Functional diarrhea - continuous or intermittent disorder of the intestine functions, shown increased frequency of bowel movements up to 3 or more times a day with the discharge of liquid or mushy stool. Abdominal pain are absent. Possible urgency, rumbling, flatulence and a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bowel. The feces are often found mixed with mucus. Functional diarrhea is diagnosed on the basis of complaints, medical history, endoscopic and radiological methods of investigation, ultrasound, ballonografii, laboratory tests and other methods. Treatment - removal of provoking factors, diet, drug therapy, psychotherapy.
Functional dyspepsia - a number of pathologies associated with impaired motility and secretory function of the stomach without significant changes mucosa structure. Exhibit symptoms of dyspepsia (nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting periodic) and pain. For the diagnosis carried out the following studies: fractional gastric intubation, esophagogastroscopy, electrogastrography, radiography of the stomach, ultrasound of the abdomen. Treatment - conservative, includes drug therapy, diet therapy, the correct diet.
Functional paresis of the larynx - voice-reduction function of the larynx due to disturbances in the central nervous system. Functional laryngeal paresis manifested whisper speech or complete aphonia, which disappears when crying, laughing or coughing. Observed general symptoms: sleep disturbance, headache, irritability, and mental instability, anxiety. In addition to a full examination of the neuromuscular apparatus of the larynx (laryngoscopy, radiography and CT laryngeal electromyography gortannyh muscles, the study of voice function), for the diagnosis of functional laryngeal paresis should consult a neurologist and a therapist with the patient's conduct psychological testing. Treatment of functional paresis of the larynx performed with the use of antidepressants, tranquilizers, sedatives, antipsychotics, psychotherapeutic techniques and physiotherapy.
Furunkul - an acute purulent inflammation of the hair follicle, exciting the surrounding soft tissue and surrounding sebaceous glands. Furunkul begins with the formation of a dense infiltrate in the center of which is formed necrotic core, ending pustules. Then the opening of pustules, passage of the rod with purulent contents and healing boils, after which the skin remains a scar. Diagnosis includes furunkula dermatoscopy, bakposev discharge, blood tests, the study of the immune system, the identification of comorbidities and complications. Treatment is carried out locally, in accordance with the stages of development furunkula. According to the testimony assigned antibiotic therapy, immunotherapy, treatment of complications.
Furunculosis - a necrotic disease of the hair follicle and okolofollikulyarnoy connective tissue. The primary element is an inflammatory inflammatory node that forms around the hair follicle. The main cause of boils are staphylococcus infection. A typical dermatological picture, signs of inflammation in the clinical blood test and the results of bacteriological seeding separated skin cells allow without difficulty diagnosing abrasions. Patients with boils are treated by a dermatologist.
X-shaped legs (valgus bending feet) - a pathology in which a person standing with straight and information with their feet, the distance between the heels of more than 5 centimeters. In most cases, X-shaped legs are not a congenital disease, and develop because of excessive load on the legs of the child in the first years of life. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of visual inspection, radiography and other studies. At an early age performed conservative correction surgery is indicated for failure of conservative treatment and progression of deformity.
Chalazion - a benign tumor seal (hailstone) in the thickness of the century, developing on the background of chronic inflammation and blockage of meibomian gland. Chalazion manifested by the presence of nodules and swelling of the eyelid, the pressure on the eyeball, irritation of eyes, sometimes - suppuration and spontaneous opening. Diagnosis of chalazion usually requires no additional tools of research and is based on external examination of the century. chalazion Treatment can be conservative (instillation of drugs, laying ointments, injection into the formation) or surgery (removal of chalazion).
Хейлит – воспалительный процесс, поражающий красную кайму, слизистую оболочку и кожу губ. Проявляется отеком, покраснением, шелушением губ, появлением на них кровоточащих язвочек, гнойных корочек, жжением и болью при открывании рта и приеме пищи. Часто заболевание носит длительный рецидивирующий характер. У людей молодого возраста течение более благоприятное, возможно самоизлечение. В пожилом возрасте есть риск возникновения лейкоплакии и озлокачествления.
Cheilitis Manganotti - obligatny precancer red border of the lips. The disease occurs to form one or more painless erosions irregularly shaped with irregular edges. Erosive surface is covered with bloody crusts, when you try to remove that bleeding occurs. Diagnostika cheilitis Manganotti based on the basis of patient complaints, anamnesis, physical examination findings and laboratory studies. In identifying precancer obligatnogo pokazany rehabilitation and correction of hygienic condition of the oral cavity. Locally appointed keratoplasty, in the absence of positive dynamics of the pathological focus to be surgical excision.
Chylothorax - abnormal accumulation of lymph (chylous) of fluid in the pleural cavity, arising from a lymphorrhea of the thoracic duct. The development of chylothorax is accompanied by shortness of breath, progressive deterioration of health, collaptoid state, exhaustion, respiratory failure. Chylothorax diagnosed by clinical and historical data, the results of X-rays, thoracentesis, cytological evaluation of chylous fluid, thoracoscopy. chylothorax treatment involves repeated puncture or drainage of pleural cavity to remove the chyle, when persistent lymphorrhea - perevyazku thoracic duct, plevroperitonealnoe bypass surgery, pleurodesis, imposing lymphoveinous anastomosis and others
Chlamydia pneumonia - an infectious-inflammatory process in the lungs caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria of the genus Chlamydia and Chlamydophila. For chlamydial pneumonia characterized by respiratory symptoms (rhinitis, bronchitis), unproductive cough, low-grade and febrile temperature, extrapulmonary symptoms (arthralgia, myalgia). When the diagnosis takes into account auscultation and radiographic data, however, the decisive role is played by laboratory diagnosis (IFA, MIF, PCR and others.). For the treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae used antimicrobial agents (macrolides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones), immunomodulators, physiotherapy.
Chlamydial Conjunctivitis - an infection of the mucous membrane of the eye chlamydia, accompanied by acute or chronic inflammation of the conjunctiva. Chlamydial conjunctivitis occurs with swelling of the conjunctiva and transient folds, purulent discharge from the eyes, watery eyes, sharp pain in the eyes, follicular rash on the lower eyelid, the parotid adenopathy, evstahiita phenomena. Diagnosis of chlamydial conjunctivitis is to conduct biomicroscopy, cytology, culture, enzyme immunoassay, immunofluorescence, PCR studies for determination of chlamydia. Treatment of chlamydial conjunctivitis is performed using antibiotics tetracycline, macrolides and fluoroquinolones to complete clinical and laboratory recovery.
Chlamydia - a group of diseases caused by various kinds of chlamydia. Affects the respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, urogenital system, organs of vision. Urogenital chlamydiosis is manifestation of inflammatory diseases: urethritis, prostatitis, cystitis, vulvovaginitis, cervicitis erosion, endometritis and revealed only specific diagnostic methods. The characteristic symptom - vitreous separation from the urinary tract. Chlamydial infections are dangerous multiple complications, including ascending urinary tract infections, infertility, neyrohlamidiozy, joint damage, heart and vascular diseases, impotence - in men.
Chloasma - focal hyperpigmentation of the skin of various sizes, located mostly on the face and having clear boundaries. Chloasma looks like spots of light brown, brown or brownish color. It may be worn multiple character. The diagnosis is established by a typical clinical presentation and localization of pigmentation additionally spend Siascopy, dermatoscopy, examined the liver, gynecological and digestive tract. chloasma treatment involves the use of cosmetic ways to reduce its saturation color. Apply exfoliating and whitening agents, dermabrasion, laser peels, photorejuvenation, mesotherapy and cryotherapy.
Cholangiocarcinoma - a malignant tumor of the bile ducts. Symptoms generally associated with cholestasis (jaundice, pruritus), and patients may experience pain in the right upper quadrant, severe weight loss. To be diagnosed using ultrasound of the abdomen, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), percutaneous cholangiography, determination of tumor markers in the blood. The main method of treatment of cholangiocarcinoma - operative. Chemotherapy and radiation are used in combination with surgically or as palliative treatment.
Cholangitis - non-specific inflammation of the bile ducts acute or chronic course. When cholangitis noted in the right upper quadrant pain, fever with chills, dyspepsia, jaundice. Cholangitis diagnosis involves analysis of biochemical parameters of blood, holding a fractional duodenal intubation with bakissledovaniem bile, ultrasonography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, ERCP. In the treatment of cholangitis used antibiotic therapy, detoxification therapy, the purpose of enzymes, FTL (mud baths, sodium chloride baths, paraffin and ozokeritoterapiya, UHF, diathermy), sometimes - surgical decompression of the biliary tract.
Choledocholithiasis - the presence of stones in the bile ducts, causing a violation zhelcheottoka. Symptoms choledocholithiasis determined by the degree of overlap duct stone and include pain, jaundice and sometimes fever. In the initial stages of the disease may pass without symptoms. For an accurate diagnosis is performed ultrasound of the liver and gall bladder, holedohoskopiyu, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, MR cholangiopancreatography, evaluate biochemical liver tests. Remove the stones surgically or endoscopically.
Cholera - an acute intestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae human defeat. Cholera diarrhea frequently manifested expressed, abundant repeated vomiting, resulting in a significant loss of fluid and dehydration. Signs of dehydration are dry skin and mucous membranes, reduced turgor of tissues and skin wrinkling, facial sharpening, oligoanuria. The diagnosis of cholera is confirmed by the results of bacteriological seeding feces and vomit, serological methods. Treatment includes isolation of the cholera patient, parenteral rehydration, antibiotics tetracycline therapy.
Cholestasis - clinical and laboratory syndrome characterized by an increase in blood levels of substances excreted in the bile as a result of breach of any of its production of bile outflow. Symptoms include itching, jaundice, constipation, bitter taste in the mouth, pain in the right upper quadrant, dark urine and stool discoloration. Diagnosis of cholestasis is to determine the levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, bile acids. From instrumental methods using ultrasound, radiography, gastroscopy, Duodenoscopy holegrafiyu, CT and others. Treatment of complex, appointed gepatoprotektory, antibacterial drugs, cytotoxic agents and drugs of ursodeoxycholic acid.
Cholestasis newborn - a pathological condition which is characterized by impaired bile secretion, leading to hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice. Clinical manifestations include subikterichnost sclera, yellowing of the mucous membranes and skin, hepatomegaly, delay in physical development, hypovitaminosis A, D, K, E. Diagnosis of cholestasis newborn is to identify the underlying disease, laboratory evaluation of liver ultrasound, hepatobiliary scan and liver biopsy. Treatment depends on the etiologic factors and includes a balanced diet, the introduction of the diet of easily digestible fats, vitamin therapy, or surgery.
Cholestatic hepatitis - a disease in which the development is crucial obstruction of bile flow and the accumulation of its components in the liver. Clinically, the disease is manifested by itching, discomfort in the right hypochondrium region, intense jaundice, dyspepsia, enlargement of the liver and the emergence xanthelasma skin. In the diagnosis of primary importance are the general clinical and biochemical blood analysis with determination of liver function tests, ultrasound of the liver and gall bladder, pancreas ultrasound, MRI of the abdominal cavity. The therapy is aimed at improving the outflow of bile and normalization of body functions.
Cholesteatoma Ear - encapsulated tumor formation of the middle ear, which consists mainly of cells desquamated epithelium and cholesterol crystals. There are true (congenital) and false ear cholesteatoma. Disease manifests a sense of fullness and pain in the ear, reduced hearing mixed type, with a small amount of putrid odor discharge from the ear. Ear Cholesteatoma is diagnosed through X-rays and CT scans of the skull, otoscopy, probing and lavage of the tympanic cavity, vestibular and auditory research analyzers. cholesteatoma ear treatment in most cases consists of surgical removal of the radical. Sometimes it is possible to wash nadbarabannoy cavity accommodating the cholesteatoma.
Cholesterosis gallbladder - a pathological condition characterized by the deposition of lipids in the wall of the gallbladder associated with metabolic disorders of fat and cholesterol. It flows in many cases without any symptoms or minimal symptoms of aching pain in the right hypochondrium, dyspeptic symptoms. Main diagnostic study at Cholesterosis - ultrasound of the liver and gall bladder. Sometimes abnormalities detected incidentally during cholecystectomy. Treatment is mainly conservative, aimed at restoring the metabolism. Surgical treatment is used if the gallbladder cholesterosis accompanies cholelithiasis, acute inflammatory diseases.
Acute cholecystitis - an inflammation of the gall bladder, characterized by sporadic violation bile movement as a result of the blockade of its outflow. Perhaps the development of pathological destruction of the walls of the gallbladder. In most cases (85-95%) of acute cholecystitis combined with calculi (stones), more than half (60%) patients determined bile bacterial contamination (coliform bacteria, cocci, salmonella, etc.). In acute cholecystitis symptoms occur only once, and is developing, with adequate treatment, stuhaet, leaving pronounced effects. Repeated repetition of acute inflammation of the gall bladder attacks say chronic cholecystitis.
Chronic cholecystitis - an inflammation of the gall bladder, accompanied by a violation of its motor function and in some cases - the formation of stones. Clinically manifested by pain and heaviness in the right upper quadrant, often occurring after ingestion of fatty foods and alcohol, nausea, vomiting, dryness and bitterness in the mouth. Informative method of diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis are biochemical blood tests, ultrasound gallbladder cholecystography, duodenal intubation. Conservative treatment includes the use of medications, herbal medicine, physiotherapy; with calculous cholecystitis shows removal of the gallbladder.
Cholinergic urticaria - a rare autoimmune kind of allergic urticaria. Clinically is characterized by acute (within an hour), minor rash pruritic vesicles with serous content on exposed skin. The rash tends to spread, accompanied by a prodrome. Diagnosis is based on history, clinical manifestations, provocative tests to acetylcholine, artificial stimulation of an allergic reaction, blood tests for allergens, consultation narrow specialists. Cholinergic urticaria treatment is to neutralize provoking factor correction and concomitant pathology.
Cold dermatitis - inflammatory skin changes, emerging as a response to its cooling. Manifested in the form of red itchy spots, the surface of which is prone to flaking and cracking. Cold localized dermatitis on the face, ears, neck, hands, knees or hips. It can be accompanied by a runny nose, and conjunctivitis. Diagnosis cold dermatitis includes skin pH meter and dermatoscopy, further examination of the patient to identify chronic infectious foci or gastrointestinal disorders. Treatment consists in the removal of cold exposure, correction related disorders, and the appointment of antihistamines funds, improving circulation.
Chondroblastoma - a rare benign tumor, which is usually formed on the articular ends of bones. It comes from chondroblasts and its structure resembles a fairly mature cartilage. Usually of slow growth and favorable course, but in the literature individual cases of malignancy and primary malignant course chondroblasts. As usually develops in childhood or adolescence (10-25 years, the largest number of cases occur in the age of 10-18 years), but can occur in people of older age groups. It causes pain and swelling in the joint. X-ray findings can be nonspecific, so to clarify the diagnosis often requires other additional methods of research. Surgical treatment in a planned manner. Prognosis is usually favorable.
Chondroid siringoma (mucinous gidradenoma) - solitary chondroid-epithelial skin tumor benign nature. The primary elements are small nodules plotnoelasticheskoy consistency that appear spontaneously on previously unaltered skin of the trunk. They rise above the level of the dermis, have a smooth surface, have a slow growth in peripheral, sometimes ulcerate. Diagnostics carries a dermatologist based on history and clinical manifestations with histology results, scarification smear of the lesion and punctate tumors. Treatment is surgical excision or electrosurgical chondroid siringomy.
Chondrocalcinosis (pseudogout) - a chronic disease caused by the accumulation of crystals of calcium pyrophosphate in the joint fluid and in the cartilage. Causes of not exactly clarified, however, in certain forms of communication is marked with heredity and metabolic disorders at some other diseases. Chondrocalcinosis often manifested in the form of sharp pain in the affected joints in combination with a local redness, swelling and fever. Exacerbations last from several days to 2-3 weeks, alternating with long remissions. In some cases, chondrocalcinosis can occur chronically or asymptomatic. Diagnosis is based on X-ray studies and synovial fluid. Sometimes performed synovial biopsies. Treatment is conservative.