Bullous dermatitis - is an inflammatory skin lesions to form on it filled with bubble liquid. Most often, bullous dermatitis occurs as a result of skin contact with any aggressive environmental factor. However, it may be symptomatic of other dermatological disorders, endocrine and metabolic consequence of irregularities or expression of genetic abnormalities. In the diagnosis of bullous dermatitis it is important to determine the effect of the skin of the external factors, the identification of comorbidities, laboratory diagnostics, and biopsy.
Bullous pemphigoid - a chronic autoimmune skin disease that affects mainly older people. Its symptoms are similar to those in pemphigus and reduce the formation of tense blisters on the skin of the arms, legs, and abdomen; distribution of lesions is usually symmetrical. Bullous pemphigoid Diagnosis is made by means of the patient examination, histological study of the affected skin tissue sections immunological studies. Treatment of the disease includes immunosuppressive and cytotoxic therapy with glucocorticoid and cytostatic agents.
Epidermolysis bullosa - a group of hereditary diseases that are characterized by light skin vulnerability, hence the second name of these pathologies - "mehanobulleznaya disease." The main symptom is the development of surface skin blisters with serous content, then in their place there are long unhealed erosion. Fault type epidermolysis bullosa made using immunohistological and genetic techniques, as well as on the basis of examination of the patient data and its family history study. No specific treatment exists not, however, correct and comprehensive symptomatic therapy can in some cases significantly improve the patient's condition.
Bulba - catarrhal inflammation or erosive department bulbar duodenum. In most cases, the etiological factor is the bulbita Helicobacter infection. Clinical signs of disease include pain of varying degrees of intensity, dyspeptic syndrome in severe ulceration, and the presence of possible bleeding. Bulbita Diagnosis is based on the results of endoscopy and biopsy, pH meters, test for the presence of H. pylori, contrast radiography. Therapy is the use of H. pylori antibiotics, drugs to reduce the production of hydrochloric acid and the regeneration of the mucosa.
Myasthenia amyotrophy Kennedy - an adult form of spinal muscular atrophy, a distinctive feature of which is slow and relatively favorable course. It is manifested by a combination of flaccid paresis of the proximal muscle groups of limbs, bulbar syndrome and endocrine disorders. The scan search is performed using electromyographic, muscle biopsy studies, genealogical analysis, DNA diagnostics, evaluation of androgenic profile. Symptomatic therapy: anticholinesterase agents, nootropics, L-carnitine, vitamins, physiotherapy, massage.
Bursitis - an acute, subacute or chronic inflammation of the bursa, which is accompanied by abundant formation and accumulation of fluid (inflammatory fluid) in its cavity. Acute bursitis is usually caused by trauma, chronic - due to constant mechanical irritation. Clinically bursitis manifests the rise in body temperature, malaise, pain, swelling and redness in the affected area of the bursa, a moderate restriction of movement in the joint. diagnosis is based on an inspection of the affected area, puncture and bacteriological examination of puncture, MRI and X-ray of the joint. Treatment includes motor rest the affected limb, ice packs, pain relievers and anti-inflammatories. Chronic bursitis is often an indication for surgical treatment.
Bursitis of the knee joint - an inflammation of one of the bags periarticular (bursae) located in the area of the knee. Maybe aseptic or purulent, acute, subacute or chronic. The reason for the development of the joint can become overloaded, bags injury or nearby tendons, arthritis, and infections (either directly or through the blood or lymph). In aseptic bags bursitis in the area there is a limited tumor formation, can not intensive pain, joint stiffness, minor local hyperemia and hyperthermia. When purulent bursitis affected area swollen, hot, observed severe pain and signs of intoxication. In uncomplicated cases, the diagnosis is based on clinical signs. Sometimes it is required to clarify the diagnosis puncture bursa, X-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, or arthrography. Treatment is usually conservative aseptic bursitis, septic - operative.
Butiratomaniya - Abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. Dependence distributed mainly among young people. Psychoactive substance use is usually inside, at least - intravenously. After eating there is a condition that resembles alcohol or Ecstasy intoxication: euphoria, mood elevation, relaxation and heightened need for communication. With increasing doses there is disinhibition may hypersexual behavior. There is a high risk of overdose, especially when co-administered with alcohol or other drugs. In case of overdose can be fatal.
Bottle tooth decay - caries group of deciduous teeth in young children due to improper diet and lack of oral hygiene baby. Bottle tooth decay affects the cervical region of the upper incisors and canines, and passes through several stages: demineralization stage, the destruction of enamel, dentin enamel-destroying compounds, deeper lesions of dental hard tissues. Diagnosis of nursing caries children's dentist is held on the basis of oral examination of the child and the presence of characteristic lesions. In the early stages of treatment bottle caries may include conducting remineralizes therapy, silver teeth; in severe cases - processing and filling cavities.
Quick childbirth - childbirth lasting less than 6 hours in nulliparous and less than 4 hours in multiparous. There are at increased excitability of the nervous system, metabolic disorders, certain somatic and endocrine disorders, multiple birth, reproductive system diseases and complications during pregnancy. Quick deliveries occur in rapid opening of the cervix, acceleration and intensification of labor and reduction of gaps between contractions. May pose a threat to the health of mother and child. Is diagnosed on the basis of history, examination and obstetric data CTG results. Treatment - drug therapy aimed at reducing activity of the uterus.
Vaginal candidiasis - fungal infection of the mucous membrane of the vagina that occurs when its colonization by strains of Candida yeast. In the acute stage, marked redness, swelling and itching of the vulva; pain, burning and itching in the vagina; heavy, cheesy kind of discharge from the genital tract; chronic - dryness and atrophy of the mucosa, excoriation, lichenification expressed. The diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis is set according to the clinical picture, microscopy and culture studies. Vaginal candidiasis appointed by systemic and local antifungal agents, multivitamins, immune stimulants.
Vaginismus - reflex convulsive spasm of the muscles of the genital tract, affecting the implementation of sexual intercourse and gynecological procedures. Vaginismus refers to a system and neuroses manifested by involuntary contraction of the muscles that compress the vagina and anus raising. Vaginismus diagnosis is based on the presentation of specific complaints and gynecological examination data. vaginismus treatment requires effort gynecologist, psychotherapist, sexologist.
Vaginitis (colpites) - a group of diseases associated with inflammation in the lining of the vagina, polyetiological nature. Manifestations of vaginitis are serous or purulent discharge, itching, pain, burning, and discomfort in the genital area, worse when urinating. The main cause of vaginitis is a hit and reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms in the vagina. Especially dangerous Chlamydia, vaginitis trihomonoznye, t. To. Lead to disruption of reproductive function. Among the inflammatory diseases of the female reproductive system vaginitis occupy a leading position, and their number is steadily increasing.
Vasomotor rhinitis - a chronic disease of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity that occurs in violation of autonomic and endocrine regulation of vascular tone. Various non-specific stimuli, hormonal imbalance in the body alter the reactivity of the mucosa and lead to the appearance of paroxysmal sneezing, rhinorrhea, and nasal breathing difficulty. Diagnosis is carried out otolaryngologist physician based on clinical examination, anterior rhinoscopy, laboratory and instrumental studies. Treatment involves administering antihistamines, agents influencing the vascular tonus, surgery.
Valgus foot deformity in children - a defect of the foot, characterized by a decrease in the height of its arches and X-shaped curvature of the axis. In valgus deformity in children marked a reversal of the fingers and the heel outward, drooping midfoot, clumsy gait, fatigue and pain in the legs. Diagnosis of valgus deformity in children is carried out on the basis of pediatric orthopedics visual inspection, radiography stop in 3 projections, plantography, podometrics. Treatment of valgus deformity in children is carried out with the help of physical therapy, massage, wearing orthopedic shoes, orthopedic tire overlay; the ineffectiveness - performed surgery.
Varicose veins - a disease accompanied by thinning of the venous wall, increasing the lumen of the veins and the formation of nodular anevrizmopodobnyh extensions. Usually, talking about varicose veins, imply an independent disease - varicose disease of the lower extremities. Varicose veins evident feeling of heaviness in the legs and fatigue, swelling of feet and legs, night cramps in the legs, visual subcutaneous veins with the formation of venous nodes. The course of varicose veins may be complicated by phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, development of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers formation. The main method of diagnosis of varicose veins and its complications is a Doppler ultrasound.
Varicose veins of small pelvis - vascular ectasia of the venous system of a small basin, leading to a breach of krovoottoka from internal and external genitalia. Manifested visible extension perineal and vulvar veins, accompanied by local swelling, a feeling of heaviness and bursting with pain, bleeding. Characterized by pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and others. Symptoms. Varicose veins of small pelvis is diagnosed through a pelvic exam and ultrasound to the DRC, venography, CT, laparoscopy. Syndrome Treatment can be conservative (reception venotoniki, exercise therapy) or surgical (scleroobliteration /embolization gonadal veins, phlebectomy, and others.).
Varicose veins of the esophagus - esophageal veins pathology characterized by their tortuosity and saccular expansion by forming fleboektazov. The cause of this disease may be liver, heart and other organs. The most common esophageal varices does not manifest itself before the most severe complications - bleeding. The main method for diagnosing varicose veins - endoscopy, during which produced therapeutic hemostasis. treatment also includes conservative measures: treatment of the underlying disease, medication to stop bleeding. shunt surgery is performed with the ineffectiveness of therapeutic interventions.
Varicocele - varicose veins of the spermatic cord change is accompanied by a violation of the venous outflow from a testicle. Manifested pulling and arching pain, feeling of discomfort and heaviness in the scrotum, visible veins. There may be inflammation, or rupture of varicose blood vessels with hemorrhage into the scrotum. Progressive varicocele leads to a reduction in the size of the affected testis, disruption of spermatogenesis, the development of early male menopause and infertility.
Vegetating pemphigus - one of the clinical forms of pemphigus, is characterized by the formation of small growths (vegetations) at the bottom of erosion after the opening of the bladder. The special features of the disease include the location of the process in the skin folds and in the natural orifices of the body. Vegetating pemphigus is an autoimmune disease in which due to a violation of the immune system to produce antibodies occurs on its own cells of the epidermis.
Vegetative-vascular dystonia - a set of functional disorders, which is based on a violation of the regulation of vascular tone of the autonomic nervous system. Manifested paroxysmal or permanent palpitations, excessive sweating, headache, tingling in the heart, redness or blanching face, chilliness, fainting. It may lead to the development of neuroses, resistant hypertension, significantly impair quality of life.
Vascular dystonia in children - a symptom of functional disorders of the various systems due to dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system activity. Vascular dystonia in children can manifest cardiac, respiratory, neurotic syndromes, vegetative-vascular crises, thermoregulation disorders syndrome. Diagnosis of vegetative-vascular dystonia in children includes the functional examination of the cardiovascular, nervous and endocrine systems (ECG, EEG, echocardiography, EhoEG, REG, rheovasography et al.). In the treatment of vegetative-vascular dystonia in children used medication, physical therapy, psychological impact.
Vesicles - inflammation of the seminal vesicles. It may occur acutely or be chronic in nature, be a one- or two-sided. In 80-85% of patients have a two-way vesicles. Acute vesicles often becomes chronic. Perhaps the primary chronic course. Vesicles accompanied by pain in the groin, in the rectal area and suprapubic region. Pain increases during defecation and when the bladder is full. Chronic vesicles accompanied by sexual dysfunction. Diagnosis usually spends vesiculitis urologist, this requires: digital rectal examination, ultrasound examination of genital organs, bacteriological crops of seminal vesicles.
Vezikulopustulez in newborns - is skin disease of infectious origin, which is caused mainly by staphylococci and is manifested by inflammation of the outlet openings of the sweat glands. Typical symptoms of epidermal - vesicles and pustules. There the child anxiety, decreased appetite, pyrexia. Diagnosis vezikulopustuleza in newborns is not difficult and is compared medical history, clinical manifestations and common laboratory tests. Local treatment is performed with antiseptics, with dissemination of disease appointed detoxification and causal antibiotic therapy.
Velokardiofatsialny syndrome - a congenital (sometimes inherited) disease characterized by multiple malformations and disorders of cognitive functions. Its main symptoms are defects of the hard palate (overt and hidden crevices), cardiovascular disorders, mental retardation, characteristic facial features. Diagnosis velokardiofatsialnogo syndrome is based on the present status of the patient (including newborns and examination) and cytogenetic studies. No specific treatment of the disease, apply symptomatic therapy, including surgical techniques.
Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) - pathology caused by a violation of the venous outflow in the lower extremities. According to foreign Phlebology, from 15 to 40% of the population in developed countries suffers from some or other diseases of the venous system, and 25% of patients revealed signs of chronic venous insufficiency. By the development of chronic venous insufficiency cause prolonged varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, myocardial, congenital abnormalities in the structure of the venous system. If CVI marked swelling and pigmentation disorders legs, fatigue and heaviness in the legs, cramps at night. Progressive venous insufficiency causes of venous ulcers.
Verrucous nevus - pigmented lesions, which is a towering above the skin warty growths. Verrucous nevus has a bumpy surface consisting of individual lobules (looks like a cauliflower); dark color. Unlike melanomoopasnyh nevi, characterized by slow growth, not prone to ulceration and bleeding. Differentiate verrucous nevus other skin tumors dermoscopy allows holding, biopsy and histologic examination. Removing verrucous nevus can be done surgically, by radio wave, using electrocautery, laser coagulation, cryoablation.
Spring conjunctivitis - seasonal allergic eye disease that occurs in the spring and summer, characterized by lesions of the conjunctiva and often - the cornea. It occurs mainly in children 4-10 years of age (usually a male) living in countries with warm climates. Clinical signs - swelling itching century, the emergence of photophobia, lacrimation, blepharospasm development. Diagnosis is based on history taking, examination data (hypertrophy of the papillae, conjunctival strain could be signs of keratitis), characterized by eosinophilia and increase in IgE levels in the blood. Treatment includes eye protection against solar radiation, taking antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, glucocorticoids.
Freckles (efelidy) - Small, multiple, yellowish-brownish pigmentation spots rounded, localized mainly in open areas of the body (face, shoulders, arms, back, chest). First rash of freckles usually appear in 5-6 years of age, reaching a peak during puberty, the cause of their occurrence is a hereditary factor. The number of sunspots increases many times in the spring and summer under the influence of sunlight. In winter, their manifestations are less visible. Manifestation of freckles more pronounced in people with blond or red hair, with age, their number is reduced. A moderate amount of freckles face gives a certain charm and fascination.
Vestibular ataxia - impaired coordination of movement and the ability to maintain posture associated with a lesion of the vestibular apparatus in any of its levels. Vestibular ataxia manifests unsteadiness when standing and sitting, and walking. It is accompanied by vertigo and nystagmus; may experience nausea and vomiting, vegetative disturbances and symptoms characteristic of the disease process, which caused the development of vestibular ataxia. Diagnosis of the latter is the main purpose of examination of patients with vestibular ataxia. Treatment of vestibular ataxia is symptomatic. Home therapy should be directed at the cause of the disease.