Transtrochanteric hip fracture - fracture of the upper part of the femur in the subtrochanteric region between the line and the base of the femoral neck. It arises as a result of falling on its side or twisting of the lower limb. In young and middle aged men suffer more often in the elderly - women. The pathology is manifested by pain, swelling and significant bleeding in the area of injury. The support is not possible. Crucial in the diagnosis of injuries have radiography, sometimes appoint more MRI and CT. Treatment is conservative (skeletal traction, plaster) or surgical (open osteosynthesis).
Overly strong labors - clinical form of labor dysfunction, manifested uterine hyperactivity disorder: excessive contractions intensity, their frequent alternation and increased tone of the myometrium. Overly strong patrimonial activity is characterized by sudden onset, rapid flow and the rapid completion of delivery; it increases the risk of severe complications from the mother and the fetus. Overly strong patrimonial activity is detected on the basis of observations of the dynamics of labor, CTG data. For relief of labor dysfunction used tocolytic drugs ftorotanovy or ether anesthesia.
Sensitive skin - one of the main types of skin characterized by an excessive response to the usual endogenous and exogenous factors (physical, chemical, hormonal, and others.). For sensitive skin, you can see signs of irritation, redness, peeling, rashes. Subjective feelings may include tingling, burning, tingling, and pain. To determine the reasons for increased sensitivity of the skin should consult a dermatologist. Only an experienced expert will be able to recommend the proper daily care of sensitive skin, choose the appropriate salon treatments and cosmetics.
Plague - highly contagious bacterial infection with multiple modes of transmission and spread of the epidemic, which flows from the feverish intoxication syndrome, lymph node, lung and skin. The clinical course of different forms of plague characterized by high fever, severe intoxication, excitement, agonizing thirst, vomiting, regional lymphadenitis, purpura, disseminated intravascular coagulation, as well as their specific symptoms (necrotic ulcers, plague buboes, ITSH, hemoptysis). Diagnosis of plague is carried out by laboratory methods (bakposev, IFA, IHA, PCR). Treatment is carried out in strict isolation: shows the tetracycline antibiotics, detoxification, pathogenetic and symptomatic therapy.
Shankriformnaya pyoderma - atypical chronic inflammatory skin lesions, characterized by the similarity of the clinical manifestations of a syphilitic chancre, which is reflected in the title. A symptom of this disease is the development of a single ulcer (sometimes multiple formations), mostly localized in the genital area, or on the red border of lips, chin, neck. Diagnosis of pyoderma shankriformnoy performed serological and microbiological methods, play a supporting role as general clinical blood tests, dermatologic examination. Treatment of this disease produce antibiotics, antiseptics, anti-microbial agents.
Ball acne (piled up acne, acne conglobata) - severe variant of acne persists into adulthood. Characterized by merging individual comedones to form a dense spherical infiltrates and blue-purple color, which is accompanied by the opening of a discharge of pus. Allow, spherical acne leave behind severe scarring. Diagnosis is based primarily on clinical disease and the results of bacteriological examination. In addition, the identification is performed concomitant hormonal, immune and somatic disorders. Treatment of acne include globular binding antibiotics, hormone therapy, injections of vitamins A and E, immunocorrection, opening and handling of acne, physiotherapy.
Cervical pregnancy - a variant of the distal ectopic pregnancy, in which implantation and development of the ovum takes place in cervical canal of the uterus. Cervical pregnancy bleeding manifested varying degrees of severity - from mild to profuse discharge of blood loss. It is a dangerous condition that is fraught with the development of fatal hemorrhagic and septic complications. Diagnosis of the neck by means of pregnancy and vaginal ultrasound diagnostic curettage. If unable to perform organ measures in cervical pregnancy conducting hysterectomy shown.
Cervical myositis - inflammation of muscles in the neck and shoulder girdle. The process may be involved as one or several muscles. The reason usually becomes localized hypothermia, unaccustomed physical exertion, prolonged stay in an uncomfortable position, and infectious diseases. The main symptom is pain, which usually covers only one side of the neck, can be given to the head, shoulder, back and arm. Movement is limited and sometimes detected a slight edema and local hyperthermia. In young children, the temperature rise is possible. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of clinical symptoms. Treatment is conservative.
Cervical plexitis - the defeat of the cervical plexus infection, trauma, compression-ischemic, toxic, dysmetabolic genesis. The clinical picture includes pain, sensory disturbances, hiccup, difficulty when attempting to cough or speak loudly, shallow and rapid breathing. Diagnosis is carried out by means of X-ray, ultrasound, imaging, electrophysiological studies. The main objective of treatment is to eliminate the causative factor in the development and recovery plexitis neuroprotective and vascular therapy.
Cervical spondylosis - degenerative disease of the cervical spine. It includes changes in the intervertebral discs, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament and the emergence of bony growths on the front and side surfaces of the vertebrae. Usually it occurs in the elderly. Maybe a long time asymptomatic. By reducing the height of the disk and joining spondyloarthrosis evident limitation of neck mobility, pain in the neck and head. To clarify the diagnosis using X-ray, MRI, CT, myelography, electromyography and other studies. Treatment is usually conservative.
Cervical spondyloarthrosis - degenerative-dystrophic process in the small joints of the cervical spine. Usually it strikes people between the ages of 50-55 years of age and older. After the injury, in some diseases and pathological conditions spondyloarthrosis signs can be detected in young and middle-aged persons. The disease manifests night pain, pain on movement, and after the static load, morning stiffness and restriction of movement. When compression of the nerve roots emerge neurological disorders. Clarify diagnosis using X-ray, MRI, radioisotope scan, vascular ultrasound and other studies. Treatment is conservative.
Schizoid personality disorder (schizoid personality disorder) - a disorder characterized by insularity, uncommunicative, emotional coldness, poor ability to empathize and to establish a warm relationship of trust, low need for social contact, immersion into the inner world and a tendency toward autistic fantasy. There are persistent unusual hobbies, which the patient is rarely shared with other people. Schizoid personality disorder manifests itself in early childhood and persists throughout life. Diagnosis is based on medical history and interviews with patients. Treatment - psychotherapy, social rehabilitation.
Schizophrenia - a mental disorder, accompanied by the development of fundamental violations of perception, thinking and emotional reactions. It features significant clinical polymorphism. The most common symptoms of schizophrenia include fiction or paranoid delusions, auditory hallucinations, disturbances in thinking and speech, flattened or inadequate affects and gross violations of social adaptation. Diagnosis is based on history, interrogation of the patient and his relatives. Treatment - drug therapy, psychotherapy, social rehabilitation and readaptation.
Shistosomatidny dermatitis - dermatological diseases parasitic nature, caused by infection of the skin by larvae (cercariae) of schistosomes (one of the genera or trematode flatworms). Symptoms of this condition are itching, red spots and papules on the skin, urticaria and allergic swelling. In rare cases, a fever, a dry cough, dizziness. Diagnosis shistosomatidnogo dermatitis is based on the results of the dermatological examination and patient history data. Generally, symptomatic treatment of disease, the use of specific antiparasitic agents is required.
Schistosomiasis - helminth disease caused by blood flukes, schistosomes; proceeding with toxic and allergic reactions, gastrointestinal lesions and urinary organs. Acute period of schistosomiasis is characterized by fever, papular rash and itching of the skin; in the chronic phase may develop cystitis, pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis, coleitis, prostatitis, epididymitis, or colitis, hepatosplenomegaly, ascites. Schistosomiasis is diagnosed through the detection of helminth eggs in the urine or stool samples, carrying out cystoscopy, urography. For the treatment of schistosomiasis used worming agent; Surgical treatment is indicated.
Esophagitis - inflammatory lesion of esophageal mucosa. Manifestations of esophagitis can be a burning pain behind the breastbone, violation of swallowing, heartburn, increased salivation. Complication of esophagitis may be the peptic ulcer, stenosis, perforation of the esophagus, Barrett's disease. Diagnosis is made up of a minimum of esophagoscopy, endoscopic biopsy and esophageal radiography. Treatment is prescribed based on the etiology of esophagitis; It includes diet, medication, physical therapy; if necessary - surgical treatment of esophageal narrowing (probing, dissection of scar stricture, etc).
Eczema - an inflammatory disease of the skin, which has a long chronic course with frequent exacerbations. It is characterized by polymorphic rash, redness extending stage - formation of nodules - bubbles - weeping erosions - scabs - peeling. Eruptions are accompanied by a burning sensation, pruritus. High probability of joining secondary purulent infection. Especially dangerous infections in children, t. To.'s Sarcoma may develop eczema which can be fatal. Launched over can lead to neurosis: insomnia, irritability, as well as resistant cosmetic skin defects. Treatment of eczema depends on its shape and flow. Effective use of systemic corticosteroids, extracorporeal hemocorrection, local therapy and physiotherapy.
Ekkrinnaya Porus - one of the rare species of the dermis mostly benign tumors are localized in the excretory duct ekkrinnoy sweat gland. Generally located in the epidermal portion of the duct. It is characterized by the presence of a slightly painful tumor-elastic formation with a smooth glossy surface or papillomatosis maroon-pink color with a diameter of not more than 2 cm above the level of the dermis healthy. Nodes usually found on the soles, palms, and rarely on the trunk, may be lobed structure include telangiectasia. Clinical diagnosis is based on the inspection data biopsy, cytology. Treatment - radical excision of the tumor.
Ecrins spiradenoma - benign neoplasia originating from tissue ekkrinnyh sweat glands. It has many options histological structure. It is usually solitary, rarely found multiple tumors. It is a small tight knot round. The skin over the node has a normal color, cyanotic, reddish or grayish hue. Palpation is painful. Ekkrinnaya spiradenoma can be located virtually anywhere on the body, often localized at the front surface of the torso, head and limbs. Ozlokachestvlyaetsya rare. Diagnosis is based on the survey data and histological examination. surgical treatment.
Eclampsia - the most severe, critical form of preeclampsia, flowing with seizures, loss of consciousness, coma posteklampsicheskoy development. The risk of eclampsia is a high probability of severe complications in pregnant: cerebral hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, premature detachment of the placenta, kidney and liver failure, and death of the fetus. Eclampsia diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory data. Eclampsia Treatment is aimed at the creation of peace, relief of spasms, restoration and maintenance of vital functions. If eclampsia is shown an early delivery was pregnant.
Exudative-catarrhal diathesis - constitution anomaly, characterized by a tendency to infiltrative desquamative skin changes, lymphoproliferation, deficiency of the immune response and the lability of water-salt metabolism. Children have noted the appearance of various elements of the skin (erythema, gneiss, strofulyus et al.), The nature of which is pseudoallergic. It is also characterized by excess weight, high exposure to SARS, frequent inflammation of the mucous membranes (conjunctivitis, rhinitis, blepharitis). Diagnosis is based on a carefully assembled a history, clinical manifestations and the results of analyzes. complex, treatment involves desensitizing agents, zinc ointment and other drugs, a large role for non-pharmacological treatment.
Pericardial effusion - pleural infection, tumor or other nature occurring with exudation phenomena - the formation and accumulation of pleural effusion. Pericardial effusion manifested by pain and feeling of heaviness in the affected side, cough reflex, increasing shortness of breath, febrile body temperature. Crucial in the diagnosis of exudative pleurisy is chest X-ray, ultrasound of the pleural cavity, diagnostic puncture with cytological and bacteriological examination of exudate, thoracoscopy. Treatment of exudative pleurisy is the evacuation of the accumulated fluid conducting pathogenetic and symptomatic treatment.
Exudative psoriasis - severe kind of psoriasis, characterized by a pronounced exudative component on the background of immune disorders and endocrine disease. Clinically evident formation of inflammatory foci of plaques impregnated with exudate, with thick crusts on the surface in the absence of the primary erythema. When removing the plaques are exposed to erosion, joins a secondary infection. The diagnostic triad is not a phenomenon of stearin spot, terminal saved film, drip bleeding. Diagnosis is based on clinical and immune status of the patient, various instrumental techniques are used to identify complications (radiography, arthroscopy, and so on. D.). Treatment with anti-inflammatory connecting antihistamines, vitamin therapy, ultraviolet irradiation.
Extrasystole - version of heart rhythm disorder, is characterized by the extraordinary cuts the heart or its individual parts (extrasystoles). It manifested a strong sense of heart shock, a sense of fading heart, anxiety, lack of air. Reduced cardiac output during arrhythmia implies a reduction of coronary and cerebral blood flow and can lead to angina and transient ischemic attacks (syncope, paresis, and so on. D.). It increases the risk of developing atrial fibrillation and sudden death.
Bladder exstrophy - malformation of the genitourinary system, in which the formation of the bladder and the anterior abdominal wall in its projection remains incomplete. From birth, there is an open and turned inside out the mucous membrane of the rear wall of the bladder, as well as the permanent separation and drainage of urine from the opening in the bottom of the body of the ureter ducts. Exstrophy of the bladder is often associated with defects of the external and internal sex organs, ureters and kidneys. It is diagnosed by the characteristic external features, additionally performed radiological and ultrasound examination. Treatment operative, performed reconstructive plastic surgery and substitution.
Exfoliative dermatitis Ritter - a serious infectious skin lesions newborns, is a malignant variant of pemphigus. It is characterized by redness of the skin to form a lingering bubbles, transforming in erosion. Beginning in the mouth, the process covers all the skin and is accompanied by severe violation of the child's general condition. The diagnosis of exfoliative dermatitis Ritter is set on the basis of a typical clinic at the exclusion of other dermatological conditions with similar manifestations. Treatment consists of antibiotic therapy, parenteral administration of solutions and tools that increase antistaphylococcal immunity, treatment of affected areas.
Ectopic opening of the ureter - the ureter anomaly topography consisting in atypical or intravesical extracystic location of his mouth. When extracystic ectopic ureteral orifice marked the involuntary leakage of urine on the background Save urination; intravesical types of anomalies are accompanied by the development of pyelonephritis and ureterohydronephrosis. Diagnosis of ectopic ureteral orifice may include conducting ultrasound, cystoscopy and ureteroscopy, excretory urography, cystography, ureteropyelography, renal angiography, pelvic examination in women, sigmoidoscopy, and others. Research. When preserved kidney function is carried out imposing uretero-ureteroanastomoza or ureteropieloanastomoza. In case of loss of kidney function is a partial or total nephroureterectomy.
Cervical Ectopic - atypical location of the cylindrical (cubic) of the epithelium lining the inside of the cervical canal, on the vaginal portion of the cervix that normally covered by squamous epithelium. Uncomplicated cervical ectopia does not give the clinic; in complicated marked whites, contact bleeding, itching in the genital area, dyspareunia. Cervical Ectopic detected during gynecological examination; the diagnosis to be confirmed using the extended colposcopy, cytology scraping, if necessary - biopsy. Treatment of uncomplicated ectopia is not carried out; in complicated forms assigned causal treatment is carried out destruction of altered foci.
Cervical ectropion - a pathological condition of the cervix, at which the inversion mucosa cervical canal into the vaginal cavity. Clinical manifestations of developing ectropion accession inflammatory or premalignant cervical lesions: it may be leucorrhea and contact bleeding, menstrual dysfunction, pain in the pelvis. Cervical ectropion is diagnosed as a result of a pelvic exam, the extended colposcopy, cytological and morphological studies. ectropion Treatment of congenital or minor lesions may include electrocoagulation, laser vaporization and cryosurgery; with pronounced changes - conization, or cervical excision.
Electrocution - a complex of injuries resulting from the defeat of technical or natural electricity. Most often a consequence of work-related injury, although it may occur in the home. Usually accompanied by the appearance of the current label (elektroozhogov). It includes a number of pathological changes in the various organs and systems (cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, digestive). The diagnosis of electric shock exhibit based on history, clinical signs, CT, X-ray, ECG, EhoEG and other studies. Treatment is conservative.