Chronic synovitis - chronic inflammation of the synovial membrane. As a rule, it arises against osteoarthritis or chronic arthritis, rarely observed in hemophilia and after joint injuries. It is accompanied by accumulation of fluid (effusion) in the joint cavity. Manifested by pain, swelling and limitation of movement. Current undulating, there is an alternation of remissions and exacerbations. To clarify the diagnosis and determine the cause of synovitis prescribe X-rays, ultrasound, arthroscopy, arthropneumography, MRI, CT scans and other tests. Treatment often conservative.
Chronic laryngeal stenosis - narrowing of the larynx occurs gradually, accompanied by a progressive decrease in the number of air entering the respiratory ways to slow the development of hypoxia. The leading symptoms of chronic laryngeal stenosis are dyspnea and inspiratory different in severity hoarseness. Diagnosis of chronic stenosis of the larynx is to conduct mikrolaringoskopii, phonation studies, CT larynx, analysis of blood gas composition, X-ray of lungs, EKG, etc. With regard to chronic stenosis of the larynx is possible to use a variety of surgical procedures and medication treatment, the choice of which is dictated by the cause of stenosis and emerged cardiopulmonary complications.
Chronic stomatitis - inflammation of oral mucosa, having a long duration with periodic remissions and exacerbations. Depending on the clinical form, chronic stomatitis accompanied by limited or diffuse redness of the mucous membrane, the formation of vesicles in the mouth or painful ulcers, excessive salivation, symptoms of intoxication, regional lymphadenitis. Diagnosis of chronic stomatitis include scrapings and study of oral fluid (bacteriological, cytological, PCR, biochemical, immunological), consulting a dentist and others. Specialists. Treatment of chronic stomatitis involves removal of etiological factors, local treatment of oral, systemic causal treatment.
Chronic tonsillitis - a chronic, flowing with exacerbations, inflammation of the tonsils (tonsils) as a result of frequent sore throats. When the disease is marked pain on swallowing, sore throat, bad breath, increased morbidity and submandibular lymph nodes. Being a chronic focus of infection in the body, it lowers the immune system and can cause the development of pyelonephritis, infective endocarditis, rheumatism, arthritis, adnexitis, prostatitis, infertility, and others.
Chronic cholangitis - an inflammatory disease of the biliary tract (both intra- and extrahepatic ducts), characterized by a long recurrent and lead to cholestasis. The main clinical signs - a combination of pain in the liver, high fever, chills and jaundice. The diagnosis is based on ultrasonography of the pancreas and biliary tract, retrograde cholangiopancreatography, CT biliary tract, biochemical and blood count. Combined Treatment: conservative antibiotic therapy, pain relief, detoxification, surgical decompression of the biliary tract.
Chronic cystitis - long flowing inflammation, which leads to structural and functional changes of the bladder wall. Chronic cystitis can occur latently, with alternating exacerbations and remissions or permanent symptoms. Diagnosis of chronic cystitis based on the results of analyzes of urine, vaginal flora in women, testing for sexually transmitted diseases, urinary organs ultrasound, cystography, cystoscopy, biopsy endovezikalnoy. In chronic cystitis spend antibacterial treatment, correction of hormonal and immune status, microcirculation, local therapy and prevention of relapse, according to testimony - surgery.
Chronic esophagitis - inflammation of the inner layer of the esophagus (mucosa), whose symptoms persist for more than six months. Chronic esophagitis is manifested dysphagia, chest pain, heartburn, regurgitation and vomiting. The survey plan in chronic esophagitis include X-rays of the esophagus and oesophagoscopy with biopsy, and esophageal manometry esophageal pH meter, a sample of acid perfusion according to Bernstein, a general analysis of blood, fecal occult blood. Treatment of predominantly conservative (pharmacological and non-pharmacological), with its inefficiency and the development of complications - surgical.
Chronic otitis media with effusion - chronic purulent inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the tympanic cavity. Chronic otitis media with effusion is characterized by progressive hearing impairment, ear congestion, syringmus, feeling of fullness from the affected ear, ear noise that arises in the head movements. Chronic otitis media with effusion is diagnosed based on otoscopy data mikrootoskopii, research eustachian tube, audiogram, acoustic impedance and CT of the temporal bone. Treatment of patients with chronic otitis media with effusion, is the rehabilitation of the nasopharynx, the restoration of patency of the eustachian tube and auditory function, preventing hardening of the middle ear cavity.
Chronic enteritis - inflammatory-dystrophic pathology of the small intestine, leading to the breakdown of his digestive, transport and barrier functions. The symptoms distinguish local (stool disorders, flatulence, abdominal pain) and general (fatigue, irritability, headaches and dizziness, problems with the skin, nails and hair, endocrinopathies) symptoms, the disorder of all kinds of exchange. The program includes diagnostic bakanaliz feces coprogram, ultrasound UBP, X-ray and endoscopy with biopsy. Treatment is conservative, it is the appointment of a diet, antibiotic, substitution and symptomatic therapy.
Chronic enterocolitis - an inflammatory bowel disease that may develop after infectious enteropatologii, somatic diseases, the action of toxins and other factors. The main symptoms - abdominal pain, change in stool, weight loss and other symptoms of malabsorption of nutrients. For the purpose of diagnostics performed endoscopy with biopsy, X-ray examination, bacteriological examination of feces. Treatment consists of correction of intestinal motility and microflora, the appointment of antibacterial drugs and dietetics. Weather favorable.
Chronic somatoform pain disorder (idiopathic or psychogenic pain disorder) - somatoform disorder, accompanied by pain, which can not be explained by somatic diseases or occurring in the body physiological processes. Manifested persistent, often excruciating pain localization capabilities, continuing for 6 months or more. Diagnosis is based on history, complaints, data and visual inspection of the results of additional research conducted to exclude a somatic pathology. Treatment - antidepressants, psychotherapy complex analgesic therapy.
Thin lower leg or thigh often due to lack of adipose tissue or underdevelopment of the lower limbs. If a miniature figure as a whole, this disadvantage is not so clearly evident, it looks extremely ridiculous overweight at the upper part of the body like the imbalance figure. Unattractive legs is largely determined by it too thin shins or thighs. Correction of this lack of aesthetic plastic surgery techniques performed. The increase in the volume of the missing and giving the desired relief of the lower extremities is achieved by carrying out lipofilling or replacement drumsticks /thighs.
Celiac disease - genetically caused violation of intestinal function associated with a deficiency of enzymes that break down gluten peptide. If celiac disease is developing malabsorption syndrome of varying severity, accompanied by frothy diarrhea, bloating, weight loss, dry skin, delayed physical development of children. To detect celiac disease applied immunological methods (determination of antibodies to gliadin, endomysial, tissue transglutaminase), a biopsy of the small intestine. Upon confirmation of the diagnosis requires a lifelong gluten-free diet compliance, the necessary correction of deficiencies.
To determine the presence of cellulite easily enough by their appearance. In places of localization of cellulite skin texture changes on the body appear dimples and bumps, progressing with age. In the areas of cellulite skin is cold to the touch, with a slight voltage is covered with orange spots. If you have cellulite skin on the upper arms, thighs and buttocks can not be uniform tan on it is more than depigmented (light) areas.
Coelomic cyst of the pericardium - a thin-walled fluid collection associated with pericardial envelope by foot or soldered to it. Current cysts are often asymptomatic; however great education can cause shortness of breath, cough, discomfort in the heart, palpitations, arrhythmia. Pericardial coelomic cysts detected by X-ray examinations (X-ray, X-ray c. Cells, CT, pnevmomediastinografii), ultrasound echocardiography, thoracoscopy. In this regard, there is a risk or break festering pericardial coelomic cysts recommended surgical removal.
Cementoma - education odontogenic origin, growing from connective tissue. The disease is asymptomatic. Upon reaching large sizes cementoma causes deformation of the jaw. Due to the thinning of the cortical plate appears unsharp soreness. Diagnosis cementoma includes the collection of complaints, physical examination, X-rays, EDI. Confirmation of the diagnosis can be obtained after the histological examination. Treatment true cementoma and cementing fibroma surgery. When periapical dysplasia and gigantoformnoy cementoma shown dynamic observation.
Central lung cancer - a malignant tumor that affects the large bronchi, until subsegmental branches. Central lung cancer Early symptoms include cough, coughing up blood, shortness of breath; Later symptoms are associated with complications: obstructive pneumonia syndrome ERW metastases. Verification of the diagnosis is carried out by means of X-ray and CT scan, bronchoscopy with biopsy, spirometry. In resectable cases, the treatment of central lung cancer surgery, a radical (resection by lobectomy to pneumonectomy extended or combined), supplemented by postoperative radiotherapy, chemotherapy.
Cervicitis - inflammation in the vaginal cervical segment. The course is characterized by turbid (mucus or pus) discharge, pulling or dull pain in the lower abdomen, painful urination and sexual intercourse. Prolonged chronic cervicitis leads to the development of erosion, hypertrophy (thickening) of the cervix, the spread of infection in the upper genital apparatus. Under ekzotservitsitom understand inflammation of vaginal or cervical segment ekzotserviksa. Endocervicitis - an inflammation of the inner lining of the cervical canal of the cervix - endocervical.
Cirrhosis - a disease characterized by degeneration of liver parenchymal tissue in fibrous connective tissue. Accompanied by a dull pain in the right upper quadrant, jaundice, increasing the pressure in the portal vein system, with its characteristic portal hypertension bleeding (esophageal, hemorrhoids), ascites, and so on. The disease is chronic. In the diagnosis of cirrhosis of the liver play a decisive role ultrasound data CT and MRI of the liver, biochemical indices of samples of liver biopsy. Treatment of cirrhosis includes strict abstinence from alcohol, diet, intake of hepatic; in severe cases - a transplant donor liver.
Cirrhotic pulmonary tuberculosis - the final stage of tubercular process, which is typical for pnevmotsirroza predominance of specific lesions of the lung tissue. Cirrhotic transformation of light is accompanied by shortness of breath, cough with sputum, hemoptysis, respiratory and cardiac failure. Cirrhotic tuberculosis is diagnosed based rentgenosemiotiki, functional data, the results of laboratory and bronchoscopy examinations. Depending on the current phase of cirrhotic lung tuberculosis is assigned to antibiotic therapy, chemotherapy, specific correction of cardiopulmonary diseases. With limited pnevmotsirroze performed surgery.
Cystitis - inflammation of the bladder wall. Characterized speeded up (every 15-20 minutes), sharply painful urination in small quantities, sometimes mixed with blood, low-grade body temperature. Possible transition of the disease into a chronic form, climbing infection and the development of inflammation in the kidneys, at the descent - in the urethra. In the diagnosis of cystitis urologist help urinalysis data and ultrasound of the bladder. In order to determine the etiology of bacterial cystitis is conducted urine culture and smear from the urethra. Treatment of cystitis involves first effective drug caused an impact on its infectious agents.
Cystitis in children - urinary infection that causes inflammation of the mucosa and submucosa of the bladder. Cystitis occurs in children with pain and sharp pain when urinating, frequent urge to the pot with the release of small amounts of urine, urinary incontinence; at a young age often marked intoxication and fever. Diagnosis of cystitis in children involves urine (general analysis, bacterial inoculation test, dvuhstakannoy sample), holding ultrasound of the bladder, chronic cystitis - cystoscopy. In the treatment of cystitis in children assigned diet and enhanced drinking regime, drug therapy (uroseptic, antibacterial, antispasmodic agents), phytotherapy.
Cystitis in women - inflammation of the mucous (at least - submucosal and muscle) layer of the bladder acute or chronic course. Cystitis in women is accompanied by a painful, frequent urination with residual burning sensation and cramps, pain in the pelvic area, not enough sense of complete emptying of the bladder, low-grade fever, mucus in the urine and blood. Diagnosis of cystitis in women includes a urine examination (general analysis, Nechiporenko, bakposev), examination of the gynecologist with the study of the microflora of the vagina, bladder ultrasound, cystoscopy. In cystitis therapy in women used antibiotics uroseptiki, instillation of the bladder, physiotherapy.
Cystitis in men - inflammation of the urinary tract which affects the mucous membrane of the bladder and leads to a violation of its functions. Manifestations of cystitis in men are frequent painful urination, pain in the suprapubic region, in the urine pathological impurities. Diagnostic complex cystitis include urine examination (microscopic, bacteriological), ultrasound of the bladder, cystoscopy, cystography, MSCT. Treatment of cystitis in men requires the appointment of antimicrobial therapy, herbal medicine, physiotherapy, symptomatic treatment.
Cytomegalovirus - an infection of viral origin, sexually transmitted, transplacental, household, by blood transfusion. Symptomatic proceeds in the form of persistent cold. Marked weakness, malaise, headaches and joint pain, runny nose, and an increase in inflammation of the salivary glands, excessive salivation. Often asymptomatic. The severity of the disease is due to the general state of immunity. In generalized form of severe pockets of inflammation occur in the body. Salivary gland disease is dangerous during pregnancy: It can cause spontaneous miscarriage, congenital malformations, fetal death, congenital cytomegaly.
Tsutsugamushi - an acute rickettsial disease, flowing with fever, vasculitis and focal perivaskulitami various bodies - the central nervous system, heart, lungs, kidneys. Clinical manifestations of tsutsugamushi are characterized by high fever, primary affect, spotty-nodular skin rash, generalized lymphadenopathy. Frequent complications are tsutsugamushi meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, pleurisy, glomerulonephritis, peritonitis. The diagnosis is established by means of immunological methods (RSK, RIGA, RNIF, ELISA). Tsutsugamushi fever treatment with antibiotics (tetracyclines, macrolides, chloramphenicol, etc.).
Often ill children - the category of children exposed to high levels of acute respiratory diseases as a result of transient, correctable violations in the protective systems of the body. The group of sickly children included, carrying more than 4-6 ARI episodes per year, which can occur in different clinical forms. Often ill children should be examined by a pediatrician, ENT doctor, allergist-immunologist; diagnostic algorithm includes: KLA, seeding from the mucous of the nose and throat, infection detection by PCR, allergotesty, immunogram study, X-ray paranasal sinuses and chest. Often ill children in need of readjustment of foci of chronic infection, etiopathogenic therapy of acute respiratory disease, vaccination and prevention of non-specific.
Traumatic brain injury - damage to the skull bone and /or soft tissues (meninges, brain tissue, nerves, blood vessels). By the nature of the injury distinguish closed and open, penetrating and non-penetrating traumatic brain injury and concussion or brain injury. The clinical picture of traumatic brain injury depends on its nature and severity. The main symptoms are headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, loss of consciousness, memory impairment. brain contusion and intracerebral hematoma accompanied by focal symptoms. Diagnosis of traumatic brain injury include medical history, neurological examination, x-rays of the skull, CT scan or MRI of the brain.
Black piedra - dermatological hair disease fungal origin, mostly typical of tropical countries with warm and humid climate. This condition manifests itself in the appearance of the hair of the head (at least - a beard or mustache) stealth black nodules measuring 1-2 mm stony hardness, hereinafter - the fragility of hair and alopecia. Diagnosis is made by black Piedra inspection hair microscopy nodules, sowing scrapings for special protection for the identification of the pathogen. For the treatment used as the physical techniques (shaving of hair) and hair treatment special substances detrimental to the fungus.
Black ringworm - a fungal dermatological disease that infects the superficial layers of the skin of the palms and soles, less likely to suffer the field of the body, shoulders and forearms. There are no subjective symptoms (itching, pain, burning sensation) is the state does not, practically the only manifestation becomes the formation of black or brown spots on the skin of various sizes. Diagnosis is made by stripping the black microscopic examination of skin scrapings in defeat and dermatological examination, a supporting role clinical analyzes and the determination of the immune status of the patient. Treatment black stripping is carried out using conventional antifungal agents.