Enzyme pancreatic insufficiency - limited secretion or low activity of pancreatic enzymes, leading to a breach of digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gut. Manifested progressive weight loss, bloating, anemia, steatorrhea, polifekaliey, diarrhea and polyhypovitaminosis. Diagnosis is based on laboratory research methods exocrine pancreas, carrying coprogram, determining the level of enzymes in the feces. Treatment includes treatment of the underlying disease, normalization of nutrients entering the body, the introduction of substitution of pancreatic enzymes, symptomatic treatment.
Fetal alcohol syndrome - a collection of birth defects caused by teratogenic effects of ethanol on the developing fetus. Fetal alcohol syndrome is characterized by prenatal malnutrition, retarded child's physical and psychological development, mental retardation, craniofacial manifestations dysmorphic, congenital heart defects, breach of skeletal development, and others. Anomalies. Diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is based on the presence of alcohol history in the mother, multiple violations of the child's development. Treatment of fetal alcohol syndrome is aimed at correcting the severe anatomic defects, the organization of medical and psycho-pedagogical support of the child.
Placental insufficiency - a complex of morphological and functional disorders on the part of the fetus and placenta which develops as a result of various extragenital and gynecologic pathology and pregnancy complications. The presence of placental insufficiency may be accompanied by a threat of termination of pregnancy, hypoxia, and delayed fetal development, and so on. D. Diagnosis of placental insufficiency based on the ultrasound data CTG, Doppler utero-placental blood flow. Treatment of placental insufficiency requires treatment of the underlying disease; courses of medication to improve fruit and uterine blood flow, correction of hypoxic fetal disorders; if necessary - early delivery.
Fibrosis of the pancreas - diffuse peri- and intralobulyarnoe substitution healthy functioning pancreatic tissue connective centers. The main symptoms are severe exocrine (digestive disorders, weight loss, diarrhea) and endocrine organ failure (impaired carbohydrate metabolism). Diagnosis involves performing laboratory tests, ultrasound of the pancreas, CT biopsy. Treatment is aimed at correcting exocrine insufficiency (enzyme preparations), hyperglycemia. Prognosis is poor: a complete cure is not possible, if adequate treatment is achievable compensation pancreatic insufficiency.
Fibrosing alveolitis - a pathological process, which is based on an extensive loss of interstitial lung tissue, leading to the development of fibrosis and respiratory failure. The progression of fibrosing alveolitis is accompanied by a steady increase of weakness, weight loss, shortness of breath, unproductive cough, chest pain, cyanosis. Diagnosis is based on data from X-ray and computed tomography lung, spirometry, lung biopsy. Treatment of fibrosing alveolitis include anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapy, oxygen therapy; on the testimony - lung transplantation.
Fibrous dysplasia - bone loss in which the portion of the normal bone tissue is replaced by connective tissue with the inclusion of trabecular bone. Fibrous dysplasia is classified as tumor diseases can be local or widespread, hitting one or more bones. Reasons for development are not clear, it is not ruled out a genetic predisposition. Manifested by pain, deformity, shortening or lengthening of the segment and pathological fractures. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of X-ray, MRI, CT scan and other studies. Treatment is usually surgical.
Fibrous periodontitis - chronic inflammation of the periodontal tissues. Typically, the disease is asymptomatic. Characteristic changes, pointing to the development of fibrotic periodontitis exhibit during radiographic examination. During exacerbation of chronic inflammatory periodontal appear tenderness to biting, redness and swelling of the mucous membrane in the projection of the tops of the roots of the causal tooth. Diagnosis of the disease include the collection of complaints, clinical examination, radiography, EDI. Treatment of fibrotic periodontitis aims to eliminate occlusal overload elimination of periapical inflammatory focus.
Fibrous pulpitis - a kind of chronic inflammation of the pulp, the hallmark of which is the proliferation in the tooth cavity of fibrous connective tissue. Fibrous pulpitis occurs with a constant feeling of heaviness in the tooth; tooth response to thermal, chemical and mechanical stimuli in the form of the long-term running aching, nagging pain; bad smell from the mouth; the presence of a deep cavity. Diagnose fibrous pulpitis allow medical history and examination data (sounding percussion termoprob), tooth X-ray, electric pulp test. Treatment includes fibrous pulpitis vital /non-vital pulpotomy or pulp extirpation.
Fibrolipoma breast - a benign tumor composed of fatty and fibrous tissue. Usually it occurs in women older than 40 years. It is a painless dense mobile node is not soldered to the skin and underlying tissues. For a long, asymptomatic. With an increase can cause visible deformation of the breast. Possible calcification. Malignancy is rare. The basis for diagnosis are the inspection data, the results of mammography, breast ultrasound and other studies. surgical treatment. For small fibrolipoma without causing a cosmetic defect, sometimes restricted to supervision.
Uterine Fibroids - benign tumor of mature, having the structure of connective tissue, and emanating from the walls of the uterus. Clinical manifestations of uterine fibroids are directly related to its growth and may include disorders of menstruation, pain and pressure in the abdomen, dizuricheskie disorders, constipation, back pain. Uterine fibroids are diagnosed as a result of a pelvic exam, ultrasound, ultrasound -gisterosalpingoskopii, CT and MRI. uterine fibroid treatment can be conservative (medication), surgery (nephron-sparing or radical), minimally invasive (endovascular).
Fibroids - benign tumor that develops from connective tissue. It may occur in the skin, tendons, internal organs (uterus, ovaries), the mammary gland. breast fibroma appears as a dense, spherical seal painless, sometimes accompanied by a feeling of fullness chest before menstruation. Upon detection of fibroids should be removed a malignant tumor of the breast, you must observe in mammalogy for deciding on methods Lechenia.v most cases, fibroids breast must be removed because of the risk of its malignant transformation.
Oral fibroma - a benign tumor consisting of mature connective tissue fibers. It is a clearly delimited rounded nodule on the leg or the wide basis, covered with intact mucosa. It is characterized by slow growth of exophytic. Fibroma of the oral cavity can be located on the inside of the cheeks, the mucous membrane of the lips, soft palate, gums, tongue. Diagnosis of fibroids oral made by inspection, palpation, ultrasound and histological examination. Orthopantomogram, radiography and parodontogramma used to detect inflammatory processes that cause the formation of fibroids. Treatment fibroma oral reduces its resection, whose radio-wave laser or a knife can be used.
Ovarian fibroma - connective, hormonally inactive benign ovarian tumor nature. Symptoms of fibroid tumors of the ovary develops when a tumor of considerable size and appears ascites, anemia, rarely hydrothorax (Meigs syndrome). The diagnosis applied gynecological examination, ultrasound, CT; clarifying the diagnosis of ovarian fibroma is put on the results of histological examination of the tumor tissue. Treatment of ovarian fibroma - fast - removal of the tumor, sometimes with the defeat of the uterus.
Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor of connective tissue origin. Developed in the thickness of the muscle, it may cause long asymptomatic. It is a painless, round, dense, hummocky node, well delimited from the surrounding tissue. The skin over the tumor is not changed. Highly differentiated fibrosarcoma, tend to occur quite favorable, low-grade can give hematogenous and nodal metastases. Diagnosis is exposed to the light of the clinical symptoms, X-ray data, CT, MRI, biopsy and other investigations. Treatment - surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy.
Fibroepithelial nevi - benign melanomoneopasnoe formation of skin as small as 1.5 cm, located on the leg and having a soft consistency. Pigmentation nevus may vary from normal skin color to a brown color. In the diagnosis of nevus fibroepithelial leading role for inspection or dermatologist Dermatooncology. Used dermatoscopy, Ultrasonography and Siascopy. Histology nevus undergoes already remote. Get rid of the nevus fibroepithelial possible by means of liquid nitrogen, electrocautery, radiofrequency or laser ablation method.
Filariasis - a group of transmissible helminth diseases caused by filarial - nematodes, parasitic in the lymphatic system and the subcutaneous tissue. Filariases Common symptoms include fever, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, skin rashes, lymphostasis with the development of elephantiasis of the arms, legs, scrotum, eye damage, etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by detection of filariasis microfilariae in smears and thick drop of blood or skin biopsies; positive results of immunological diagnostics (RSK, TPHA, ELISA). In filariasis conducted antiparasitic diethylcarbamazine therapy; on indications made sanitation of purulent lesions surgical treatment of elephantiasis.
Phimosis - a condition in which the exposure of the glans penis is painful or impossible due to narrowing of the foreskin. Phimosis may be either pathologic or physiologic. In 96% of newborn boys head of the penis does not open completely due to insufficient mobility of the foreskin. In boys at the age of 6 months physiological phimosis detected in 80% of cases. The boys at the age of 3 free the glans penis is exposed in 90% of cases. Sometimes physiological phimosis disappears only at the age of 6-7 years.
Fitodermatit - inflammatory skin changes that occur when exposed to the plants contained in the chemical. Fitodermatit develops at the site of skin contact with the plant and can be manifested by redness, erythematous spots, bubbles, blisters, necrosis areas. Inflammatory skin changes are usually accompanied by a burning sensation, itching or soreness. The diagnosis fitodermatita quite simple dermatological examination and detection of lesions in the patient survey their relationship with plants influence. fitodermatita Treatment is carried out by local application of shaken suspensions, lotions and ointments glucocorticoid, anti-inflammatory and desensitizing agents.
Phlebitis - acute or chronic inflammation of the vein wall. It may develop as a result of various factors, but most often a complication of varicose veins. The disease rarely occurs in isolation. vein wall changes as a result of inflammation, as a rule, lead to the formation of blood clots and phlebitis in transition thrombophlebitis. To diagnose phlebitis medical help such modern methods of research as a Doppler ultrasound and duplex scanning. Conservative treatment, including anti-inflammatory therapy and physiotherapy.
Flebotodermiya (mosquito dermatosis) - itchy parasitic enthomosis characterized sensitized reaction to a mosquito bite dermis sort Phlebotomus. Clinically it manifested in the development of inflammation during the first hours after the mosquito bite of a mosquito in the form of hyperemia, which formed the background to the itchy blisters. Over time, they become papule and then into dense nodes, itching becomes unbearable. Typically, the general condition is not violated, the phenomenon is sometimes possible prodrome. In severe cases of angioedema occurs, preceded bullous rash, opened with the addition of a secondary infection. Causal therapy does not exist, using hormones and antihistamines.
Cellulitis - purulent process in adipose tissue, which has no clear boundaries and prone to spread to surrounding tissues. The causative agent is most often Staphylococcus aureus. Cellulitis can be primary and secondary. It is manifested malaise and intoxication, a significant increase in body temperature, severe tenderness to palpation and movement of the affected area. Superficial abscess is characterized by probing dense infiltrate, which gradually softened, transformed into a pus-filled cavity. cellulitis treatment is carried out by its incision and drainage, the use of proteolytic enzymes and wound healing ointments.
Cellulitis of the orbit (orbital cellulitis) - diffuse purulent inflammation of the orbital fat. Cellulitis of the orbit is characterized by severe general condition (headache, nausea, febrile temperature), throbbing pain in orbit, exophthalmos, diplopia, edema and hyperemia of the eyelids, conjunctiva chemosis, decreased visual acuity, restriction of mobility of the eyeball. Diagnosing cellulitis of the orbit involves the establishment of communication of disease with purulent infections (sinusitis, boils person dacryocystitis complicated by injuries of the orbit, and others.), Radiography, ultrasound, CT scan of the orbit and paranasal sinuses, ortopantomogrammu. Treatment requires systemic and topical antibiotics, incision and drainage phlegmon of the orbit.
Newborn Cellulitis - it's hard to necrotic skin and subcutaneous fat, which is characterized by the rapid spread of the pathological process and tissue death. Clinical manifestations include intoxication syndrome, lesion of the skin and underlying tissues to their further exclusion. Diagnosis is to collect medical history, visual examination and determination of the symptoms of cellulitis newborn laboratory detection of signs of inflammation. Complex treatment - antibiotic therapy and surgery with the application of "cuts".
Phlegmon admaxillary - purulent fusion of subcutaneous fat in the maxillofacial area. Most often has odontogenic character, but could be due to penetration of infection of the affected areas of stomatitis or pustular skin elements. Characterized by a sharp soreness in the jaw, limited mouth opening and labored swallowing, swelling of the face and neck, severe general condition, fever, high body temperature. Displaying surgical opening of cellulitis. Admaxillary abscess is a terrible danger in the spread of infection in the mediastinum (mediastinitis) or meninges (meningitis), which often leads to the death of patients.
Phlegmonous appendicitis - an acute inflammation of the appendix, it is accompanied by pronounced edema, an accumulation of pus and fibrin deposition on the surface. Manifested by severe pain, especially in the lower right abdominal area may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, a temperature rise. Diagnosis is based on history taking, examination, appoint more general analysis of blood, sometimes abdominal ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment operative, you need emergency surgery to remove the appendix (classical or laparoscopic). Forecast with timely assistance favorable.
Fluorosis - loss of tooth enamel, associated with constant and long ingestion of excessive amounts of fluoride. Fluorosis can wear endemic and professional character. Manifested appearance on the teeth at first whitish, then yellow spots or stripes, erosive or destructive changes of enamel. In severe cases, accompanied by a lesion of the bone tissue of the skeleton. In the case of fluorosis diagnosis the patient must first change being used by him drinking water. fluorosis Treatment consists mainly in the aesthetic and mineral recovery of affected teeth. To this end, a whitening, remineralization, restoration, installation of crowns.
Phobic disorder (phobia) - sudden intense fear steadily arising from certain objects, activities, or situations. It is combined with the avoidance of the feared situation and anxiously waiting. Mild forms of phobias are common, but the diagnosis is "phobic disorder" is established only when the fear of the patient and limits the negative impact on the various aspects of his life: personal relationships, social activities, professional realization. The diagnosis is carried out on the basis of history. Treatment - psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy.
Phobophobia - fear of occurrence of phobias, the fear of fear. Unlike all other phobias, it is not associated with a specific object, activity or situation. Provokes horror at once felt a sense of intense anxiety, a sense of helplessness and hopelessness of the situation, is the fear, "closed on itself." Phobophobia occurs in people who suffer or have suffered other phobias ever experienced one or more panic attacks. Diagnosis is based on medical history and the patient's complaints. Treatment - psychotherapy, drug therapy.
Folic acid deficiency anemia - megaloblastic anemia due to violation of medullary hematopoiesis due to deficiency of folic acid (B9 vitamin). If folic acid deficiency anemia develop all the symptoms of anemia (pallor, fatigue, tachycardia, decreased blood pressure), slight jaundice, enlarged spleen, anorexia, unstable chair. In order to confirm the diagnosis carried out a study hemogram, bone marrow, the determination of folic acid levels in erythrocytes and blood serum. Treatment B9-deficiency anemia requires folic acid replacement therapy.
Folliculitis - infection of the middle and deep parts of the hair follicle, resulting in its purulent inflammation. Folliculitis may be bacterial, fungal, viral, parasitic etiology. It is manifested in the appearance of hair growth in places of single or multiple pustules, which runs through the middle of hair. Revealed the pustules form sores, their healing at a deep lesion of the hair follicle is accompanied by scarring. Diagnosis of folliculitis is carried out by dermoscopy, smear microscopy and research discharge pustules. Treatment is carried out with solutions of aniline dyes, antiseptics, local and systemic application etiotropic drugs: antibiotics, antifungals, acyclovir.