Endophthalmitis - abscessed inflammation of the internal structures of the eye, leading to the accumulation of purulent exudate in the vitreous body. When endophthalmitis marked pain in the eyeball, swelling and redness of the eyelids and conjunctiva, a significant reduction in visual acuity, hypopyon. In the diagnosis of endophthalmitis used visometry, the study of the visual fields, eye biomicroscopy, transillumination, ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, ultrasound of the eye. Comprehensive treatment of endophthalmitis includes antibiotic, detoxifying, anti-inflammatory, resolving therapy; intravitreal, subconjunctival injection or parabulbarno, paracentesis and lavage of the anterior chamber; in severe endophthalmitis - vitrectomy.
Faecal incontinence in children - a disease characterized by disturbance in childhood control defecation. The main symptom is fecal incontinence. The condition may be accompanied by somatic disease, and affects not only the gastrointestinal tract. Faecal incontinence in children may be associated with constipation, sometimes there are behavior problems in the child, that the evidence in favor of mental disorders. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and medical history data. Conducts comprehensive therapy with obligatory participation of a psychologist or psychiatrist. Forecast determined the cause of the disease.
Enteritis - inflammation in the small intestine, accompanied by a violation of its functions and degenerative changes in the mucosa. It is characterized by symptoms of disorders of the chair, which becomes a liquid or mazevidny character, bloating, rumbling, pain in the navel. Violated the general state of health, the patient loses weight. In severe cases, may develop degenerative changes, vitamin deficiencies, adrenal insufficiency.
Enterobiasis children - gelmitoznoe disease caused by roundworms - pinworms. Enterobiasis children manifested severe perianal itching (especially at night), abdominal pain, lack of appetite, nausea, upset his chair, irritability, sleep disorders, allergies, weight loss, delayed growth and development. For microscopic detection of eggs of pinworms in children produced scraping or imprinted with perianal folds on enterobiosis. Enterobiasis treatment includes deworming of children with repeated parasitological examination, personal hygiene.
Enterovirus infection in children - acute infectious diseases, agents which are intestinal viruses (enteroviruses) from the picornavirus family. Clinical manifestations of enterovirus infection in children are polymorphic; The disease can occur in the following forms: catarrhal, gastroenteriticheskoy, enterovirus fever, enterovirus exanthema, gerpanginy, serous meningitis, myocarditis, encephalomyocarditis newborns, conjunctivitis, uveitis, etc. To detect viruses in biological fluids using techniques of PCR, ELISA, TPHA Etiopatogenetichesky treatment of enterovirus infection in children is carried out by interferons, immunoglobulins, and other drugs.
Enteroviral infections are a group of infectious diseases that develop when a person affected by the virus Enterovirus genus, characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations. Enterovirus Infection can occur through food, at least - aerosol. Characterized by high fever, malaise, diarrhea, skin rash polymorphic. Enterovirus infections may occur in the form gerpanginy, myalgia, viral meningitis. Rare forms include Enterovirus pancreatitis, nephritis, encephalitis, pericarditis, and eye disease.
Enterocolitis - acute and chronic digestive disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the small and large intestine. The symptom when enterocolitis include abdominal pain, symptoms of digestive disorders (nausea, flatulence, rumbling in the abdomen, diarrhea or constipation, mucus and blood in the stool). Enterocolitis diagnosed based on laboratory data (coprogram, bacteriological seeding feces) and tools (colonoscopy, x-ray) studies. Treatment consists of a diet, taking medication (antibiotics, enzymes, probiotics), carrying out physiotherapy.
Enteropathy - a chronic pathology of intestinal non-inflammatory origin, which is based on fermentopathy or congenital abnormalities of the small intestine. Clinically manifested by pain in the umbilical region, with diarrhea of varying severity and malabsorption. For the diagnosis of malabsorption are used: X-ray barium passage through the small intestine, videokapsulnaya endoscopy, morphological study of biopsy specimens. Treatment involves finding and eliminating the causes of disease development, the appointment of an appropriate diet and the use of enzyme preparations, antibiotics and intestinal eubiotics to improve digestion in the small intestine.
Enteropathic acrodermatitis (Brandt syndrome, Dalbolta-Kloss's disease) - an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, which is the main link of pathogenesis is a violation of zinc absorption in the small intestine. For typical manifestations of this disease related to zinc deficiency - defeat the gastrointestinal tract, rash formation, vesicles and pustules on the skin, alopecia, reduced immunity, decreasing body weight. Diagnosis is made by examining the concentration of zinc ions in the plasma, the absorption rate of the radioactive Zn-65 zinc excretion via the urinary system. Treatment - receiving high doses of the compounds of trace elements (eg, zinc oxide).
Enuresis - the involuntary syndrome, uncontrolled urination, urinary incontinence, especially during sleep. More common in children of preschool and early school age with a history of concomitant neurological pathology. Causes psychological trauma in children, conflicts with peers in the collective punishment of the parents in the family, neurosis, which further exacerbates the enuresis. Often it occurs together with other urological diseases (cystitis, pyelonephritis). The main objective of the diagnosis of enuresis is to identify its cause. To do this, we conduct a full urological examination, as well as neurological and psychological testing of the patient.
Enuresis in children - a violation of the controlled emptying of the bladder, accompanied by involuntary urination during sleep. Enuresis in children manifests leak urine during sleep that can occur intermittently or repeated up to several times per night. Diagnosis of enuresis in children requires the establishment of the causes of violations and includes voiding diary, laboratory tests of blood and urine tests, ultrasound of the bladder, urodynamic studies, neurological examination, and so forth. In the treatment of enuresis in children applied psychotherapy, physiotherapy, drug therapy.
Enhondroma - benign tumor that consists of cartilage. Localized intraosseous, usually - in the diaphyseal area and metadiaphysis tubular bones. Most often it affects the small tubular bones of the hands and feet, can be both single and multiple. Usually asymptomatic, large enhondromy can cause deformation of the limb segment. Sometimes enhondroma complicated by pathological fracture. Degeneration of a malignant tumor is rare. The diagnosis is confirmed by means of X-ray, CT scan and biopsy. Treatment operative.
Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain substance. The term "encephalitis" refers to infectious, allergic, infectious, allergic and toxic brain damage. Distinguish primary (tick, mosquito Japanese encephalitis savings) and secondary (measles, flu-like, post-vaccination) encephalitis. In the event of any cause of encephalitis require a comprehensive therapy. As a general rule, it includes etiotropic treatment (antiviral, antibacterial, anti-allergic), dehydration, fluid therapy, anti-inflammatory treatment, vascular and neuroprotective therapy, symptomatic treatment. Have borne encephalitis patients also require rehabilitative treatment.
Rasmussen's encephalitis - a progressive encephalitis, affecting only one brain hemisphere and has a chronic course. Clinically is a combination of Kozhevnikov epilepsy, cognitive decline and focal sensorimotor deficits. During the diagnostic data are compared medical history, neurological examination, EEG, perimetry, tomographic brain studies. Treatment includes anti-epileptic, glucocorticosteroid, immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive components. Possible surgical treatment, which aims to "turn off" the affected hemisphere of the central nervous system functioning.
St. Louis encephalitis - a viral natural focal neuroinfections, primarily affecting the shell and the brain substance. Debuts acute obscheinfektsionnymi, meningeal and cerebral symptoms. Observed disorders of consciousness, headache, vomiting, spastic muscle hypertonus, paresis, depression and abdominal tendon reflexes, episyndrome. Diagnosis is based on epidemiological data, neurological examination results, clinical analysis, the study of cerebrospinal fluid, serological assays and brain tomography examination. Treatment antiviral symptomatic and neurometabolic.
Encephalopathy - generalizing the name of the variety in its genesis of pathological processes, which are based on the degeneration of neurons in the brain due to a violation of their metabolism. Encephalopathy manifested polymorphic neurological disorders, disorders in the intellectual-mental and emotional-volitional sphere. Diagnostic search consists of a comprehensive neurological examination and establish the causal pathology. encephalopathy treatment is to remove it which caused a pathological condition, the causal treatment of the disease and maintain optimal metabolism of cerebral neurons.
Encephalocele - a malformation of the skull and the brain, in which part of the brain substance is outside the skull due to the bone defect. Manifested visible protrusion of bone junction, accompanied by a variety of symptoms, depending on the size and location. Possible convulsions, hydrocephalus, liquorrhea, visual disturbances, symptoms of mental retardation. encephalocele diagnosis is based on the clinical picture of developmental abnormalities when confirming the results of CT and MRI. Treatment operative, carried out the removal of the hernia sac and closure of the bone defect.
Eosinophilic pneumonia - an allergy, inflammation of lung tissue, accompanied by the formation of unstable migratory infiltrates of eosinophilic nature and development of hypereosinophilia. The disease usually occurs with malaise, low-grade fever, a small dry cough, sometimes with scanty sputum; the acute form - with chest pain, myalgia, development of acute respiratory failure. Set eosinophilic pneumonia allow data radiography and CT of the lungs, the general analysis of blood, bronchoalveolar lavage, allergy tests, serodiagnosis. The basis of treatment is specific desensitization and hormonal therapy.
ependymoma brain - tumor tissue of ependymal ventricular system of the brain. Clinically evident, above all, signs of increased intracranial pressure, as well as ataxia, disorders of the eye and ear, convulsive seizures, speech and swallowing. Diagnosis is carried out mainly with the help of MRI of the brain, spinal puncture, EEG, histological examination. The basis of treatment is radical removal of ependymomas followed by radiation or chemotherapy. In adults, the use stereotactic radiosurgery.
Epiglottitis in children - acute bacterial inflammation, epiglottis and hypopharynx exciting fabrics and accompanied by life-threatening upper airway obstruction. Development of epiglottitis in children occurs rapidly: within a few hours increases dysphonia, dysphagia, sore throat, excessive salivation, difficulty breathing, wheezing. The diagnosis of epiglottitis in children helps to hold the neck radiography or fibrolaringoskopii pharyngoscope, bacteriological seeding swabs from the throat. Treatment of epiglottitis in children requires the restoration of patency of the respiratory tract by tracheostomy and tracheal intubation, purpose antibiotic, infusion and symptomatic therapy.
Epidemic pemphigus newborns - a highly contagious staphylococcal skin lesion newborns, manifested appearance of fine bubbles with purulent contents, which increase and bursting with the formation of erosions. It may be accompanied by lesions of the mucous membranes. Diagnose epidemic pemphigus newborns allows age of onset, the typical clinical picture and results of bacteriological studies of fluid from blisters and erosions discharge. Treatment includes antibiotics, vitamins, albumin, bath with potassium permanganate, UFO, opening blisters and erosions processing. Given the contagiousness of epidemic pemphigus newborns necessarily conduct quarantine and disinfection.
Epidemic hemorrhagic conjunctivitis - an acute highly contagious oftalmoinfektsiya caused by picornavirus that affects the conjunctiva of the eye and is accompanied by massive subconjunctival hemorrhages. Epidemic hemorrhagic conjunctivitis occurs with severe erythema, edema and chemosis mucosa, sharp pain in the eyes, photophobia, sero-purulent discharge, subconjunctival hemorrhage, which occur against a background of general symptoms (adenopathy prootic lymph nodes, headache, high temperature, tracheobronchitis, etc). In order difdiagnostiki performed Biomicroscopy eyes instillyatsionnaya Fluorescein test, serological, virological and cytological studies. The treatment of epidemic hemorrhagic conjunctivitis is carried out by instillation of antiviral, anti-allergic and anti-bacterial drugs.
Mumps (pig) is an acute infection caused by an RNA virus genus paramyxovirus, primarily affecting the salivary glands and nerve cells. The causative agent of mumps is transmitted by airborne droplets, sometimes, by contact through objects contaminated with the patient's saliva. svinki Clinic begins with a fever and symptoms of intoxication, against this background, growing swelling and pain in the parotid region. Suffice typical clinic to diagnose mumps without further examination. Treatment is mainly symptomatic.
Athlete's nails - a common fungal infection of nails on the feet, manifesting the appearance of yellow stripes or spots, and then diffuse yellowish entire nail plate, its thickening, deformation and increased fragility. Diagnostic event at the athlete's nails include inspection of the affected nail and microscopy scrapings taken from its surface. Treatment of diseases involved dermatologists, chiropodists and mycologists. It involves the removal of the nail plate, post-operative treatment and the imposition of bandages on her bed with antifungal ointments and keratolytic agents.
Athlete's foot - a widespread fungal skin lesions and nails stop. Depending on the clinical form of plaques may appear red, flat spots and papules with whitish scaling on the surface bubbles, cracks, erosions, the appearance of yellow stripes and spots on the nail plate thickening, or its rejection. Diagnosis of athlete's foot include dermatoscopy, fluorescent study, the definition of the pH-skin scrapings microscopy on pathogenic fungi, identification of related foot problems. athlete's foot treatment is carried out by the system and the local application of antifungal agents to conduct preliminary exfoliating or anti-inflammatory therapy.
Epididymitis - inflammation of the epididymis. It is characterized by sudden onset, body temperature rise to 39-40 degrees. Appears pain and swelling in the scrotum by the defeat, increased epididymis several times, redness of the skin of the scrotum. Often combined with inflammation of the testicle (orchiepididymitis). Can develop bilateral disease of the appendages, a chronic form of epididymitis, vas obstruction flow, infertility. As a rule, in respect of epididymitis urologists conduct outpatient treatment, hospitalization is necessary only in case of complications. In acute epididymitis requires bed rest, anti-bacterial and local treatment; abscess is an indication for surgical incision and drainage of an abscess.
Epidural hematoma - blood congestion, filling formed as a result of the injury the space between the skull bones and hard cerebral membrane. In typical cases, characterized by a disturbance of consciousness with the presence of the light period, signs of intracranial hypertension and brain compression, focal symptoms, relevant hematomas location. The diagnosis is made on the basis of the clinic using craniography, Echo-EG, cerebral angiography, CT and MRI. The treatment mainly surgical - craniotomy, removing a hematoma, search and elimination of the source of bleeding.
Epicondylitis - degenerative and inflammatory disease of the tissues in the elbow joint. Developed in places of attachment of tendons, internal and external surface of the forearm to, respectively, the internal and external epicondyle of the humerus. Taking into account the localization distinguish external and internal epicondylitis. Outdoor epicondylitis occurs in 7-10 times more internal. The disease develops gradually and affects mostly middle-aged patients. The cause - repetitive microtrauma due to overload of the forearm muscles. Epicondylitis causes pain in the elbow, aggravated by extension (for external epicondylitis) and grasping (for internal epicondylitis). Treatment is usually conservative. Forecast favorable in the majority of cases, the disease responds well to treatment.
Epicondylitis of the elbow joint - degenerative and inflammatory lesion tendons in their attachment to the external and internal condyles of the humerus. The reason for the development is overloaded muscles of the forearm and hand. The disease is manifested by pain in the elbow, aggravated by movements of the wrist and fingers. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of medical history, complaints and inspection data. Instrumental studies provide little information and are used only to exclude other diseases. Treatment is conservative.
Epilepsy - a condition characterized by recurrent (more than two), epileptic seizures, is not provoked by any immediately determines the cause. Epileptic seizures - clinical manifestation of abnormal and excessive discharge of brain neurons causes a sudden transient pathological phenomena (sensory, motor, mental, vegetative symptoms, changes in consciousness). Keep in mind that some provoked or caused by any distinct causes (brain tumor, head injury) epileptic seizures do not indicate the patient has epilepsy.