Chronic osteomyelitis - a chronic inflammatory process which affects all elements of the bone (bone marrow, periosteum, compact and spongy substance). Usually becomes the outcome of acute osteomyelitis, chronic primary observed in individual cases. Characterized by the alternation of remissions and exacerbations. In the acute phase there are symptoms of intoxication, pain, swelling, redness of the affected department and fistulas. In remission symptoms are smoothed or disappear. Diagnosis is exposed to the light of history, clinical symptoms, X-ray data and other studies. Treatment usually operative.
Chronic periodontitis - long current, infection-induced pathological process affecting all periodontal structures and leading to its destruction and tissue resorption of the alveoli. Chronic periodontitis is accompanied by itching and bleeding gums, the presence of over-and subgingival dental plaque and periodontal pockets, halitosis, tooth mobility and displacement of endogenous intoxication. Diagnostic events in chronic periodontitis include parodontogrammy data analysis ortopantomogrammu, biopsy tissue gums. chronic periodontitis Treatment depends on the severity and includes removal of dental plaque, a local anti-inflammatory therapy, physical therapy, splinting of teeth; if necessary - the removal of mobile teeth, scrappy operations.
Chronic periodontitis - structural changes of periodontal tissues (granulating, granulomatous, fibrotic), resulting from chronic inflammation of periodontal. Clinical manifestations of chronic periodontitis can include tooth pain on pressure or temperature exposure, flushing and swelling of the gums, tooth mobility, gingival fistula formation. Chronic periodontitis is diagnosed based on clinical, radiographic, elektroodontometricheskih data. Therapy of chronic periodontitis involves the treatment and root canal filling; When the need for surgical treatment.
Chronic peritonitis - long flowing peritonitis, caused by the action of different reasons. There are several forms of disease that are distinguished by clinical manifestations and treatments. Main symptoms: recurrent pain in the abdomen, dyspepsia, disorders stool, urination, weakness, fever, pale skin. Diagnosis is to collect anamnesis, external examination, a blood test, ultrasound, CT, MRI, X-ray of the abdomen, laparotomy. Medical and surgical treatment, appointed on an individual basis.
Chronic pyelonephritis - a chronic nonspecific bacterial process occurring predominantly involving interstitial kidney tissue and renal pelvis complexes. Chronic pyelonephritis manifested malaise, dull pain in the lower back, low-grade fever, dysuric symptoms. In the process of diagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis conduct laboratory tests of urine and blood, renal ultrasound, retrograde pyelography, scintigraphy. Treatment consists of a diet and gentle treatment, the appointment of antimicrobial therapy, nitrofurans, vitamins, physiotherapy.
Chronic superficial gastritis - a disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous layer of the stomach wall, in which the pathological process does not extend to deeper layers and does not affect the secretory function of the organ. The main symptoms are considered to discomfort and dull pain in the upper abdomen, which appear after a meal. Also, the disease may be accompanied by a nausea, belching and heartburn. A key role in the diagnosis plays esophagogastroscopy, endoscopic biopsies and breath test on helicobacter pylori. For the treatment of chronic superficial gastritis used antisecretory drugs, antacids, antibiotics. Forecast favorable with timely treatment.
Chronic proctitis - chronic inflammation of the rectal mucosa. Often combined with sigmoiditom (Proctosigmoiditis). It is accompanied by tenesmus, discomfort, itching, burning and pain in the area of non-intensive rectum. The feces revealed traces of mucus, blood and pus. During exacerbation of chronic proctitis symptoms become more pronounced, possibly raising the temperature to subfebrile. Diagnosis is based on complaints, medical history, examination of the anal region, a rectal exam, rectoscopy, biopsy, stool analysis and other techniques. Treatment - diet, drug therapy, non-drug methods.
Chronic prostatitis - a prolonged inflammation of the prostate, resulting in a breach of the morphology and functioning of the prostate. Chronic prostatitis is manifested prostatic triad - a pain in the pelvic region and genitals, urinary disorders, sexual disorders. Diagnosis of chronic prostatitis include palpation of the prostate, prostate secretion study, ultrasonography, uroflowmetry, cystoscopy, needle biopsy of the prostate. In chronic prostatitis is shown a complex medical, physiotherapy, massage, prostate, urethral instillations back. Surgical treatment is appropriate in complicated forms of chronic prostatitis.
Chronic pulpitis - the current long-term inflammation of the neurovascular bundle of the tooth, leading to its functional and structural changes. Various clinical and morphological forms of chronic pulpitis proceed with periodic bouts of pain arising from the effects of thermal and mechanical stimuli, the presence of cavities in the tooth. Diagnosis of chronic pulpitis contribute data inspection tool, electric pulp test, X-ray diffraction. Treatment of chronic pulpitis implies a hysterectomy (at least - amputation) pulp followed by the filling of canals and restoring the tooth shape.
Chronic sigmoid - a chronic inflammation of the lining of the sigmoid colon. Manifested abdominal pain, often given into the lower back, leg and chest rumbling, flatulence, feeling of fullness, false desires, disorders stool, mucus and blood in the stool. During exacerbation of chronic sigmoidita symptoms are worse, there is a weakness and a slight hyperthermia. Perhaps the inflammation spread to the peritoneum with the development perisigmoidita. The disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical examination, barium enema, sigmoidoscopy and stool tests. Treatment - diet, drug therapy.
Chronic synovitis - chronic inflammation of the synovial membrane. As a rule, it arises against osteoarthritis or chronic arthritis, rarely observed in hemophilia and after joint injuries. It is accompanied by accumulation of fluid (effusion) in the joint cavity. Manifested by pain, swelling and limitation of movement. Current undulating, there is an alternation of remissions and exacerbations. To clarify the diagnosis and determine the cause of synovitis prescribe X-rays, ultrasound, arthroscopy, arthropneumography, MRI, CT scans and other tests. Treatment often conservative.
Chronic laryngeal stenosis - narrowing of the larynx occurs gradually, accompanied by a progressive decrease in the number of air entering the respiratory ways to slow the development of hypoxia. The leading symptoms of chronic laryngeal stenosis are dyspnea and inspiratory different in severity hoarseness. Diagnosis of chronic stenosis of the larynx is to conduct mikrolaringoskopii, phonation studies, CT larynx, analysis of blood gas composition, X-ray of lungs, EKG, etc. With regard to chronic stenosis of the larynx is possible to use a variety of surgical procedures and medication treatment, the choice of which is dictated by the cause of stenosis and emerged cardiopulmonary complications.
Chronic stomatitis - inflammation of oral mucosa, having a long duration with periodic remissions and exacerbations. Depending on the clinical form, chronic stomatitis accompanied by limited or diffuse redness of the mucous membrane, the formation of vesicles in the mouth or painful ulcers, excessive salivation, symptoms of intoxication, regional lymphadenitis. Diagnosis of chronic stomatitis include scrapings and study of oral fluid (bacteriological, cytological, PCR, biochemical, immunological), consulting a dentist and others. Specialists. Treatment of chronic stomatitis involves removal of etiological factors, local treatment of oral, systemic causal treatment.
Chronic tonsillitis - a chronic, flowing with exacerbations, inflammation of the tonsils (tonsils) as a result of frequent sore throats. When the disease is marked pain on swallowing, sore throat, bad breath, increased morbidity and submandibular lymph nodes. Being a chronic focus of infection in the body, it lowers the immune system and can cause the development of pyelonephritis, infective endocarditis, rheumatism, arthritis, adnexitis, prostatitis, infertility, and others.
Chronic cholangitis - an inflammatory disease of the biliary tract (both intra- and extrahepatic ducts), characterized by a long recurrent and lead to cholestasis. The main clinical signs - a combination of pain in the liver, high fever, chills and jaundice. The diagnosis is based on ultrasonography of the pancreas and biliary tract, retrograde cholangiopancreatography, CT biliary tract, biochemical and blood count. Combined Treatment: conservative antibiotic therapy, pain relief, detoxification, surgical decompression of the biliary tract.
Chronic cystitis - long flowing inflammation, which leads to structural and functional changes of the bladder wall. Chronic cystitis can occur latently, with alternating exacerbations and remissions or permanent symptoms. Diagnosis of chronic cystitis based on the results of analyzes of urine, vaginal flora in women, testing for sexually transmitted diseases, urinary organs ultrasound, cystography, cystoscopy, biopsy endovezikalnoy. In chronic cystitis spend antibacterial treatment, correction of hormonal and immune status, microcirculation, local therapy and prevention of relapse, according to testimony - surgery.
Chronic esophagitis - inflammation of the inner layer of the esophagus (mucosa), whose symptoms persist for more than six months. Chronic esophagitis is manifested dysphagia, chest pain, heartburn, regurgitation and vomiting. The survey plan in chronic esophagitis include X-rays of the esophagus and oesophagoscopy with biopsy, and esophageal manometry esophageal pH meter, a sample of acid perfusion according to Bernstein, a general analysis of blood, fecal occult blood. Treatment of predominantly conservative (pharmacological and non-pharmacological), with its inefficiency and the development of complications - surgical.
Chronic otitis media with effusion - chronic purulent inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the tympanic cavity. Chronic otitis media with effusion is characterized by progressive hearing impairment, ear congestion, syringmus, feeling of fullness from the affected ear, ear noise that arises in the head movements. Chronic otitis media with effusion is diagnosed based on otoscopy data mikrootoskopii, research eustachian tube, audiogram, acoustic impedance and CT of the temporal bone. Treatment of patients with chronic otitis media with effusion, is the rehabilitation of the nasopharynx, the restoration of patency of the eustachian tube and auditory function, preventing hardening of the middle ear cavity.
Chronic enteritis - inflammatory-dystrophic pathology of the small intestine, leading to the breakdown of his digestive, transport and barrier functions. The symptoms distinguish local (stool disorders, flatulence, abdominal pain) and general (fatigue, irritability, headaches and dizziness, problems with the skin, nails and hair, endocrinopathies) symptoms, the disorder of all kinds of exchange. The program includes diagnostic bakanaliz feces coprogram, ultrasound UBP, X-ray and endoscopy with biopsy. Treatment is conservative, it is the appointment of a diet, antibiotic, substitution and symptomatic therapy.
Chronic enterocolitis - an inflammatory bowel disease that may develop after infectious enteropatologii, somatic diseases, the action of toxins and other factors. The main symptoms - abdominal pain, change in stool, weight loss and other symptoms of malabsorption of nutrients. For the purpose of diagnostics performed endoscopy with biopsy, X-ray examination, bacteriological examination of feces. Treatment consists of correction of intestinal motility and microflora, the appointment of antibacterial drugs and dietetics. Weather favorable.
Chronic somatoform pain disorder (idiopathic or psychogenic pain disorder) - somatoform disorder, accompanied by pain, which can not be explained by somatic diseases or occurring in the body physiological processes. Manifested persistent, often excruciating pain localization capabilities, continuing for 6 months or more. Diagnosis is based on history, complaints, data and visual inspection of the results of additional research conducted to exclude a somatic pathology. Treatment - antidepressants, psychotherapy complex analgesic therapy.
Thin lower leg or thigh often due to lack of adipose tissue or underdevelopment of the lower limbs. If a miniature figure as a whole, this disadvantage is not so clearly evident, it looks extremely ridiculous overweight at the upper part of the body like the imbalance figure. Unattractive legs is largely determined by it too thin shins or thighs. Correction of this lack of aesthetic plastic surgery techniques performed. The increase in the volume of the missing and giving the desired relief of the lower extremities is achieved by carrying out lipofilling or replacement drumsticks /thighs.
Celiac disease - genetically caused violation of intestinal function associated with a deficiency of enzymes that break down gluten peptide. If celiac disease is developing malabsorption syndrome of varying severity, accompanied by frothy diarrhea, bloating, weight loss, dry skin, delayed physical development of children. To detect celiac disease applied immunological methods (determination of antibodies to gliadin, endomysial, tissue transglutaminase), a biopsy of the small intestine. Upon confirmation of the diagnosis requires a lifelong gluten-free diet compliance, the necessary correction of deficiencies.
To determine the presence of cellulite easily enough by their appearance. In places of localization of cellulite skin texture changes on the body appear dimples and bumps, progressing with age. In the areas of cellulite skin is cold to the touch, with a slight voltage is covered with orange spots. If you have cellulite skin on the upper arms, thighs and buttocks can not be uniform tan on it is more than depigmented (light) areas.
Coelomic cyst of the pericardium - a thin-walled fluid collection associated with pericardial envelope by foot or soldered to it. Current cysts are often asymptomatic; however great education can cause shortness of breath, cough, discomfort in the heart, palpitations, arrhythmia. Pericardial coelomic cysts detected by X-ray examinations (X-ray, X-ray c. Cells, CT, pnevmomediastinografii), ultrasound echocardiography, thoracoscopy. In this regard, there is a risk or break festering pericardial coelomic cysts recommended surgical removal.
Cementoma - education odontogenic origin, growing from connective tissue. The disease is asymptomatic. Upon reaching large sizes cementoma causes deformation of the jaw. Due to the thinning of the cortical plate appears unsharp soreness. Diagnosis cementoma includes the collection of complaints, physical examination, X-rays, EDI. Confirmation of the diagnosis can be obtained after the histological examination. Treatment true cementoma and cementing fibroma surgery. When periapical dysplasia and gigantoformnoy cementoma shown dynamic observation.
Central lung cancer - a malignant tumor that affects the large bronchi, until subsegmental branches. Central lung cancer Early symptoms include cough, coughing up blood, shortness of breath; Later symptoms are associated with complications: obstructive pneumonia syndrome ERW metastases. Verification of the diagnosis is carried out by means of X-ray and CT scan, bronchoscopy with biopsy, spirometry. In resectable cases, the treatment of central lung cancer surgery, a radical (resection by lobectomy to pneumonectomy extended or combined), supplemented by postoperative radiotherapy, chemotherapy.
Cervicitis - inflammation in the vaginal cervical segment. The course is characterized by turbid (mucus or pus) discharge, pulling or dull pain in the lower abdomen, painful urination and sexual intercourse. Prolonged chronic cervicitis leads to the development of erosion, hypertrophy (thickening) of the cervix, the spread of infection in the upper genital apparatus. Under ekzotservitsitom understand inflammation of vaginal or cervical segment ekzotserviksa. Endocervicitis - an inflammation of the inner lining of the cervical canal of the cervix - endocervical.
Cirrhosis - a disease characterized by degeneration of liver parenchymal tissue in fibrous connective tissue. Accompanied by a dull pain in the right upper quadrant, jaundice, increasing the pressure in the portal vein system, with its characteristic portal hypertension bleeding (esophageal, hemorrhoids), ascites, and so on. The disease is chronic. In the diagnosis of cirrhosis of the liver play a decisive role ultrasound data CT and MRI of the liver, biochemical indices of samples of liver biopsy. Treatment of cirrhosis includes strict abstinence from alcohol, diet, intake of hepatic; in severe cases - a transplant donor liver.
Cirrhotic pulmonary tuberculosis - the final stage of tubercular process, which is typical for pnevmotsirroza predominance of specific lesions of the lung tissue. Cirrhotic transformation of light is accompanied by shortness of breath, cough with sputum, hemoptysis, respiratory and cardiac failure. Cirrhotic tuberculosis is diagnosed based rentgenosemiotiki, functional data, the results of laboratory and bronchoscopy examinations. Depending on the current phase of cirrhotic lung tuberculosis is assigned to antibiotic therapy, chemotherapy, specific correction of cardiopulmonary diseases. With limited pnevmotsirroze performed surgery.