Youth melanoma - a benign tumor, the type of mixed nevus appearing in the first years of life or during adolescence and asymptomatic. It is a papule pink-red or yellow-brown color with clear boundaries and varying consistency. Located often on the face, rarely on the limbs skin, in the initial stages is growing rapidly, then growth stops. Youth melanoma is diagnosed on the basis of the results of the histological study that reveals characteristic signs of the formation and excluding a life-threatening tumor. Surgical treatment is carried out excision of nevus, usually with the help of a laser.
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy - a form of generalized epilepsy, the basis of the clinical picture of which consists of myoclonic seizures - asynchronous muscle contractions, temporarily resulting in symmetrical parts of the body, mainly in the arms and shoulder girdle. Along with myoclonic episodes can be observed in the clinic absences and clonic-tonic generalized epipristupy. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is diagnosed on the basis of the disease and the results of clinical electroencephalography, to the exclusion of organic cerebral pathology according to the neurological examination and MRI. Treatment is carried out mainly drugs valproic acid. As a rule, you need lifelong monitoring epileptologa.
Nuclear neonatal jaundice - newborn brain damage due to the direct cytotoxic effect of high concentrations of bilirubin. Manifested pronounced muscular hypertonicity: tilting the head back, Rolling Eyes. Characterized by frequent bouts of sleep apnea, can join convulsions. Nuclear neonatal jaundice leads to the development of persistent neurological disorders. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory confirmation of hyperbilirubinemia. Treatment is aimed at the normalization of the level of bilirubin in the blood and elimination of neurological symptoms.
Buruli ulcer - an infectious dermatological disease caused by lesions of the skin one of the species of mycobacteria. Mainly prevalent in hot tropical countries, humid climate. Symptoms of this condition are ulcers with necrotic content at the bottom, arising mainly on the extensor surfaces of the skin of the knee and elbow joints. Diagnosis of Buruli ulcer is carried out by dermatological examination, study the history of the patient, bacteriological examination of discharge from the ulcer lesions. Treatment of the disease is done with antibiotics, but their efficacy may be insufficient for a full recovery. Also, use a topical treatment antiseptic solutions, in severe cases, surgical removal of lesions.
Gastric ulcer - chronic relapsing nature of the disease of the stomach, accompanied by the formation of gastric mucosa defects and located underneath tissue. The main symptom is pain in the epigastric empty stomach or after eating, often radiating to the back and chest. Often there is vomiting, belching, heartburn, nausea. The most dangerous complications - bleeding, perforation of the stomach wall, pyloric stenosis department, malignant degeneration of ulcers. Diagnosed according to a gastroscopy and gastric X-rays, tests for H. pylori infection. Uncomplicated gastric ulcer treated conservatively, in complicated cases, surgical manual.
esophageal ulcer - acute or chronic ulceration of the distal esophagus, caused by exposure to gastric juice with gastroesophageal reflux. Clinically, the disease is manifested and psevdostenokarditicheskimi retrosternal pain, dysphagia and dyspepsia. Pathology Diagnosis includes FEGDS with biopsy, x-ray of the esophagus, esophageal manometry, pH meter intraesophageal, fecal occult blood. Treatment begins with conservative measures (dietary changes, antacids, H2 blockers, histamine receptors, IPP, and antireflux prokinetic drugs), after failure of fundoplication surgery is performed.
Corneal Ulcer - destructive process in the cornea, accompanied by the formation of the ulcer crater. Corneal ulcer accompanied by a pronounced corneal syndrome, pain and a significant decrease in vision in the affected eye, clouding of the cornea. Diagnosis of corneal ulcers is based on data examination eye with a slit lamp, holding instillyatsionnoy sample with fluorescein, bacteriological and cytological examination of scrapings from the conjunctiva, lacrimal fluid and ELISA serum. Principles of treatment of corneal ulcers require specific (antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic), metabolic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antihypertensive pharmacotherapy. With the threat of corneal ulcer perforation is necessary to conduct keratoplasty.
Peptic ulcer disease 12 duodenal ulcer - a disease of the duodenum chronic recurrent nature, accompanied by the formation of a defect in its mucosa and tissues located underneath. Manifested by severe pain in the left epigastric region, occurring 3-4 hours after a meal, attacks "hungry" and "night" pain, heartburn, belching acid, often vomiting. The most severe complications - bleeding, perforation of the ulcer and its malignant transformation.
Peptic ulcer - chronic pathology polietiologichesky flowing to the formation of ulcerative lesions in the stomach, a tendency to progression and development of complications. The main clinical symptoms of peptic ulcer disease include pain in the stomach and dyspepsia. Standard diagnostics is carrying out endoscopy with biopsy of pathological areas, stomach X-ray, revealing H. pylori. Treatment is complex: dieto- and physical therapy, eradication of H. pylori infection, operative correction of complications of the disease.
Necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis Vincent - specific infectious mucosal lesion of the oral cavity caused by association fuzobakterii and spirochetes. Patients indicate the appearance of painful ulcers in the mouth, deterioration of general condition, fever, headache, aching muscles. The diagnosis is based on the collected medical history, physical examination results, data and smear cytology smears with ulcerative surfaces. The basis of the treatment of the local causal treatment. In severe shows the use of antibiotics, antiprotozoal drugs in tablet form.
Ulcerative gingivitis - inflammation of gum tissue, accompanied erozirovaniem, ulceration and necrosis of the gingival margin. The course of ulcerative gingivitis is characterized by severe pain, impeding food intake; bad breath; hyperemia, swelling and bleeding of the gums with the formation of ulcers; increasing the patient's body temperature and general malaise. Diagnosis of ulcerative gingivitis set based on the inspection of the oral cavity, functional tests, bacteriological researches ulcers separated, if necessary - X-ray data. Treatment of ulcerative gingivitis comprises local processing and general oral antibiotic therapy.
Ulcerative proctitis - severe inflammation of the colon, characterized by the formation of ulcers in the mucosa. After healing of ulcers formed scars that can become a cause of rectal stenosis. Manifested hyperthermia, the general state of disorder, tenesmus, pain, itching, burning, release of blood, pus and mucus with stool. Ulcerative proctitis is diagnosed based on clinical manifestations, examination data, rectal examination, endoscopy, biopsy and other diagnostic methods. Conservative treatment includes diet, enemas, baths, general and local drug therapy.
Ulcerative sigmoid - inflammation of the sigmoid colon, accompanied by the formation of deep mucosal defects. Manifested by pain, stool disorders, flatulence, intestinal discomfort and pathological admixtures in stool. Maybe polyetiological disease or development of ulcerative colitis. These two forms of ulcer sigmoidita different with the current, forecast and possible complications. The disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, examination data, barium enema, endoscopy and other studies. Treatment - diet, causal and symptomatic drug therapy, in some cases - surgery.
Ulcerative Stomatitis - inflammatory diseases of the mouth, accompanied by focal destruction of the mucosa. Ulcerative Stomatitis manifests edema and hyperemia of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, against which produce single or multiple bleeding and painful ulcers covered with bloom. Ulcerative process is accompanied by halitosis, fever, regional lymphadenitis. Diagnosis of ulcerative stomatitis involves performing dental examination, study mucosal scrapings. Treatment of ulcerative stomatitis is a local treatment of ulcers and oral anesthetics, antimicrobials, and proteolytic enzymes; if necessary shown antibiotics, antihistamines, multivitamins.
Ulcerative lupus - dermatological disease caused by mycobacteria, usually occurs in children and debilitated patients against miliary tuberculosis or system failure. Symptoms of this condition are bumps and ulcerative lesions mainly localized around the physiological body holes - anal, oral, opening of the urethra. Diagnosis of ulcerative tuberculosis of the skin is carried out by dermatological examination, microscopic examination of discharge from ulcers, a common examination for the detection of active tuberculosis process in the internal organs. The treatment focuses on the elimination of foci in the internal organs, for that use traditional anti-TB drugs.
Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito - transmissible virus neuroinfection with a primary lesion of the brain substance. It is characterized by endemic outbreaks in the period from August to the end of September. It has obscheinfektsionnoe beginning, during the height of characteristic disorders of consciousness, meningeal syndrome, hyperkinesia, myoclonus, paresis, bulbar disorders. Diagnosis involves the study of cerebrospinal fluid, carrying RIF, ELISA and PCR analysis. The therapy is carried out specific immunoglobulin or serum, anti, detoxication, vascular, anticonvulsant, corticosteroids pharmaceuticals.
Barley - limited purulent process in the centuries that develops when infected eyelash follicle or sebaceous gland. Stye appears painful local swelling and hyperemia edges century, followed by the formation of an abscess. Diagnosis based on barley external examination and, as a rule, does not require additional instrumentation techniques. In the initial stages of barley produced tushirovanie inflammatory focus ethanol, made Albucidum instillation, application of eye ointment, UHF, quartz; in the stage of suppuration shown autopsy barley ophthalmologist eye.
Barley is a child - a limited accumulation of pus in the hair follicle eyelashes and associated sebaceous glands of Zeiss, at least - in laid in the thickness of the cartilage century lobules meibomian glands. The clinical picture of the child's disease is characterized by painful swelling and hyperemia century, the formation of an abscess at the root of the lashes (outside Barley) or the inside of the century (domestic barley), followed by opening and an exit of pus. barley diagnosis of the child is established on the basis of a common inspection eyes and eyelids in the natural and side lighting. When the child barley shown infiltration purification and disinfection, the application of eye drops, ointments and antibacterial action, if necessary - ulcer surgical opening.
Foot and mouth disease - an acute infectious disease of viral etiology, characterized by vesicular-erosive lesions of coating tissue (mainly the mucous membranes of the mouth and extremities skin) accompanied by intoxication syndrome. Infection FMD comes from livestock and wild animals mainly by contact, but it is possible and food path. The clinical picture consists of acute conjunctivitis, common canker sores, obscheinfektsionnyh symptoms and lesions of the skin around the mouth, on the wings of the nose, in the interdigital spaces.