Chronic constipation - chronic disorder of the intestine functions, accompanied by difficulty in emptying and slowing or permanent impairment of defecation. It may be organic or functional, primary or secondary. Chronic constipation is manifested increasing intervals between acts of defecation, stool seal, a sense of incomplete evacuation, straining need to strengthen and taking laxatives. Diagnosis is based on complaints, medical history, data inspection and abdominal palpation, rectal examination, laboratory tests and instrumental investigations. Treatment - diet, laxatives, non-pharmacological therapy.
Chronic calculous cholecystitis - persistent inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gall bladder, combined with the presence in it of stones. Gastroenterologists say that this pathology is associated with secondary infection of bile. Chronic calculous cholecystitis is clinically manifested by pain in his right side, nausea, mood swings. Diagnostics include liver function tests, ultrasound of the hepatobiliary system, plain radiography SSB, ERCP, MRI and CT scan of the liver and biliary tract, holestsintigrafiyu. Treatment is conservative (diet, analgesics, antispasmodics, antibiotics) or combined (supplemented by surgery).
Chronic colitis - is an inflammatory process which affects the mucous membrane of the colon, accompanied by "intestinal" symptoms (diarrhea, flatulence, rumbling, constipation, pain). To diagnose the disease using scatological analysis, X-ray and endoscopic examination of the colon (barium enema, colonoscopy). Principles of treatment of chronic colitis are based on a diet, the use of anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and pain medication. An important element in the complex treatment of chronic colitis are forms of physiotherapy.
Chronic conjunctivitis - long, flowing persistently infectious catarrh of the conjunctiva, or infectious etiology. Subjectively, chronic conjunctivitis manifested constant itching, burning, sensitivity to light, sensation of "sand" for centuries, eye fatigue; objectively - hyperemia and poor muco-purulent discharge. Diagnosis of chronic conjunctivitis is carried out on the basis of analysis of complaints data biomicroscopy and refraction studies, bacteriological sowing conjunctiva, setting allergoproby. In the treatment of chronic conjunctivitis is of paramount importance to eliminate the causes of inflammation, local use of drugs and the symptomatic action etiopathogenetic (drops, ointments).
Chronic leukemia - the primary tumor disease hematopoietic system, the substrate which act mature and maturing cells of myeloid or lymphoid. Various forms of chronic leukemia occur with prevalence of intoxication (weakness, arthralgia, ossalgia, anorexia, weight loss), thrombus (bleeding, thromboses of various localization), lymphoproliferative syndrome (increased limfouzov, splenomegaly, etc.). Crucial in the diagnosis of chronic leukemia belongs to the study of the KLA, bone marrow biopsies and lymph nodes. Treatment of chronic leukemia by the methods of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, possible bone marrow transplantation.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia - oncological disease accompanied by abnormal accumulation of mature B cells in peripheral blood, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow. In the initial stages it manifested lymphocytosis and generalized lymphadenopathy. With the progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia observed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly as well as anemia and thrombocytopenia, shows weakness, fatigue, petechial hemorrhages and bleeding disorders. There have been frequent infections due to decreased immunity. Diagnosis is based on laboratory tests. The treatment - chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia - a malignant myeloproliferative disease characterized by a primary lesion of granulocyte germ. Maybe a long time asymptomatic. It shows a tendency to low-grade fever, a feeling of fullness in the abdomen, frequent infections and an enlarged spleen. Observed changes in anemia and platelet levels, accompanied by weakness, pallor and bleeding disorders. At the final stage of developing a fever, lymphadenopathy and skin rash. Diagnosis is based on history, clinical and laboratory data. The treatment - chemotherapy, radiotherapy, bone marrow transplantation.
Chronic osteomyelitis - a chronic inflammatory process which affects all elements of the bone (bone marrow, periosteum, compact and spongy substance). Usually becomes the outcome of acute osteomyelitis, chronic primary observed in individual cases. Characterized by the alternation of remissions and exacerbations. In the acute phase there are symptoms of intoxication, pain, swelling, redness of the affected department and fistulas. In remission symptoms are smoothed or disappear. Diagnosis is exposed to the light of history, clinical symptoms, X-ray data and other studies. Treatment usually operative.
Chronic periodontitis - long current, infection-induced pathological process affecting all periodontal structures and leading to its destruction and tissue resorption of the alveoli. Chronic periodontitis is accompanied by itching and bleeding gums, the presence of over-and subgingival dental plaque and periodontal pockets, halitosis, tooth mobility and displacement of endogenous intoxication. Diagnostic events in chronic periodontitis include parodontogrammy data analysis ortopantomogrammu, biopsy tissue gums. chronic periodontitis Treatment depends on the severity and includes removal of dental plaque, a local anti-inflammatory therapy, physical therapy, splinting of teeth; if necessary - the removal of mobile teeth, scrappy operations.
Chronic periodontitis - structural changes of periodontal tissues (granulating, granulomatous, fibrotic), resulting from chronic inflammation of periodontal. Clinical manifestations of chronic periodontitis can include tooth pain on pressure or temperature exposure, flushing and swelling of the gums, tooth mobility, gingival fistula formation. Chronic periodontitis is diagnosed based on clinical, radiographic, elektroodontometricheskih data. Therapy of chronic periodontitis involves the treatment and root canal filling; When the need for surgical treatment.
Chronic peritonitis - long flowing peritonitis, caused by the action of different reasons. There are several forms of disease that are distinguished by clinical manifestations and treatments. Main symptoms: recurrent pain in the abdomen, dyspepsia, disorders stool, urination, weakness, fever, pale skin. Diagnosis is to collect anamnesis, external examination, a blood test, ultrasound, CT, MRI, X-ray of the abdomen, laparotomy. Medical and surgical treatment, appointed on an individual basis.
Chronic pyelonephritis - a chronic nonspecific bacterial process occurring predominantly involving interstitial kidney tissue and renal pelvis complexes. Chronic pyelonephritis manifested malaise, dull pain in the lower back, low-grade fever, dysuric symptoms. In the process of diagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis conduct laboratory tests of urine and blood, renal ultrasound, retrograde pyelography, scintigraphy. Treatment consists of a diet and gentle treatment, the appointment of antimicrobial therapy, nitrofurans, vitamins, physiotherapy.
Chronic superficial gastritis - a disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous layer of the stomach wall, in which the pathological process does not extend to deeper layers and does not affect the secretory function of the organ. The main symptoms are considered to discomfort and dull pain in the upper abdomen, which appear after a meal. Also, the disease may be accompanied by a nausea, belching and heartburn. A key role in the diagnosis plays esophagogastroscopy, endoscopic biopsies and breath test on helicobacter pylori. For the treatment of chronic superficial gastritis used antisecretory drugs, antacids, antibiotics. Forecast favorable with timely treatment.
Chronic proctitis - chronic inflammation of the rectal mucosa. Often combined with sigmoiditom (Proctosigmoiditis). It is accompanied by tenesmus, discomfort, itching, burning and pain in the area of non-intensive rectum. The feces revealed traces of mucus, blood and pus. During exacerbation of chronic proctitis symptoms become more pronounced, possibly raising the temperature to subfebrile. Diagnosis is based on complaints, medical history, examination of the anal region, a rectal exam, rectoscopy, biopsy, stool analysis and other techniques. Treatment - diet, drug therapy, non-drug methods.
Chronic prostatitis - a prolonged inflammation of the prostate, resulting in a breach of the morphology and functioning of the prostate. Chronic prostatitis is manifested prostatic triad - a pain in the pelvic region and genitals, urinary disorders, sexual disorders. Diagnosis of chronic prostatitis include palpation of the prostate, prostate secretion study, ultrasonography, uroflowmetry, cystoscopy, needle biopsy of the prostate. In chronic prostatitis is shown a complex medical, physiotherapy, massage, prostate, urethral instillations back. Surgical treatment is appropriate in complicated forms of chronic prostatitis.
Chronic pulpitis - the current long-term inflammation of the neurovascular bundle of the tooth, leading to its functional and structural changes. Various clinical and morphological forms of chronic pulpitis proceed with periodic bouts of pain arising from the effects of thermal and mechanical stimuli, the presence of cavities in the tooth. Diagnosis of chronic pulpitis contribute data inspection tool, electric pulp test, X-ray diffraction. Treatment of chronic pulpitis implies a hysterectomy (at least - amputation) pulp followed by the filling of canals and restoring the tooth shape.
Chronic sigmoid - a chronic inflammation of the lining of the sigmoid colon. Manifested abdominal pain, often given into the lower back, leg and chest rumbling, flatulence, feeling of fullness, false desires, disorders stool, mucus and blood in the stool. During exacerbation of chronic sigmoidita symptoms are worse, there is a weakness and a slight hyperthermia. Perhaps the inflammation spread to the peritoneum with the development perisigmoidita. The disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical examination, barium enema, sigmoidoscopy and stool tests. Treatment - diet, drug therapy.
Chronic synovitis - chronic inflammation of the synovial membrane. As a rule, it arises against osteoarthritis or chronic arthritis, rarely observed in hemophilia and after joint injuries. It is accompanied by accumulation of fluid (effusion) in the joint cavity. Manifested by pain, swelling and limitation of movement. Current undulating, there is an alternation of remissions and exacerbations. To clarify the diagnosis and determine the cause of synovitis prescribe X-rays, ultrasound, arthroscopy, arthropneumography, MRI, CT scans and other tests. Treatment often conservative.
Chronic laryngeal stenosis - narrowing of the larynx occurs gradually, accompanied by a progressive decrease in the number of air entering the respiratory ways to slow the development of hypoxia. The leading symptoms of chronic laryngeal stenosis are dyspnea and inspiratory different in severity hoarseness. Diagnosis of chronic stenosis of the larynx is to conduct mikrolaringoskopii, phonation studies, CT larynx, analysis of blood gas composition, X-ray of lungs, EKG, etc. With regard to chronic stenosis of the larynx is possible to use a variety of surgical procedures and medication treatment, the choice of which is dictated by the cause of stenosis and emerged cardiopulmonary complications.
Chronic stomatitis - inflammation of oral mucosa, having a long duration with periodic remissions and exacerbations. Depending on the clinical form, chronic stomatitis accompanied by limited or diffuse redness of the mucous membrane, the formation of vesicles in the mouth or painful ulcers, excessive salivation, symptoms of intoxication, regional lymphadenitis. Diagnosis of chronic stomatitis include scrapings and study of oral fluid (bacteriological, cytological, PCR, biochemical, immunological), consulting a dentist and others. Specialists. Treatment of chronic stomatitis involves removal of etiological factors, local treatment of oral, systemic causal treatment.
Chronic tonsillitis - a chronic, flowing with exacerbations, inflammation of the tonsils (tonsils) as a result of frequent sore throats. When the disease is marked pain on swallowing, sore throat, bad breath, increased morbidity and submandibular lymph nodes. Being a chronic focus of infection in the body, it lowers the immune system and can cause the development of pyelonephritis, infective endocarditis, rheumatism, arthritis, adnexitis, prostatitis, infertility, and others.
Chronic cholangitis - an inflammatory disease of the biliary tract (both intra- and extrahepatic ducts), characterized by a long recurrent and lead to cholestasis. The main clinical signs - a combination of pain in the liver, high fever, chills and jaundice. The diagnosis is based on ultrasonography of the pancreas and biliary tract, retrograde cholangiopancreatography, CT biliary tract, biochemical and blood count. Combined Treatment: conservative antibiotic therapy, pain relief, detoxification, surgical decompression of the biliary tract.
Chronic cystitis - long flowing inflammation, which leads to structural and functional changes of the bladder wall. Chronic cystitis can occur latently, with alternating exacerbations and remissions or permanent symptoms. Diagnosis of chronic cystitis based on the results of analyzes of urine, vaginal flora in women, testing for sexually transmitted diseases, urinary organs ultrasound, cystography, cystoscopy, biopsy endovezikalnoy. In chronic cystitis spend antibacterial treatment, correction of hormonal and immune status, microcirculation, local therapy and prevention of relapse, according to testimony - surgery.
Chronic esophagitis - inflammation of the inner layer of the esophagus (mucosa), whose symptoms persist for more than six months. Chronic esophagitis is manifested dysphagia, chest pain, heartburn, regurgitation and vomiting. The survey plan in chronic esophagitis include X-rays of the esophagus and oesophagoscopy with biopsy, and esophageal manometry esophageal pH meter, a sample of acid perfusion according to Bernstein, a general analysis of blood, fecal occult blood. Treatment of predominantly conservative (pharmacological and non-pharmacological), with its inefficiency and the development of complications - surgical.
Chronic otitis media with effusion - chronic purulent inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the tympanic cavity. Chronic otitis media with effusion is characterized by progressive hearing impairment, ear congestion, syringmus, feeling of fullness from the affected ear, ear noise that arises in the head movements. Chronic otitis media with effusion is diagnosed based on otoscopy data mikrootoskopii, research eustachian tube, audiogram, acoustic impedance and CT of the temporal bone. Treatment of patients with chronic otitis media with effusion, is the rehabilitation of the nasopharynx, the restoration of patency of the eustachian tube and auditory function, preventing hardening of the middle ear cavity.
Chronic enteritis - inflammatory-dystrophic pathology of the small intestine, leading to the breakdown of his digestive, transport and barrier functions. The symptoms distinguish local (stool disorders, flatulence, abdominal pain) and general (fatigue, irritability, headaches and dizziness, problems with the skin, nails and hair, endocrinopathies) symptoms, the disorder of all kinds of exchange. The program includes diagnostic bakanaliz feces coprogram, ultrasound UBP, X-ray and endoscopy with biopsy. Treatment is conservative, it is the appointment of a diet, antibiotic, substitution and symptomatic therapy.
Chronic enterocolitis - an inflammatory bowel disease that may develop after infectious enteropatologii, somatic diseases, the action of toxins and other factors. The main symptoms - abdominal pain, change in stool, weight loss and other symptoms of malabsorption of nutrients. For the purpose of diagnostics performed endoscopy with biopsy, X-ray examination, bacteriological examination of feces. Treatment consists of correction of intestinal motility and microflora, the appointment of antibacterial drugs and dietetics. Weather favorable.
Chronic somatoform pain disorder (idiopathic or psychogenic pain disorder) - somatoform disorder, accompanied by pain, which can not be explained by somatic diseases or occurring in the body physiological processes. Manifested persistent, often excruciating pain localization capabilities, continuing for 6 months or more. Diagnosis is based on history, complaints, data and visual inspection of the results of additional research conducted to exclude a somatic pathology. Treatment - antidepressants, psychotherapy complex analgesic therapy.
Thin lower leg or thigh often due to lack of adipose tissue or underdevelopment of the lower limbs. If a miniature figure as a whole, this disadvantage is not so clearly evident, it looks extremely ridiculous overweight at the upper part of the body like the imbalance figure. Unattractive legs is largely determined by it too thin shins or thighs. Correction of this lack of aesthetic plastic surgery techniques performed. The increase in the volume of the missing and giving the desired relief of the lower extremities is achieved by carrying out lipofilling or replacement drumsticks /thighs.
Celiac disease - genetically caused violation of intestinal function associated with a deficiency of enzymes that break down gluten peptide. If celiac disease is developing malabsorption syndrome of varying severity, accompanied by frothy diarrhea, bloating, weight loss, dry skin, delayed physical development of children. To detect celiac disease applied immunological methods (determination of antibodies to gliadin, endomysial, tissue transglutaminase), a biopsy of the small intestine. Upon confirmation of the diagnosis requires a lifelong gluten-free diet compliance, the necessary correction of deficiencies.