Cystitis - inflammation of the bladder wall. Characterized speeded up (every 15-20 minutes), sharply painful urination in small quantities, sometimes mixed with blood, low-grade body temperature. Possible transition of the disease into a chronic form, climbing infection and the development of inflammation in the kidneys, at the descent - in the urethra. In the diagnosis of cystitis urologist help urinalysis data and ultrasound of the bladder. In order to determine the etiology of bacterial cystitis is conducted urine culture and smear from the urethra. Treatment of cystitis involves first effective drug caused an impact on its infectious agents.
Cystitis in children - urinary infection that causes inflammation of the mucosa and submucosa of the bladder. Cystitis occurs in children with pain and sharp pain when urinating, frequent urge to the pot with the release of small amounts of urine, urinary incontinence; at a young age often marked intoxication and fever. Diagnosis of cystitis in children involves urine (general analysis, bacterial inoculation test, dvuhstakannoy sample), holding ultrasound of the bladder, chronic cystitis - cystoscopy. In the treatment of cystitis in children assigned diet and enhanced drinking regime, drug therapy (uroseptic, antibacterial, antispasmodic agents), phytotherapy.
Cystitis in women - inflammation of the mucous (at least - submucosal and muscle) layer of the bladder acute or chronic course. Cystitis in women is accompanied by a painful, frequent urination with residual burning sensation and cramps, pain in the pelvic area, not enough sense of complete emptying of the bladder, low-grade fever, mucus in the urine and blood. Diagnosis of cystitis in women includes a urine examination (general analysis, Nechiporenko, bakposev), examination of the gynecologist with the study of the microflora of the vagina, bladder ultrasound, cystoscopy. In cystitis therapy in women used antibiotics uroseptiki, instillation of the bladder, physiotherapy.
Cystitis in men - inflammation of the urinary tract which affects the mucous membrane of the bladder and leads to a violation of its functions. Manifestations of cystitis in men are frequent painful urination, pain in the suprapubic region, in the urine pathological impurities. Diagnostic complex cystitis include urine examination (microscopic, bacteriological), ultrasound of the bladder, cystoscopy, cystography, MSCT. Treatment of cystitis in men requires the appointment of antimicrobial therapy, herbal medicine, physiotherapy, symptomatic treatment.
Cytomegalovirus - an infection of viral origin, sexually transmitted, transplacental, household, by blood transfusion. Symptomatic proceeds in the form of persistent cold. Marked weakness, malaise, headaches and joint pain, runny nose, and an increase in inflammation of the salivary glands, excessive salivation. Often asymptomatic. The severity of the disease is due to the general state of immunity. In generalized form of severe pockets of inflammation occur in the body. Salivary gland disease is dangerous during pregnancy: It can cause spontaneous miscarriage, congenital malformations, fetal death, congenital cytomegaly.
Tsutsugamushi - an acute rickettsial disease, flowing with fever, vasculitis and focal perivaskulitami various bodies - the central nervous system, heart, lungs, kidneys. Clinical manifestations of tsutsugamushi are characterized by high fever, primary affect, spotty-nodular skin rash, generalized lymphadenopathy. Frequent complications are tsutsugamushi meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, pleurisy, glomerulonephritis, peritonitis. The diagnosis is established by means of immunological methods (RSK, RIGA, RNIF, ELISA). Tsutsugamushi fever treatment with antibiotics (tetracyclines, macrolides, chloramphenicol, etc.).
Often ill children - the category of children exposed to high levels of acute respiratory diseases as a result of transient, correctable violations in the protective systems of the body. The group of sickly children included, carrying more than 4-6 ARI episodes per year, which can occur in different clinical forms. Often ill children should be examined by a pediatrician, ENT doctor, allergist-immunologist; diagnostic algorithm includes: KLA, seeding from the mucous of the nose and throat, infection detection by PCR, allergotesty, immunogram study, X-ray paranasal sinuses and chest. Often ill children in need of readjustment of foci of chronic infection, etiopathogenic therapy of acute respiratory disease, vaccination and prevention of non-specific.
Traumatic brain injury - damage to the skull bone and /or soft tissues (meninges, brain tissue, nerves, blood vessels). By the nature of the injury distinguish closed and open, penetrating and non-penetrating traumatic brain injury and concussion or brain injury. The clinical picture of traumatic brain injury depends on its nature and severity. The main symptoms are headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, loss of consciousness, memory impairment. brain contusion and intracerebral hematoma accompanied by focal symptoms. Diagnosis of traumatic brain injury include medical history, neurological examination, x-rays of the skull, CT scan or MRI of the brain.
Black piedra - dermatological hair disease fungal origin, mostly typical of tropical countries with warm and humid climate. This condition manifests itself in the appearance of the hair of the head (at least - a beard or mustache) stealth black nodules measuring 1-2 mm stony hardness, hereinafter - the fragility of hair and alopecia. Diagnosis is made by black Piedra inspection hair microscopy nodules, sowing scrapings for special protection for the identification of the pathogen. For the treatment used as the physical techniques (shaving of hair) and hair treatment special substances detrimental to the fungus.
Black ringworm - a fungal dermatological disease that infects the superficial layers of the skin of the palms and soles, less likely to suffer the field of the body, shoulders and forearms. There are no subjective symptoms (itching, pain, burning sensation) is the state does not, practically the only manifestation becomes the formation of black or brown spots on the skin of various sizes. Diagnosis is made by stripping the black microscopic examination of skin scrapings in defeat and dermatological examination, a supporting role clinical analyzes and the determination of the immune status of the patient. Treatment black stripping is carried out using conventional antifungal agents.
Scabies - a common parasitic skin disease is caused by scabies is Sarcoptes scabiei. and it is highly contagious. The incidence of scabies is quite high, while, despite the fact that the disease scabies is considered anti-social personalities, affects people of all social strata. Children and young people often itch register because of their mobility and more active lifestyle. Scabies Treatment requires treatment benzyl benzoate, not only the affected areas, but also the entire skin. It is accompanied by a regular change of underwear and bed linen.
Scabies in children - a highly contagious anthroponotic parasitosis, which the agent is a microscopic itch mite. The main symptoms of scabies in children are polymorphic rash (itch moves, vesicular, papular and pustular elements) and severe itching, worse in the evening and at night. The diagnosis of scabies in children is based on the results of epidemiological history, examination of the child children's dermatologist, dermoscopy, microscopic examination of scrapings. Treatment of scabies in children is carried out by the local treatment of the skin acaricides.
Transtrochanteric hip fracture - fracture of the upper part of the femur in the subtrochanteric region between the line and the base of the femoral neck. It arises as a result of falling on its side or twisting of the lower limb. In young and middle aged men suffer more often in the elderly - women. The pathology is manifested by pain, swelling and significant bleeding in the area of injury. The support is not possible. Crucial in the diagnosis of injuries have radiography, sometimes appoint more MRI and CT. Treatment is conservative (skeletal traction, plaster) or surgical (open osteosynthesis).
Overly strong labors - clinical form of labor dysfunction, manifested uterine hyperactivity disorder: excessive contractions intensity, their frequent alternation and increased tone of the myometrium. Overly strong patrimonial activity is characterized by sudden onset, rapid flow and the rapid completion of delivery; it increases the risk of severe complications from the mother and the fetus. Overly strong patrimonial activity is detected on the basis of observations of the dynamics of labor, CTG data. For relief of labor dysfunction used tocolytic drugs ftorotanovy or ether anesthesia.
Sensitive skin - one of the main types of skin characterized by an excessive response to the usual endogenous and exogenous factors (physical, chemical, hormonal, and others.). For sensitive skin, you can see signs of irritation, redness, peeling, rashes. Subjective feelings may include tingling, burning, tingling, and pain. To determine the reasons for increased sensitivity of the skin should consult a dermatologist. Only an experienced expert will be able to recommend the proper daily care of sensitive skin, choose the appropriate salon treatments and cosmetics.
Plague - highly contagious bacterial infection with multiple modes of transmission and spread of the epidemic, which flows from the feverish intoxication syndrome, lymph node, lung and skin. The clinical course of different forms of plague characterized by high fever, severe intoxication, excitement, agonizing thirst, vomiting, regional lymphadenitis, purpura, disseminated intravascular coagulation, as well as their specific symptoms (necrotic ulcers, plague buboes, ITSH, hemoptysis). Diagnosis of plague is carried out by laboratory methods (bakposev, IFA, IHA, PCR). Treatment is carried out in strict isolation: shows the tetracycline antibiotics, detoxification, pathogenetic and symptomatic therapy.
Shankriformnaya pyoderma - atypical chronic inflammatory skin lesions, characterized by the similarity of the clinical manifestations of a syphilitic chancre, which is reflected in the title. A symptom of this disease is the development of a single ulcer (sometimes multiple formations), mostly localized in the genital area, or on the red border of lips, chin, neck. Diagnosis of pyoderma shankriformnoy performed serological and microbiological methods, play a supporting role as general clinical blood tests, dermatologic examination. Treatment of this disease produce antibiotics, antiseptics, anti-microbial agents.
Ball acne (piled up acne, acne conglobata) - severe variant of acne persists into adulthood. Characterized by merging individual comedones to form a dense spherical infiltrates and blue-purple color, which is accompanied by the opening of a discharge of pus. Allow, spherical acne leave behind severe scarring. Diagnosis is based primarily on clinical disease and the results of bacteriological examination. In addition, the identification is performed concomitant hormonal, immune and somatic disorders. Treatment of acne include globular binding antibiotics, hormone therapy, injections of vitamins A and E, immunocorrection, opening and handling of acne, physiotherapy.
Cervical pregnancy - a variant of the distal ectopic pregnancy, in which implantation and development of the ovum takes place in cervical canal of the uterus. Cervical pregnancy bleeding manifested varying degrees of severity - from mild to profuse discharge of blood loss. It is a dangerous condition that is fraught with the development of fatal hemorrhagic and septic complications. Diagnosis of the neck by means of pregnancy and vaginal ultrasound diagnostic curettage. If unable to perform organ measures in cervical pregnancy conducting hysterectomy shown.
Cervical myositis - inflammation of muscles in the neck and shoulder girdle. The process may be involved as one or several muscles. The reason usually becomes localized hypothermia, unaccustomed physical exertion, prolonged stay in an uncomfortable position, and infectious diseases. The main symptom is pain, which usually covers only one side of the neck, can be given to the head, shoulder, back and arm. Movement is limited and sometimes detected a slight edema and local hyperthermia. In young children, the temperature rise is possible. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of clinical symptoms. Treatment is conservative.
Cervical plexitis - the defeat of the cervical plexus infection, trauma, compression-ischemic, toxic, dysmetabolic genesis. The clinical picture includes pain, sensory disturbances, hiccup, difficulty when attempting to cough or speak loudly, shallow and rapid breathing. Diagnosis is carried out by means of X-ray, ultrasound, imaging, electrophysiological studies. The main objective of treatment is to eliminate the causative factor in the development and recovery plexitis neuroprotective and vascular therapy.
Cervical spondylosis - degenerative disease of the cervical spine. It includes changes in the intervertebral discs, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament and the emergence of bony growths on the front and side surfaces of the vertebrae. Usually it occurs in the elderly. Maybe a long time asymptomatic. By reducing the height of the disk and joining spondyloarthrosis evident limitation of neck mobility, pain in the neck and head. To clarify the diagnosis using X-ray, MRI, CT, myelography, electromyography and other studies. Treatment is usually conservative.
Cervical spondyloarthrosis - degenerative-dystrophic process in the small joints of the cervical spine. Usually it strikes people between the ages of 50-55 years of age and older. After the injury, in some diseases and pathological conditions spondyloarthrosis signs can be detected in young and middle-aged persons. The disease manifests night pain, pain on movement, and after the static load, morning stiffness and restriction of movement. When compression of the nerve roots emerge neurological disorders. Clarify diagnosis using X-ray, MRI, radioisotope scan, vascular ultrasound and other studies. Treatment is conservative.
Schizoid personality disorder (schizoid personality disorder) - a disorder characterized by insularity, uncommunicative, emotional coldness, poor ability to empathize and to establish a warm relationship of trust, low need for social contact, immersion into the inner world and a tendency toward autistic fantasy. There are persistent unusual hobbies, which the patient is rarely shared with other people. Schizoid personality disorder manifests itself in early childhood and persists throughout life. Diagnosis is based on medical history and interviews with patients. Treatment - psychotherapy, social rehabilitation.
Schizophrenia - a mental disorder, accompanied by the development of fundamental violations of perception, thinking and emotional reactions. It features significant clinical polymorphism. The most common symptoms of schizophrenia include fiction or paranoid delusions, auditory hallucinations, disturbances in thinking and speech, flattened or inadequate affects and gross violations of social adaptation. Diagnosis is based on history, interrogation of the patient and his relatives. Treatment - drug therapy, psychotherapy, social rehabilitation and readaptation.
Shistosomatidny dermatitis - dermatological diseases parasitic nature, caused by infection of the skin by larvae (cercariae) of schistosomes (one of the genera or trematode flatworms). Symptoms of this condition are itching, red spots and papules on the skin, urticaria and allergic swelling. In rare cases, a fever, a dry cough, dizziness. Diagnosis shistosomatidnogo dermatitis is based on the results of the dermatological examination and patient history data. Generally, symptomatic treatment of disease, the use of specific antiparasitic agents is required.
Schistosomiasis - helminth disease caused by blood flukes, schistosomes; proceeding with toxic and allergic reactions, gastrointestinal lesions and urinary organs. Acute period of schistosomiasis is characterized by fever, papular rash and itching of the skin; in the chronic phase may develop cystitis, pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis, coleitis, prostatitis, epididymitis, or colitis, hepatosplenomegaly, ascites. Schistosomiasis is diagnosed through the detection of helminth eggs in the urine or stool samples, carrying out cystoscopy, urography. For the treatment of schistosomiasis used worming agent; Surgical treatment is indicated.
Esophagitis - inflammatory lesion of esophageal mucosa. Manifestations of esophagitis can be a burning pain behind the breastbone, violation of swallowing, heartburn, increased salivation. Complication of esophagitis may be the peptic ulcer, stenosis, perforation of the esophagus, Barrett's disease. Diagnosis is made up of a minimum of esophagoscopy, endoscopic biopsy and esophageal radiography. Treatment is prescribed based on the etiology of esophagitis; It includes diet, medication, physical therapy; if necessary - surgical treatment of esophageal narrowing (probing, dissection of scar stricture, etc).
Eczema - an inflammatory disease of the skin, which has a long chronic course with frequent exacerbations. It is characterized by polymorphic rash, redness extending stage - formation of nodules - bubbles - weeping erosions - scabs - peeling. Eruptions are accompanied by a burning sensation, pruritus. High probability of joining secondary purulent infection. Especially dangerous infections in children, t. To.'s Sarcoma may develop eczema which can be fatal. Launched over can lead to neurosis: insomnia, irritability, as well as resistant cosmetic skin defects. Treatment of eczema depends on its shape and flow. Effective use of systemic corticosteroids, extracorporeal hemocorrection, local therapy and physiotherapy.
Ekkrinnaya Porus - one of the rare species of the dermis mostly benign tumors are localized in the excretory duct ekkrinnoy sweat gland. Generally located in the epidermal portion of the duct. It is characterized by the presence of a slightly painful tumor-elastic formation with a smooth glossy surface or papillomatosis maroon-pink color with a diameter of not more than 2 cm above the level of the dermis healthy. Nodes usually found on the soles, palms, and rarely on the trunk, may be lobed structure include telangiectasia. Clinical diagnosis is based on the inspection data biopsy, cytology. Treatment - radical excision of the tumor.