Ecrins spiradenoma - benign neoplasia originating from tissue ekkrinnyh sweat glands. It has many options histological structure. It is usually solitary, rarely found multiple tumors. It is a small tight knot round. The skin over the node has a normal color, cyanotic, reddish or grayish hue. Palpation is painful. Ekkrinnaya spiradenoma can be located virtually anywhere on the body, often localized at the front surface of the torso, head and limbs. Ozlokachestvlyaetsya rare. Diagnosis is based on the survey data and histological examination. surgical treatment.
Eclampsia - the most severe, critical form of preeclampsia, flowing with seizures, loss of consciousness, coma posteklampsicheskoy development. The risk of eclampsia is a high probability of severe complications in pregnant: cerebral hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, premature detachment of the placenta, kidney and liver failure, and death of the fetus. Eclampsia diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory data. Eclampsia Treatment is aimed at the creation of peace, relief of spasms, restoration and maintenance of vital functions. If eclampsia is shown an early delivery was pregnant.
Exudative-catarrhal diathesis - constitution anomaly, characterized by a tendency to infiltrative desquamative skin changes, lymphoproliferation, deficiency of the immune response and the lability of water-salt metabolism. Children have noted the appearance of various elements of the skin (erythema, gneiss, strofulyus et al.), The nature of which is pseudoallergic. It is also characterized by excess weight, high exposure to SARS, frequent inflammation of the mucous membranes (conjunctivitis, rhinitis, blepharitis). Diagnosis is based on a carefully assembled a history, clinical manifestations and the results of analyzes. complex, treatment involves desensitizing agents, zinc ointment and other drugs, a large role for non-pharmacological treatment.
Pericardial effusion - pleural infection, tumor or other nature occurring with exudation phenomena - the formation and accumulation of pleural effusion. Pericardial effusion manifested by pain and feeling of heaviness in the affected side, cough reflex, increasing shortness of breath, febrile body temperature. Crucial in the diagnosis of exudative pleurisy is chest X-ray, ultrasound of the pleural cavity, diagnostic puncture with cytological and bacteriological examination of exudate, thoracoscopy. Treatment of exudative pleurisy is the evacuation of the accumulated fluid conducting pathogenetic and symptomatic treatment.
Exudative psoriasis - severe kind of psoriasis, characterized by a pronounced exudative component on the background of immune disorders and endocrine disease. Clinically evident formation of inflammatory foci of plaques impregnated with exudate, with thick crusts on the surface in the absence of the primary erythema. When removing the plaques are exposed to erosion, joins a secondary infection. The diagnostic triad is not a phenomenon of stearin spot, terminal saved film, drip bleeding. Diagnosis is based on clinical and immune status of the patient, various instrumental techniques are used to identify complications (radiography, arthroscopy, and so on. D.). Treatment with anti-inflammatory connecting antihistamines, vitamin therapy, ultraviolet irradiation.
Extrasystole - version of heart rhythm disorder, is characterized by the extraordinary cuts the heart or its individual parts (extrasystoles). It manifested a strong sense of heart shock, a sense of fading heart, anxiety, lack of air. Reduced cardiac output during arrhythmia implies a reduction of coronary and cerebral blood flow and can lead to angina and transient ischemic attacks (syncope, paresis, and so on. D.). It increases the risk of developing atrial fibrillation and sudden death.
Bladder exstrophy - malformation of the genitourinary system, in which the formation of the bladder and the anterior abdominal wall in its projection remains incomplete. From birth, there is an open and turned inside out the mucous membrane of the rear wall of the bladder, as well as the permanent separation and drainage of urine from the opening in the bottom of the body of the ureter ducts. Exstrophy of the bladder is often associated with defects of the external and internal sex organs, ureters and kidneys. It is diagnosed by the characteristic external features, additionally performed radiological and ultrasound examination. Treatment operative, performed reconstructive plastic surgery and substitution.
Exfoliative dermatitis Ritter - a serious infectious skin lesions newborns, is a malignant variant of pemphigus. It is characterized by redness of the skin to form a lingering bubbles, transforming in erosion. Beginning in the mouth, the process covers all the skin and is accompanied by severe violation of the child's general condition. The diagnosis of exfoliative dermatitis Ritter is set on the basis of a typical clinic at the exclusion of other dermatological conditions with similar manifestations. Treatment consists of antibiotic therapy, parenteral administration of solutions and tools that increase antistaphylococcal immunity, treatment of affected areas.
Ectopic opening of the ureter - the ureter anomaly topography consisting in atypical or intravesical extracystic location of his mouth. When extracystic ectopic ureteral orifice marked the involuntary leakage of urine on the background Save urination; intravesical types of anomalies are accompanied by the development of pyelonephritis and ureterohydronephrosis. Diagnosis of ectopic ureteral orifice may include conducting ultrasound, cystoscopy and ureteroscopy, excretory urography, cystography, ureteropyelography, renal angiography, pelvic examination in women, sigmoidoscopy, and others. Research. When preserved kidney function is carried out imposing uretero-ureteroanastomoza or ureteropieloanastomoza. In case of loss of kidney function is a partial or total nephroureterectomy.
Cervical Ectopic - atypical location of the cylindrical (cubic) of the epithelium lining the inside of the cervical canal, on the vaginal portion of the cervix that normally covered by squamous epithelium. Uncomplicated cervical ectopia does not give the clinic; in complicated marked whites, contact bleeding, itching in the genital area, dyspareunia. Cervical Ectopic detected during gynecological examination; the diagnosis to be confirmed using the extended colposcopy, cytology scraping, if necessary - biopsy. Treatment of uncomplicated ectopia is not carried out; in complicated forms assigned causal treatment is carried out destruction of altered foci.
Cervical ectropion - a pathological condition of the cervix, at which the inversion mucosa cervical canal into the vaginal cavity. Clinical manifestations of developing ectropion accession inflammatory or premalignant cervical lesions: it may be leucorrhea and contact bleeding, menstrual dysfunction, pain in the pelvis. Cervical ectropion is diagnosed as a result of a pelvic exam, the extended colposcopy, cytological and morphological studies. ectropion Treatment of congenital or minor lesions may include electrocoagulation, laser vaporization and cryosurgery; with pronounced changes - conization, or cervical excision.
Electrocution - a complex of injuries resulting from the defeat of technical or natural electricity. Most often a consequence of work-related injury, although it may occur in the home. Usually accompanied by the appearance of the current label (elektroozhogov). It includes a number of pathological changes in the various organs and systems (cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, digestive). The diagnosis of electric shock exhibit based on history, clinical signs, CT, X-ray, ECG, EhoEG and other studies. Treatment is conservative.
Electric shock in children - a set of local and general pathological effects caused by the defeat of the child electric shock. Local manifestations of electric shock in children presents superficial and deep burns; general -. cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory arrest, paresthesias and paralysis, disorders of consciousness, etc. In establishing the fact of the child's injury electrocution monitored vital signs (ECG, blood pressure control and BH, clinical and biochemical analysis of blood and urine, etc.). When electrical accident it is important to properly and timely render the first aid on the spot and take the child to hospital. Scope for further treatment includes anti shock and symptomatic therapy, treatment of burns.
Empyema of the gallbladder - the accumulation in the cavity of the gall bladder of a large amount of pus, which occurs with the participation of a bacterial infection on the background of the cystic duct obstruction. Manifested by severe pain, an increase in temperature to high numbers, symptoms of intoxication. Diagnosis is based on physical findings, ultrasound of the liver and gall bladder, laboratory testing indicators (general and biochemical blood tests, blood cultures, and the contents of the gallbladder). Treatment of empyema gall bladder surgery with the mandatory appointment of antibacterial drugs before and after surgery.
Empyema (pyothorax) - inflammation of the pleural sheets, accompanied by the formation of purulent exudate in the pleural cavity. Empyema occurs with fever, persistently high or hectic fever, profuse sweating, tachycardia, shortness of breath, weakness. Diagnosis of pleural empyema is carried out on the basis of X-ray data, ultrasound pleural cavity, thoracentesis results of laboratory study of fluid, peripheral blood analysis. Treatment of acute pleural empyema includes drainage and sanitation of the pleural cavity, massive antibiotic therapy, detoxication therapy; torakostomiya can be performed in patients with chronic empyema, thoracoplasty, pleurectomy with decortication of the lung.
Emphysema - a chronic nonspecific lung disease, which is based on a persistent, irreversible expansion pneumatic spaces and increased swelling of lung tissue distal to the terminal bronchioles. Emphysema appears expiratory dyspnea, cough with a small amount of mucous expectoration, signs of respiratory distress, recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. Pathology Diagnosis is made based on the data auscultation, X-ray and CT scan, spirography, blood gas analysis. Conservative treatment of emphysema includes receiving bronchodilators, corticosteroids, oxygen therapy; in some cases shown resection surgery.
Endocarditis - an inflammation of the connective tissue (inner) lining of the heart lining and valves of its cavity, often of an infectious nature. Manifested high fever, weakness, chills, shortness of breath, cough, chest pain, thickening of the nail phalanxes of the type "drumsticks." Often leads to the defeat of the heart valves (aortic or mitral often), the development of heart disease and heart failure. Possible recurrence, mortality in endocarditis is 30%.
Endocrine ophthalmopathy - progressive organ damage soft tissues of the orbit and the eye that develops against the background of autoimmune thyroid disease. Current endocrine ophthalmopathy is characterized by exophthalmos, diplopia, swelling and inflammation of the eye tissues, limiting the mobility of the eyeball, corneal changes, optic disc, intraocular hypertension. Diagnosis of endocrine ophthalmopathy requires an ophthalmological examination (exophthalmometer, biomicroscopy, CT orbit); the study of the immune system (determination of the level of Ig, AT to TG, AT to TPO, antinuclear antibodies, etc.), endocrinological examinations (T4 St., T3 St., thyroid ultrasound, biopsy). endocrine ophthalmopathy Treatment is aimed at achieving the euthyroid state; may include drug therapy or removal of the thyroid gland.
Endocrine infertility - a complex hormonal imbalance, leading to irregular ovulation or her absence in females and sperm in males as a violation. It is based may lie disorders of the thyroid gland, gonads, hypothalamus-pituitary regulation. Treatment of endocrine infertility is to eliminate its causes, correction of existing violations and maintaining normal hormonal levels. The normalization of the disturbed functions resulting in pregnancy in 70-80% of cases of endocrine infertility. In other cases it is currently considered promising the removal of endocrine infertility by IVF.
Endometriosis is a hormone-dependent pathological proliferation of the glandular tissue of the uterus (endometrium) outside: the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, uterine thicker in the bladder, on the peritoneum, rectum, and other, more distant organs. Endometrial fragments (heterotopia), growing in other organs, such as undergoing cyclic changes as the endometrium in the uterus, in accordance with the phases of the menstrual cycle. These endometrial changes occur pain, increase in volume of the affected organ, monthly bleeding from the heterotopias, menstrual dysfunction, secretions from the breast, infertility.
Skin Endometriosis - a benign proliferation of dermal tissue, morphologically similar to the inside lining of the uterus (endometrium). Clinically manifested form of solitary or multiple dense knots lobed purple hue, mainly located in the genital area, the navel and scars of the anterior abdominal wall. A feature of these structures is their ability to grow in size and bleeding during menstruation. Diagnosis is based on clinical, confirmed histologically. Treatment - radical excision of nodes with cytology to exclude metaplasia.
Endometriosis rectum - benign growths of the endometrium in the rectum. Usually it develops a second, after the spread of endometriosis in the ovaries and the peritoneum. Show constant pain in the lower abdomen, false desires, disorders stool, mucus and blood in the stool. Symptoms of endometriosis of the rectum occur a few days before the onset of menstruation and remains until it ends. The disease is diagnosed based on characteristic clinical picture, general and gynecological examination data, ultrasound, barium enema, sigmoidoscopy, and other studies. Treatment - drug therapy, excision of foci of ectopic endometrium.
Endometrioid ovarian cyst - a pathological cavernous formation on the surface of the ovary, consisting of accumulated menstrual blood, surrounded by a shell of endometrial cells. Endometrioid ovarian cysts in some cases, it may not appear for a long time, in other - accompanied by abnormal menstrual periods, infertility, pain, until the clinic "acute abdomen". Diagnosis of ovarian endometrioid cyst based on data from ultrasound and laparoscopy. Treatment of ovarian endometrioid cyst involves the surgical removal of the pathological education and long-term hormone therapy.
Endometritis - inflammation of the mucous in the inner layer of the uterus - the endometrium. Often combined with inflammation of the muscular layer of the uterus - endomyometritis. The endometrium is the inner function of the uterus, changes its structure during the menstrual cycle. Each cycle it grows and matures again in preparation for attachment of a fertilized egg, and rejected if pregnancy does not occur. The normal uterine cavity, lined with endometrium is protected against the penetration of infection. However, under certain conditions, infectious agents easily fall into the uterus and cause an inflammatory response of its inner layer - endometritis.
Endotelioma - a rare tumor originating from the inner lining of the blood or lymph vessels. It can occur in all organs and tissues, but usually affects the skin, subcutaneous fat, nasopharynx, bone, testes and ovaries. It is a round-shaped knot. node color ranges from gray to deep red. Depending on the type of growth endotelioma can be benign or malignant. Malignant tumors are characterized by slow infiltrative growth and rarely metastasize. Diagnosis is exposed to the light of the inspection data and histological examination. Treatment - surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy.
Endophthalmitis - abscessed inflammation of the internal structures of the eye, leading to the accumulation of purulent exudate in the vitreous body. When endophthalmitis marked pain in the eyeball, swelling and redness of the eyelids and conjunctiva, a significant reduction in visual acuity, hypopyon. In the diagnosis of endophthalmitis used visometry, the study of the visual fields, eye biomicroscopy, transillumination, ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, ultrasound of the eye. Comprehensive treatment of endophthalmitis includes antibiotic, detoxifying, anti-inflammatory, resolving therapy; intravitreal, subconjunctival injection or parabulbarno, paracentesis and lavage of the anterior chamber; in severe endophthalmitis - vitrectomy.
Faecal incontinence in children - a disease characterized by disturbance in childhood control defecation. The main symptom is fecal incontinence. The condition may be accompanied by somatic disease, and affects not only the gastrointestinal tract. Faecal incontinence in children may be associated with constipation, sometimes there are behavior problems in the child, that the evidence in favor of mental disorders. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and medical history data. Conducts comprehensive therapy with obligatory participation of a psychologist or psychiatrist. Forecast determined the cause of the disease.
Enteritis - inflammation in the small intestine, accompanied by a violation of its functions and degenerative changes in the mucosa. It is characterized by symptoms of disorders of the chair, which becomes a liquid or mazevidny character, bloating, rumbling, pain in the navel. Violated the general state of health, the patient loses weight. In severe cases, may develop degenerative changes, vitamin deficiencies, adrenal insufficiency.
Enterobiasis children - gelmitoznoe disease caused by roundworms - pinworms. Enterobiasis children manifested severe perianal itching (especially at night), abdominal pain, lack of appetite, nausea, upset his chair, irritability, sleep disorders, allergies, weight loss, delayed growth and development. For microscopic detection of eggs of pinworms in children produced scraping or imprinted with perianal folds on enterobiosis. Enterobiasis treatment includes deworming of children with repeated parasitological examination, personal hygiene.
Enterovirus infection in children - acute infectious diseases, agents which are intestinal viruses (enteroviruses) from the picornavirus family. Clinical manifestations of enterovirus infection in children are polymorphic; The disease can occur in the following forms: catarrhal, gastroenteriticheskoy, enterovirus fever, enterovirus exanthema, gerpanginy, serous meningitis, myocarditis, encephalomyocarditis newborns, conjunctivitis, uveitis, etc. To detect viruses in biological fluids using techniques of PCR, ELISA, TPHA Etiopatogenetichesky treatment of enterovirus infection in children is carried out by interferons, immunoglobulins, and other drugs.