Emphysema - a chronic nonspecific lung disease, which is based on a persistent, irreversible expansion pneumatic spaces and increased swelling of lung tissue distal to the terminal bronchioles. Emphysema appears expiratory dyspnea, cough with a small amount of mucous expectoration, signs of respiratory distress, recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. Pathology Diagnosis is made based on the data auscultation, X-ray and CT scan, spirography, blood gas analysis. Conservative treatment of emphysema includes receiving bronchodilators, corticosteroids, oxygen therapy; in some cases shown resection surgery.
Endocarditis - an inflammation of the connective tissue (inner) lining of the heart lining and valves of its cavity, often of an infectious nature. Manifested high fever, weakness, chills, shortness of breath, cough, chest pain, thickening of the nail phalanxes of the type "drumsticks." Often leads to the defeat of the heart valves (aortic or mitral often), the development of heart disease and heart failure. Possible recurrence, mortality in endocarditis is 30%.
Endocrine ophthalmopathy - progressive organ damage soft tissues of the orbit and the eye that develops against the background of autoimmune thyroid disease. Current endocrine ophthalmopathy is characterized by exophthalmos, diplopia, swelling and inflammation of the eye tissues, limiting the mobility of the eyeball, corneal changes, optic disc, intraocular hypertension. Diagnosis of endocrine ophthalmopathy requires an ophthalmological examination (exophthalmometer, biomicroscopy, CT orbit); the study of the immune system (determination of the level of Ig, AT to TG, AT to TPO, antinuclear antibodies, etc.), endocrinological examinations (T4 St., T3 St., thyroid ultrasound, biopsy). endocrine ophthalmopathy Treatment is aimed at achieving the euthyroid state; may include drug therapy or removal of the thyroid gland.
Endocrine infertility - a complex hormonal imbalance, leading to irregular ovulation or her absence in females and sperm in males as a violation. It is based may lie disorders of the thyroid gland, gonads, hypothalamus-pituitary regulation. Treatment of endocrine infertility is to eliminate its causes, correction of existing violations and maintaining normal hormonal levels. The normalization of the disturbed functions resulting in pregnancy in 70-80% of cases of endocrine infertility. In other cases it is currently considered promising the removal of endocrine infertility by IVF.
Endometriosis is a hormone-dependent pathological proliferation of the glandular tissue of the uterus (endometrium) outside: the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, uterine thicker in the bladder, on the peritoneum, rectum, and other, more distant organs. Endometrial fragments (heterotopia), growing in other organs, such as undergoing cyclic changes as the endometrium in the uterus, in accordance with the phases of the menstrual cycle. These endometrial changes occur pain, increase in volume of the affected organ, monthly bleeding from the heterotopias, menstrual dysfunction, secretions from the breast, infertility.
Skin Endometriosis - a benign proliferation of dermal tissue, morphologically similar to the inside lining of the uterus (endometrium). Clinically manifested form of solitary or multiple dense knots lobed purple hue, mainly located in the genital area, the navel and scars of the anterior abdominal wall. A feature of these structures is their ability to grow in size and bleeding during menstruation. Diagnosis is based on clinical, confirmed histologically. Treatment - radical excision of nodes with cytology to exclude metaplasia.
Endometriosis rectum - benign growths of the endometrium in the rectum. Usually it develops a second, after the spread of endometriosis in the ovaries and the peritoneum. Show constant pain in the lower abdomen, false desires, disorders stool, mucus and blood in the stool. Symptoms of endometriosis of the rectum occur a few days before the onset of menstruation and remains until it ends. The disease is diagnosed based on characteristic clinical picture, general and gynecological examination data, ultrasound, barium enema, sigmoidoscopy, and other studies. Treatment - drug therapy, excision of foci of ectopic endometrium.
Endometrioid ovarian cyst - a pathological cavernous formation on the surface of the ovary, consisting of accumulated menstrual blood, surrounded by a shell of endometrial cells. Endometrioid ovarian cysts in some cases, it may not appear for a long time, in other - accompanied by abnormal menstrual periods, infertility, pain, until the clinic "acute abdomen". Diagnosis of ovarian endometrioid cyst based on data from ultrasound and laparoscopy. Treatment of ovarian endometrioid cyst involves the surgical removal of the pathological education and long-term hormone therapy.
Endometritis - inflammation of the mucous in the inner layer of the uterus - the endometrium. Often combined with inflammation of the muscular layer of the uterus - endomyometritis. The endometrium is the inner function of the uterus, changes its structure during the menstrual cycle. Each cycle it grows and matures again in preparation for attachment of a fertilized egg, and rejected if pregnancy does not occur. The normal uterine cavity, lined with endometrium is protected against the penetration of infection. However, under certain conditions, infectious agents easily fall into the uterus and cause an inflammatory response of its inner layer - endometritis.
Endotelioma - a rare tumor originating from the inner lining of the blood or lymph vessels. It can occur in all organs and tissues, but usually affects the skin, subcutaneous fat, nasopharynx, bone, testes and ovaries. It is a round-shaped knot. node color ranges from gray to deep red. Depending on the type of growth endotelioma can be benign or malignant. Malignant tumors are characterized by slow infiltrative growth and rarely metastasize. Diagnosis is exposed to the light of the inspection data and histological examination. Treatment - surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy.
Endophthalmitis - abscessed inflammation of the internal structures of the eye, leading to the accumulation of purulent exudate in the vitreous body. When endophthalmitis marked pain in the eyeball, swelling and redness of the eyelids and conjunctiva, a significant reduction in visual acuity, hypopyon. In the diagnosis of endophthalmitis used visometry, the study of the visual fields, eye biomicroscopy, transillumination, ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, ultrasound of the eye. Comprehensive treatment of endophthalmitis includes antibiotic, detoxifying, anti-inflammatory, resolving therapy; intravitreal, subconjunctival injection or parabulbarno, paracentesis and lavage of the anterior chamber; in severe endophthalmitis - vitrectomy.
Faecal incontinence in children - a disease characterized by disturbance in childhood control defecation. The main symptom is fecal incontinence. The condition may be accompanied by somatic disease, and affects not only the gastrointestinal tract. Faecal incontinence in children may be associated with constipation, sometimes there are behavior problems in the child, that the evidence in favor of mental disorders. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and medical history data. Conducts comprehensive therapy with obligatory participation of a psychologist or psychiatrist. Forecast determined the cause of the disease.
Enteritis - inflammation in the small intestine, accompanied by a violation of its functions and degenerative changes in the mucosa. It is characterized by symptoms of disorders of the chair, which becomes a liquid or mazevidny character, bloating, rumbling, pain in the navel. Violated the general state of health, the patient loses weight. In severe cases, may develop degenerative changes, vitamin deficiencies, adrenal insufficiency.
Enterobiasis children - gelmitoznoe disease caused by roundworms - pinworms. Enterobiasis children manifested severe perianal itching (especially at night), abdominal pain, lack of appetite, nausea, upset his chair, irritability, sleep disorders, allergies, weight loss, delayed growth and development. For microscopic detection of eggs of pinworms in children produced scraping or imprinted with perianal folds on enterobiosis. Enterobiasis treatment includes deworming of children with repeated parasitological examination, personal hygiene.
Enterovirus infection in children - acute infectious diseases, agents which are intestinal viruses (enteroviruses) from the picornavirus family. Clinical manifestations of enterovirus infection in children are polymorphic; The disease can occur in the following forms: catarrhal, gastroenteriticheskoy, enterovirus fever, enterovirus exanthema, gerpanginy, serous meningitis, myocarditis, encephalomyocarditis newborns, conjunctivitis, uveitis, etc. To detect viruses in biological fluids using techniques of PCR, ELISA, TPHA Etiopatogenetichesky treatment of enterovirus infection in children is carried out by interferons, immunoglobulins, and other drugs.
Enteroviral infections are a group of infectious diseases that develop when a person affected by the virus Enterovirus genus, characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations. Enterovirus Infection can occur through food, at least - aerosol. Characterized by high fever, malaise, diarrhea, skin rash polymorphic. Enterovirus infections may occur in the form gerpanginy, myalgia, viral meningitis. Rare forms include Enterovirus pancreatitis, nephritis, encephalitis, pericarditis, and eye disease.
Enterocolitis - acute and chronic digestive disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the small and large intestine. The symptom when enterocolitis include abdominal pain, symptoms of digestive disorders (nausea, flatulence, rumbling in the abdomen, diarrhea or constipation, mucus and blood in the stool). Enterocolitis diagnosed based on laboratory data (coprogram, bacteriological seeding feces) and tools (colonoscopy, x-ray) studies. Treatment consists of a diet, taking medication (antibiotics, enzymes, probiotics), carrying out physiotherapy.
Enteropathy - a chronic pathology of intestinal non-inflammatory origin, which is based on fermentopathy or congenital abnormalities of the small intestine. Clinically manifested by pain in the umbilical region, with diarrhea of varying severity and malabsorption. For the diagnosis of malabsorption are used: X-ray barium passage through the small intestine, videokapsulnaya endoscopy, morphological study of biopsy specimens. Treatment involves finding and eliminating the causes of disease development, the appointment of an appropriate diet and the use of enzyme preparations, antibiotics and intestinal eubiotics to improve digestion in the small intestine.
Enteropathic acrodermatitis (Brandt syndrome, Dalbolta-Kloss's disease) - an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, which is the main link of pathogenesis is a violation of zinc absorption in the small intestine. For typical manifestations of this disease related to zinc deficiency - defeat the gastrointestinal tract, rash formation, vesicles and pustules on the skin, alopecia, reduced immunity, decreasing body weight. Diagnosis is made by examining the concentration of zinc ions in the plasma, the absorption rate of the radioactive Zn-65 zinc excretion via the urinary system. Treatment - receiving high doses of the compounds of trace elements (eg, zinc oxide).
Enuresis - the involuntary syndrome, uncontrolled urination, urinary incontinence, especially during sleep. More common in children of preschool and early school age with a history of concomitant neurological pathology. Causes psychological trauma in children, conflicts with peers in the collective punishment of the parents in the family, neurosis, which further exacerbates the enuresis. Often it occurs together with other urological diseases (cystitis, pyelonephritis). The main objective of the diagnosis of enuresis is to identify its cause. To do this, we conduct a full urological examination, as well as neurological and psychological testing of the patient.
Enuresis in children - a violation of the controlled emptying of the bladder, accompanied by involuntary urination during sleep. Enuresis in children manifests leak urine during sleep that can occur intermittently or repeated up to several times per night. Diagnosis of enuresis in children requires the establishment of the causes of violations and includes voiding diary, laboratory tests of blood and urine tests, ultrasound of the bladder, urodynamic studies, neurological examination, and so forth. In the treatment of enuresis in children applied psychotherapy, physiotherapy, drug therapy.
Enhondroma - benign tumor that consists of cartilage. Localized intraosseous, usually - in the diaphyseal area and metadiaphysis tubular bones. Most often it affects the small tubular bones of the hands and feet, can be both single and multiple. Usually asymptomatic, large enhondromy can cause deformation of the limb segment. Sometimes enhondroma complicated by pathological fracture. Degeneration of a malignant tumor is rare. The diagnosis is confirmed by means of X-ray, CT scan and biopsy. Treatment operative.
Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain substance. The term "encephalitis" refers to infectious, allergic, infectious, allergic and toxic brain damage. Distinguish primary (tick, mosquito Japanese encephalitis savings) and secondary (measles, flu-like, post-vaccination) encephalitis. In the event of any cause of encephalitis require a comprehensive therapy. As a general rule, it includes etiotropic treatment (antiviral, antibacterial, anti-allergic), dehydration, fluid therapy, anti-inflammatory treatment, vascular and neuroprotective therapy, symptomatic treatment. Have borne encephalitis patients also require rehabilitative treatment.
Rasmussen's encephalitis - a progressive encephalitis, affecting only one brain hemisphere and has a chronic course. Clinically is a combination of Kozhevnikov epilepsy, cognitive decline and focal sensorimotor deficits. During the diagnostic data are compared medical history, neurological examination, EEG, perimetry, tomographic brain studies. Treatment includes anti-epileptic, glucocorticosteroid, immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive components. Possible surgical treatment, which aims to "turn off" the affected hemisphere of the central nervous system functioning.
St. Louis encephalitis - a viral natural focal neuroinfections, primarily affecting the shell and the brain substance. Debuts acute obscheinfektsionnymi, meningeal and cerebral symptoms. Observed disorders of consciousness, headache, vomiting, spastic muscle hypertonus, paresis, depression and abdominal tendon reflexes, episyndrome. Diagnosis is based on epidemiological data, neurological examination results, clinical analysis, the study of cerebrospinal fluid, serological assays and brain tomography examination. Treatment antiviral symptomatic and neurometabolic.
Encephalopathy - generalizing the name of the variety in its genesis of pathological processes, which are based on the degeneration of neurons in the brain due to a violation of their metabolism. Encephalopathy manifested polymorphic neurological disorders, disorders in the intellectual-mental and emotional-volitional sphere. Diagnostic search consists of a comprehensive neurological examination and establish the causal pathology. encephalopathy treatment is to remove it which caused a pathological condition, the causal treatment of the disease and maintain optimal metabolism of cerebral neurons.
Encephalocele - a malformation of the skull and the brain, in which part of the brain substance is outside the skull due to the bone defect. Manifested visible protrusion of bone junction, accompanied by a variety of symptoms, depending on the size and location. Possible convulsions, hydrocephalus, liquorrhea, visual disturbances, symptoms of mental retardation. encephalocele diagnosis is based on the clinical picture of developmental abnormalities when confirming the results of CT and MRI. Treatment operative, carried out the removal of the hernia sac and closure of the bone defect.
Eosinophilic pneumonia - an allergy, inflammation of lung tissue, accompanied by the formation of unstable migratory infiltrates of eosinophilic nature and development of hypereosinophilia. The disease usually occurs with malaise, low-grade fever, a small dry cough, sometimes with scanty sputum; the acute form - with chest pain, myalgia, development of acute respiratory failure. Set eosinophilic pneumonia allow data radiography and CT of the lungs, the general analysis of blood, bronchoalveolar lavage, allergy tests, serodiagnosis. The basis of treatment is specific desensitization and hormonal therapy.
ependymoma brain - tumor tissue of ependymal ventricular system of the brain. Clinically evident, above all, signs of increased intracranial pressure, as well as ataxia, disorders of the eye and ear, convulsive seizures, speech and swallowing. Diagnosis is carried out mainly with the help of MRI of the brain, spinal puncture, EEG, histological examination. The basis of treatment is radical removal of ependymomas followed by radiation or chemotherapy. In adults, the use stereotactic radiosurgery.
Epiglottitis in children - acute bacterial inflammation, epiglottis and hypopharynx exciting fabrics and accompanied by life-threatening upper airway obstruction. Development of epiglottitis in children occurs rapidly: within a few hours increases dysphonia, dysphagia, sore throat, excessive salivation, difficulty breathing, wheezing. The diagnosis of epiglottitis in children helps to hold the neck radiography or fibrolaringoskopii pharyngoscope, bacteriological seeding swabs from the throat. Treatment of epiglottitis in children requires the restoration of patency of the respiratory tract by tracheostomy and tracheal intubation, purpose antibiotic, infusion and symptomatic therapy.