The nodes of the thyroid gland - thyroid focal education of all sizes with a capsule determined by palpation or using imaging studies. Cysts of the thyroid gland - thyroid nodules with a cavity filled with liquid contents. Units and thyroid cysts may occur a long time without any symptoms, then there are various phenomena discomfort in the throat and the knot becomes noticeable when you look at his neck. Gormonalnoaktivnye thyroid nodules entail the development of hyperthyroidism. The diagnostic algorithm for suspected node or cyst includes thyroid ultrasound, needle biopsy of Education and hormonal studies.
limb shortening - reducing the length of the one relative to the other limb or decrease the length of both legs, in which violations of the human body proportions. Slight shortening (1-2 cm) is widespread and has no clinical significance. A significant shortening of the lower extremities, especially unilateral, can provoke a number of diseases of the joints and spine. Diagnosis is exposed after special measurements. Possible correction insoles and orthopedic shoes, with severe limb shortening is extended using the Ilizarov apparatus.
Mycoplasmosis and Ureaplasmosis - diseases of the genitourinary system mostly caused by different pathogens, but have similar clinical picture. In men, urethritis symptoms appear. In women, the symptoms cause parauretrita and vulvitis, the formation of pseudo-cervix. If untreated, the inflammation goes quickly into a chronic form with periodic exacerbations. The inflammatory process may involve the internal genitals, which gradually leads to infertility. Perhaps the development of mycoplasma cystitis and pyelonephritis. Meets mycoplasma defeat of skin, internal organs and joints.
Ureterocele - ureter defect characterized by cystic expansion of its distal and bulging into the lumen of the bladder. Ureterocele accompanied by pain in the lower back, dysuric disorders hematuria. Diagnosis ureterocele involves holding ultrasound of the bladder and kidneys, excretory urography, cystography, cystoscopy. Treatment consists in the dissection of the narrowed mouth of the ureter and ureterocele excision followed by ureteral reanastomozom; in some cases required to perform a partial or total nephrectomy.
Urethritis - inflammation of the urethral wall (urethral). Symptoms are pain, stinging and burning during urination, abnormal discharge from the urethra, the nature of which depends on the causative agent. In complicated cases, the inflammatory process advances and adjacent pelvic organs: the prostate, bladder and organs of the scrotum. Another consequence of urethritis is a narrowing (stricture) of the urethra or the full spike. An important point in the diagnosis of urethritis is the determination of its etiology. To this end, a urine culture and smear from the urethra. urethritis treatment is carried out in accordance with its cause (antibiotics, metronidazole, protivomikoticheskie preparations), with the development of adhesions shown bougienage urethra.
brain contusion - type of traumatic brain injury, accompanied by limited morphological changes of cerebral tissue. Manifested loss of consciousness, amnesia, vomiting, dizziness, anisocoria, different focal symptoms, meningeal symptom, changes in cardiac and respiratory rhythm. The main method of diagnosis - a brain CT. Conservative treatment: correction of vital functions, normalization of intracranial pressure, neuroprotective therapy. Surgical treatment is carried out strictly according to indications, including craniotomy, decompression and removal of injury lesions.
Knee injury - Closed traumatic soft tissue in the knee joint. Is one of the most common injuries is classified as lung damage. The reason usually becomes a fall or blow to the home or during sports. Less commonly observed knee injury as a result of accidents at work, road traffic accidents and falls from a height. Manifested by pain, bruises, joint swelling, limitation of movement and support. Often accompanied by a hemarthrosis. Clarify diagnosis using X-ray, MRI and arthroscopy. Treatment is conservative.
Bruised tailbone - soft tissue injury in the coccyx and the sacrococcygeal joint. Usually occurs in the fall on the buttocks, it is more common in the winter season. Manifested by swelling and pain, growing in a sitting position and during movement. Perhaps the formation of a hematoma. In the long term, such an injury may be complicated coccygodynia - chronic pain resulting from damage to the nerve plexus located in the coccyx. Diagnosis bruised tailbone is exposed on the basis of symptoms, examination and X-ray data. Treatment is conservative.
Bruising breast - Closed traumatic breast tissue. The most common injury of the mammary glands occurs at home in the fall, car accidents, strikes in transport and during sports games. Bruising breast accompanied by pain, the formation of the site seal and hematoma. Injury Diagnosis is based on the presence of trauma history, holding breast ultrasound, radiometry, if necessary - mammography. Treatment of breast injury often held conservative; with a large hematoma puncture aspiration is performed it or delete (sectoral resection of the breast).
Bruised foot - Closed traumatic injury to the soft tissues of the lower limb. Most often it occurs in everyday life: at home in the fall or in the street, struck with a blunt object or a heavy object falling on the foot. Less is formed as a result of sports and work-related injuries, accidents and falls from a height. Manifested by swelling and local tenderness. Support is usually preserved, the movement may be limited because of the pain. Diagnosis exhibited after the exclusion of other damages, in the process of diagnosis can be used X-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and other joint research. Treatment is conservative.
Bruised thumb - Closed traumatic soft tissue finger upper or lower limbs. Injury usually occurs in everyday life as a result of impact. Manifested edema, cyanosis, severe pain and restriction of movement. When you hit the nail phalanx sometimes formed subungual hematoma. According to clinical symptoms may resemble a bruised thumb fracture, so when these injuries required inspection trauma. To exclude fracture prescribe X-rays. Treatment is usually conservative, in the presence of a large hematoma hyponychial shown autopsy.
Bruising of the spine - soft tissue injury in the area of the spine and paravertebral area. It may occur as a result of falling on his back, or kick back in the home, during sports, traffic accident, natural or industrial disaster. It causes pain, swelling and limitation of movement. In mild cases, affected only the soft tissues of the back, with severe injuries possible contusion of the spinal cord with the development of neurological symptoms. To clarify the diagnosis using X-rays, myelography, MRI, CT scans and other tests. Treatment is conservative.
Bruised ribs - soft tissue injuries (skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles) in the chest. There is a fall, the impact or compression. Unlike most other damage to the chest, falls into the category of minor injuries and does not constitute a potential danger to life. It may be accompanied by a sufficiently intense pain, swelling, bruising or bleeding. The diagnosis put after the exclusion of other chest injuries. Treatment is conservative, the period of disability up to 1 month.
Bruising hands - a closed injury of the upper limb, not accompanied by a substantial violation of the tissue structure. It occurs when dropped or bumped. Damage to all limb segments: fingers, hand, forearm, elbow, shoulder and shoulder joint. It causes pain and swelling at the site of injury are often formed hematoma. Movement is usually retained, but limited. When the joint damage can occur hemarthrosis. To exclude more severe damage perform X-rays, CT scans and other tests. Treatment is conservative.
Bruising joint - soft tissue damage in the joint. It is usually the result of consumer or sports injury, rarely occurs in an accident, a fall from a height and other high-energy impacts. The proximate cause of the injury becomes a bump or fall. Most often affects the knee and elbow joints. Injury manifested by swelling, pain and limitation of movement. hemarthrosis may develop in the first few days later - synovitis. To confirm the diagnosis and rule out other injuries prescribe X-rays, more rarely MRI, CT, ultrasound and joint arthroscopy. Treatment is conservative.
Strangulated hernia - compression of the hernia sac in the hernial ring, causing circulatory disorders and necrosis of the organs forming the hernial contents. Strangulated hernia is characterized by severe pain, tension and soreness herniation, nevpravimostyu defect. Diagnosis is based on the infringement of a hernia the history and physical examination, survey abdominal radiography. During herniotomy about strangulated hernia often require a resection of necrotic bowel.
Favus - mycotic disease character, which affects smooth skin. Hair, nails and internal organs are rarely affected. The incidence is very high in countries with hot and humid climate. In our country, crusted ringworm is diagnosed mainly in the central and southern regions, in areas dominated by low temperatures, crusted ringworm is extremely rare. favus Treatment usually involves systemic antimycotic therapy, treatment of affected areas and the removal of the nail plate crumbling.
Phakomatoses - a group of genetically determined progressive pathologies that manifest polymorphic symptoms, mainly affecting the nervous system, skin, body and accompanied by the appearance of a variety of tumors of the visceral organs. Diagnose phakomatoses possible efforts of many specialists, and only through a comprehensive examination of the patient (MRI, CT, ultrasound, ECG, EEG, ophthalmoscopy, etc.). Treatment of symptomatic phakomatoses: Anticonvulsant, neurometabolic, dehydration, psychotherapy, surgery. The prognosis depends on the type and severity phakomatoses.
Pharyngitis - acute or chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the posterior wall of the pharynx, usually viral or bacterial origin. Often combined with tonsillitis. Manifested tickling, feeling of "lump" and sore throat, worse swallowing, dry cough, fever. In most cases, a complete cure is possible, possible acute process becomes chronic. Less commonly, you may experience severe complications: heart failure and rheumatic joints.
Pharyngitis in children - an infectious-inflammatory process in the mucosa and lymphoid tissue of the oropharynx. Pharyngitis in children occurs with dryness phenomena, burning, soreness, sore, sore throat, cough, hoarseness. Diagnosis of pharyngitis in children based on faringoskopicheskoy picture and results of microbiological studies of stroke with the back wall of the pharynx. When pharyngitis in children, usually held local therapy: gargling, lubrication posterior pharyngeal wall mucosa antiseptics, inhalation, irrigation throat sprays.
Faringomikoz (fungal pharyngitis) - an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the pharynx, which has a fungal etiology. Faringomikoz may have pseudomembranous, erythematous, hyperplastic and erosive and ulcerative character. Its clinical manifestations are scratchy, ssadnenie, burning, dryness and other discomfort in the throat.; aggravated by swallowing sore throat; low-grade fever, malaise; presence in the throat whitish or yellowish plaque. The basis of diagnosis faringomikoza make microscopic studies and cultures of throat swabs, pharyngoscope consultancy related professionals. Faringomikoz treated intrafaringealnym system and the use of antifungal drugs on the background correction of existing immune and endocrine disorders.
Fasciolosis - parasitic infestation caused by liver fluke or a giant, and is characterized by a primary lesion of the hepatobiliary system. Current fastcioleza accompanied by malaise, fever, urticaria, nausea, pain in the right upper quadrant, enlarged liver, jaundice. In the diagnosis of fascioliasis informative serological methods (ELISA, IFA, RIGA), a study of duodenal contents and feces on eggs of helminths, ultrasound of the liver and biliary tract. In the complex treatment of fascioliasis include diet, intake of anthelmintics (triclabendazole, praziquantel), choleretic, antihistamines.
Febrile seizures (FS) - a convulsive attacks against the backdrop of hyperthermia, typical for children under 6 years old, who had never been observed seizures without fever. Clinical signs include loss of consciousness, rapid voltage of skeletal muscle characteristic posture, twitching limbs and pallor or cyanosis of the skin. The diagnosis of febrile seizures in children is based on anamnestic data, the level of glucose in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, indicators of water and electrolyte balance and instrumental studies of the central nervous system - EEG, CT, MRI. Treatment involves mild asthma using tranquilizers or anti-epileptic drugs and the removal of hyperthermia using NSAIDs.
Phenylketonuria - an inherited disorder of amino acid metabolism caused by deficiency of liver enzymes involved in the metabolism of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Early signs phenylketonuria are vomiting, lethargy or hyperactivity, smell of mold and urine from the skin, psychomotor retardation; Typical symptoms include mental retardation later, retarded physical development, seizures, eczematous skin changes and other newborn screening for phenylketonuria is held still in the maternity ward.; subsequent diagnostics include molecular genetic testing, determination of the concentration of phenylalanine in the blood, urine biochemical analysis, EEG, MRI of the brain. phenylketonuria treatment is subject to a special diet.
Pheochromocytoma - a tumor with preferential localization in the adrenal medulla, composed of chromaffin cells and secrete large amounts of catecholamines. Pheochromocytoma manifested catecholamine hypertension and hypertensive crisis. In order to carry out the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma provocative tests, the determination of catecholamines and their metabolites in blood and urine, ultrasound examination of the adrenal glands, CT and MRI, scintigraphy, selective arteriography. Treatment of a pheochromocytoma is to perform adrenalectomy after appropriate medical training.
Enzyme pancreatic insufficiency - limited secretion or low activity of pancreatic enzymes, leading to a breach of digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gut. Manifested progressive weight loss, bloating, anemia, steatorrhea, polifekaliey, diarrhea and polyhypovitaminosis. Diagnosis is based on laboratory research methods exocrine pancreas, carrying coprogram, determining the level of enzymes in the feces. Treatment includes treatment of the underlying disease, normalization of nutrients entering the body, the introduction of substitution of pancreatic enzymes, symptomatic treatment.
Fetal alcohol syndrome - a collection of birth defects caused by teratogenic effects of ethanol on the developing fetus. Fetal alcohol syndrome is characterized by prenatal malnutrition, retarded child's physical and psychological development, mental retardation, craniofacial manifestations dysmorphic, congenital heart defects, breach of skeletal development, and others. Anomalies. Diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is based on the presence of alcohol history in the mother, multiple violations of the child's development. Treatment of fetal alcohol syndrome is aimed at correcting the severe anatomic defects, the organization of medical and psycho-pedagogical support of the child.
Placental insufficiency - a complex of morphological and functional disorders on the part of the fetus and placenta which develops as a result of various extragenital and gynecologic pathology and pregnancy complications. The presence of placental insufficiency may be accompanied by a threat of termination of pregnancy, hypoxia, and delayed fetal development, and so on. D. Diagnosis of placental insufficiency based on the ultrasound data CTG, Doppler utero-placental blood flow. Treatment of placental insufficiency requires treatment of the underlying disease; courses of medication to improve fruit and uterine blood flow, correction of hypoxic fetal disorders; if necessary - early delivery.
Fibrosis of the pancreas - diffuse peri- and intralobulyarnoe substitution healthy functioning pancreatic tissue connective centers. The main symptoms are severe exocrine (digestive disorders, weight loss, diarrhea) and endocrine organ failure (impaired carbohydrate metabolism). Diagnosis involves performing laboratory tests, ultrasound of the pancreas, CT biopsy. Treatment is aimed at correcting exocrine insufficiency (enzyme preparations), hyperglycemia. Prognosis is poor: a complete cure is not possible, if adequate treatment is achievable compensation pancreatic insufficiency.
Fibrosing alveolitis - a pathological process, which is based on an extensive loss of interstitial lung tissue, leading to the development of fibrosis and respiratory failure. The progression of fibrosing alveolitis is accompanied by a steady increase of weakness, weight loss, shortness of breath, unproductive cough, chest pain, cyanosis. Diagnosis is based on data from X-ray and computed tomography lung, spirometry, lung biopsy. Treatment of fibrosing alveolitis include anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapy, oxygen therapy; on the testimony - lung transplantation.