated as a conservative and surgical methods (sanitize operation mastoidotomy, antrotomiya, closing the fistula of the labyrinth, and others.).
Chronic duodenitis - persistent polietiologic dystrophic defeat duodenal epithelium, characterized by inflammation, transformation, metaplasia, and atrophy of the intestinal glands. The symptoms are non-specific: pain in the upper abdomen, dyspeptic symptoms, autonomic symptoms (weakness, trembling fingers, sweating, sudden palpitations, etc.). Diagnosis is based on radiological examination of the stomach and duodenum, endoscopy, duodenal intubation, antroduodenalnoy manometry. Treatment includes causal treatment, diet and mode of the day; on the testimony - operation (with obstruction KDP).
Chronic constipation - chronic disorder of the intestine functions, accompanied by difficulty in emptying and slowing or permanent impairment of defecation. It may be organic or functional, primary or secondary. Chronic constipation is manifested increasing intervals between acts of defecation, stool seal, a sense of incomplete evacuation, straining need to strengthen and taking laxatives. Diagnosis is based on complaints, medical history, data inspection and abdominal palpation, rectal examination, laboratory tests and instrumental investigations. Treatment - diet, laxatives, non-pharmacological therapy.
Chronic calculous cholecystitis - persistent inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gall bladder, combined with the presence in it of stones. Gastroenterologists say that this pathology is associated with secondary infection of bile. Chronic calculous cholecystitis is clinically manifested by pain in his right side, nausea, mood swings. Diagnostics include liver function tests, ultrasound of the hepatobiliary system, plain radiography SSB, ERCP, MRI and CT scan of the liver and biliary tract, holestsintigrafiyu. Treatment is conservative (diet, analgesics, antispasmodics, antibiotics) or combined (supplemented by surgery).
Chronic colitis - is an inflammatory process which affects the mucous membrane of the colon, accompanied by "intestinal" symptoms (diarrhea, flatulence, rumbling, constipation, pain). To diagnose the disease using scatological analysis, X-ray and endoscopic examination of the colon (barium enema, colonoscopy). Principles of treatment of chronic colitis are based on a diet, the use of anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and pain medication. An important element in the complex treatment of chronic colitis are forms of physiotherapy.
Chronic conjunctivitis - long, flowing persistently infectious catarrh of the conjunctiva, or infectious etiology. Subjectively, chronic conjunctivitis manifested constant itching, burning, sensitivity to light, sensation of "sand" for centuries, eye fatigue; objectively - hyperemia and poor muco-purulent discharge. Diagnosis of chronic conjunctivitis is carried out on the basis of analysis of complaints data biomicroscopy and refraction studies, bacteriological sowing conjunctiva, setting allergoproby. In the treatment of chronic conjunctivitis is of paramount importance to eliminate the causes of inflammation, local use of drugs and the symptomatic action etiopathogenetic (drops, ointments).
Chronic leukemia - the primary tumor disease hematopoietic system, the substrate which act mature and maturing cells of myeloid or lymphoid. Various forms of chronic leukemia occur with prevalence of intoxication (weakness, arthralgia, ossalgia, anorexia, weight loss), thrombus (bleeding, thromboses of various localization), lymphoproliferative syndrome (increased limfouzov, splenomegaly, etc.). Crucial in the diagnosis of chronic leukemia belongs to the study of the KLA, bone marrow biopsies and lymph nodes. Treatment of chronic leukemia by the methods of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, possible bone marrow transplantation.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia - oncological disease accompanied by abnormal accumulation of mature B cells in peripheral blood, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow. In the initial stages it manifested lymphocytosis and generalized lymphadenopathy. With the progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia observed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly as well as anemia and thrombocytopenia, shows weakness, fatigue, petechial hemorrhages and bleeding disorders. There have been frequent infections due to decreased immunity. Diagnosis is based on laboratory tests. The treatment - chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia - a malignant myeloproliferative disease characterized by a primary lesion of granulocyte germ. Maybe a long time asymptomatic. It shows a tendency to low-grade fever, a feeling of fullness in the abdomen, frequent infections and an enlarged spleen. Observed changes in anemia and platelet levels, accompanied by weakness, pallor and bleeding disorders. At the final stage of developing a fever, lymphadenopathy and skin rash. Diagnosis is based on history, clinical and laboratory data. The treatment - chemotherapy, radiotherapy, bone marrow transplantation.