Chronic atrophic acrodermatitis - atrophic skin lesion character corresponding to the third stage of borreliosis. The first clinical symptom of the pathological process is cyanotic erythema, developing on the background of unpleasant subjective sensations, minor skin pain, arthralgia. With the passage of time in the spots appear phenomenon of atrophy, bluish tinge to the skin is replaced by a whitish, epidermis and dermis become thinner, easy to begin to gather in folds, shelled. Diagnosis is based on history, clinical, histological data, RNIF, ELISA, PCR, immunoblotting. The treatment - antibiotics, physiotherapy, vitamin therapy.
Chronic atrophic gastritis - a disease characterized by atrophy of the gastric glands, degeneration of the stomach into the intestinal epithelium, moderately severe inflammation. Manifestations depend on the location and etiology of atrophic processes: basically, this heaviness in the stomach after eating, fast satiety, belching, nausea, unpleasant taste in the mouth, anemia. Gold standard of diagnosis - endoscopy with biopsy of the mucosa, intragastric pH monitoring, detection of H.pylori; other methods are complementary. Treatment consists in the introduction of glucocorticoid hormones, natural gastric juice, vitamin B12 the use of H. pylori regimens.
Chronic cholecystitis without stones - inflammation of the gall bladder, occurring without the formation of gallstones, and accompanied by tonic-motor dysfunction of the biliary tract by type psoriasis and diskholii. Chronic cholecystitis without stones occurs with pain in the right upper quadrant, dyspeptic disorders, low-grade fever. Diagnosis nekalkuleznogo cholecystitis is built taking into account the laboratory data, duodenal sounding results holetsistografii, tseliakografii, ultrasound gallbladder holestsintigrafii. Treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic cholecystitis acalculous includes receiving antispasmodics, antibiotics, enzymes, or holetsistokinetikov choleretic, phytotherapy. In cases of persistent currents produced cholecystitis cholecystectomy.
Chronic bronchitis - a progressive diffuse inflammation in the bronchial tubes leading to the morphological rearrangement of the bronchial wall and peribronchial tissue. Exacerbations of chronic bronchitis occur several times a year and proceed with increased cough, purulent sputum, shortness of breath, bronchial obstruction, low-grade fever. A survey of chronic bronchitis includes radiography lung, bronchoscopy, microscopic and bacteriological analysis of sputum, respiratory function, and others. In the treatment of chronic bronchitis combined medical therapy (antibiotics, mucolytics, bronchodilators, immunomodulators), sanation bronchoscopy, oxygen therapy, physiotherapy (inhalations, massages, breathing gymnastics, iontophoresis, etc.).
Chronic viral hepatitis - a group of infectious liver disease with inflammatory-proliferative degenerative changes in parenchymal organ. Clinical manifestations of chronic viral hepatitis are dyspeptic, asthenovegetative and hemorrhagic syndromes, persistent hepatosplenomegaly, abnormal liver function. Diagnosis includes determination of serum markers of hepatitis B, C, D, F and G; biochemical assessment of liver samples, liver ultrasound, reogepatografiyu, liver biopsy, gepatostsintigrafiyu. Treatment of chronic viral hepatitis conservative, including diet, intake of eubiotics, enzymes, hepatic, antivirals.
Chronic gastroduodenitis - combined lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach pyloric and duodenal inflammatory. Symptoms of this disease include dyspepsia, bad breath, epigastric pain, unstable chair. The diagnostic program usually include endoscopy, endoscopic biopsy morphological study of biopsy specimens, EGG, antroduodenalnuyu manometry, intragastric pH-meter, tests for Helicobacter. Treatment long, is in compliance with the regime of the day and the food, a special diet, correction of gastric acidity, carrying H. pylori and symptomatic therapy.
Chronic gastroenteritis - stomach mucosal pathology and small intestine caused by the process of inflammation. The disease is manifested dyspeptic disorders, intense pain in the abdomen, symptoms of intoxication. In the diagnosis of primary importance are the laboratory methods (analysis of blood, coprogram, bacteriological seeding feces, H. pylori detection and so on. D.), Instrumental studies (FEGDS, pH-metry of the stomach, antroduodenalnaya manometry, ultrasound of the abdomen). The treatment is based on eliminating the causes of disease, relieving symptoms and restoring the functions of the digestive system.
Chronic hemorrhoids - long-term expansion of the existing cavernous plexus, located in the submucosal layer of the lower part of the rectum and into the subcutaneous tissue of the exit area of the anal canal. Manifested bleeding, itching, burning sensation in the anus, and increasing loss of hemorrhoids. There may be pain in the anus area. Chronic hemorrhoids diagnosed based on history, clinical symptoms, examination data, digital rectal examination, anoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and other studies. Treatment - drug therapy, ligation, cryotherapy, photocoagulation, hemorrhoidopexy, hemorrhoidectomy.
Chronic hepatitis - an inflammatory disease characterized by fibrotic and necrotic changes in tissues and cells of the liver lobules without disrupting the structure and signs of portal hypertension. In most cases, patients complain of discomfort in the right upper quadrant, nausea, vomiting, appetite disorders and stool, weakness, decreased performance, weight loss, jaundice, itchy skin. Diagnostic activities consist in carrying out biochemical blood test, ultrasound of the abdomen, liver biopsy. Therapy is aimed at neutralizing the causes of disease, improving the patient's condition and the achievement of stable remission.
Chronic gingivitis - inflammation of the gingival papilla and gingival margin, occurring with periods of exacerbation and remission. Chronic gingivitis is manifest congestive hyperemia and edema of the mucous membrane of the gums, bleeding, deformation (swelling, atrophy) gums, bad breath. The diagnosis of chronic gingivitis put periodontist on the basis of history and examination of the oral cavity. Treatment of chronic gingivitis include professional oral hygiene, local treatment with antiseptics, taking anti-inflammatory, decongestants, immunomodulators, physical therapy, if indicated - removal of growths gums.
Chronic glomerulonephritis - a progressive diffuse immunoinflammatory defeat glomerular apparatus of the kidneys with the outcome in multiple sclerosis and renal failure. Manifestations of chronic glomerulonephritis depends on which developed forms of the disease: hypertension, nephrotic, hematuric, latent. The diagnosis of chronic glomerulonephritis used clinical and biochemical examination of urine, renal ultrasound, morphological examination of renal tissue (biopsy), excretory urography, renografii. chronic glomerulonephritis Treatment involves regulating power, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive, anticoagulant, diuretic, antihypertensive therapy.
Chronic suppurative otitis media - a purulent inflammation of the middle ear cavity, having a chronic course. Chronic suppurative otitis media is characterized by a conductive or mixed hearing loss, suppuration of the ear canal, pain and noise in the ear, sometimes dizziness and headache. Chronic suppurative otitis media is diagnosed according to otoscopy, hearing research, bacteriological sowing ear discharge, X-ray and tomography of the temporal bone survey, analysis of vestibular function and neurological status of the patient. Patients with chronic suppurative otitis media, are treated as a conservative and surgical methods (sanitize operation mastoidotomy, antrotomiya, closing the fistula of the labyrinth, and others.).
Chronic duodenitis - persistent polietiologic dystrophic defeat duodenal epithelium, characterized by inflammation, transformation, metaplasia, and atrophy of the intestinal glands. The symptoms are non-specific: pain in the upper abdomen, dyspeptic symptoms, autonomic symptoms (weakness, trembling fingers, sweating, sudden palpitations, etc.). Diagnosis is based on radiological examination of the stomach and duodenum, endoscopy, duodenal intubation, antroduodenalnoy manometry. Treatment includes causal treatment, diet and mode of the day; on the testimony - operation (with obstruction KDP).
Chronic constipation - chronic disorder of the intestine functions, accompanied by difficulty in emptying and slowing or permanent impairment of defecation. It may be organic or functional, primary or secondary. Chronic constipation is manifested increasing intervals between acts of defecation, stool seal, a sense of incomplete evacuation, straining need to strengthen and taking laxatives. Diagnosis is based on complaints, medical history, data inspection and abdominal palpation, rectal examination, laboratory tests and instrumental investigations. Treatment - diet, laxatives, non-pharmacological therapy.
Chronic calculous cholecystitis - persistent inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gall bladder, combined with the presence in it of stones. Gastroenterologists say that this pathology is associated with secondary infection of bile. Chronic calculous cholecystitis is clinically manifested by pain in his right side, nausea, mood swings. Diagnostics include liver function tests, ultrasound of the hepatobiliary system, plain radiography SSB, ERCP, MRI and CT scan of the liver and biliary tract, holestsintigrafiyu. Treatment is conservative (diet, analgesics, antispasmodics, antibiotics) or combined (supplemented by surgery).
Chronic colitis - is an inflammatory process which affects the mucous membrane of the colon, accompanied by "intestinal" symptoms (diarrhea, flatulence, rumbling, constipation, pain). To diagnose the disease using scatological analysis, X-ray and endoscopic examination of the colon (barium enema, colonoscopy). Principles of treatment of chronic colitis are based on a diet, the use of anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and pain medication. An important element in the complex treatment of chronic colitis are forms of physiotherapy.
Chronic conjunctivitis - long, flowing persistently infectious catarrh of the conjunctiva, or infectious etiology. Subjectively, chronic conjunctivitis manifested constant itching, burning, sensitivity to light, sensation of "sand" for centuries, eye fatigue; objectively - hyperemia and poor muco-purulent discharge. Diagnosis of chronic conjunctivitis is carried out on the basis of analysis of complaints data biomicroscopy and refraction studies, bacteriological sowing conjunctiva, setting allergoproby. In the treatment of chronic conjunctivitis is of paramount importance to eliminate the causes of inflammation, local use of drugs and the symptomatic action etiopathogenetic (drops, ointments).
Chronic leukemia - the primary tumor disease hematopoietic system, the substrate which act mature and maturing cells of myeloid or lymphoid. Various forms of chronic leukemia occur with prevalence of intoxication (weakness, arthralgia, ossalgia, anorexia, weight loss), thrombus (bleeding, thromboses of various localization), lymphoproliferative syndrome (increased limfouzov, splenomegaly, etc.). Crucial in the diagnosis of chronic leukemia belongs to the study of the KLA, bone marrow biopsies and lymph nodes. Treatment of chronic leukemia by the methods of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, possible bone marrow transplantation.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia - oncological disease accompanied by abnormal accumulation of mature B cells in peripheral blood, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow. In the initial stages it manifested lymphocytosis and generalized lymphadenopathy. With the progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia observed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly as well as anemia and thrombocytopenia, shows weakness, fatigue, petechial hemorrhages and bleeding disorders. There have been frequent infections due to decreased immunity. Diagnosis is based on laboratory tests. The treatment - chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia - a malignant myeloproliferative disease characterized by a primary lesion of granulocyte germ. Maybe a long time asymptomatic. It shows a tendency to low-grade fever, a feeling of fullness in the abdomen, frequent infections and an enlarged spleen. Observed changes in anemia and platelet levels, accompanied by weakness, pallor and bleeding disorders. At the final stage of developing a fever, lymphadenopathy and skin rash. Diagnosis is based on history, clinical and laboratory data. The treatment - chemotherapy, radiotherapy, bone marrow transplantation.
Chronic osteomyelitis - a chronic inflammatory process which affects all elements of the bone (bone marrow, periosteum, compact and spongy substance). Usually becomes the outcome of acute osteomyelitis, chronic primary observed in individual cases. Characterized by the alternation of remissions and exacerbations. In the acute phase there are symptoms of intoxication, pain, swelling, redness of the affected department and fistulas. In remission symptoms are smoothed or disappear. Diagnosis is exposed to the light of history, clinical symptoms, X-ray data and other studies. Treatment usually operative.
Chronic periodontitis - long current, infection-induced pathological process affecting all periodontal structures and leading to its destruction and tissue resorption of the alveoli. Chronic periodontitis is accompanied by itching and bleeding gums, the presence of over-and subgingival dental plaque and periodontal pockets, halitosis, tooth mobility and displacement of endogenous intoxication. Diagnostic events in chronic periodontitis include parodontogrammy data analysis ortopantomogrammu, biopsy tissue gums. chronic periodontitis Treatment depends on the severity and includes removal of dental plaque, a local anti-inflammatory therapy, physical therapy, splinting of teeth; if necessary - the removal of mobile teeth, scrappy operations.
Chronic periodontitis - structural changes of periodontal tissues (granulating, granulomatous, fibrotic), resulting from chronic inflammation of periodontal. Clinical manifestations of chronic periodontitis can include tooth pain on pressure or temperature exposure, flushing and swelling of the gums, tooth mobility, gingival fistula formation. Chronic periodontitis is diagnosed based on clinical, radiographic, elektroodontometricheskih data. Therapy of chronic periodontitis involves the treatment and root canal filling; When the need for surgical treatment.
Chronic peritonitis - long flowing peritonitis, caused by the action of different reasons. There are several forms of disease that are distinguished by clinical manifestations and treatments. Main symptoms: recurrent pain in the abdomen, dyspepsia, disorders stool, urination, weakness, fever, pale skin. Diagnosis is to collect anamnesis, external examination, a blood test, ultrasound, CT, MRI, X-ray of the abdomen, laparotomy. Medical and surgical treatment, appointed on an individual basis.
Chronic pyelonephritis - a chronic nonspecific bacterial process occurring predominantly involving interstitial kidney tissue and renal pelvis complexes. Chronic pyelonephritis manifested malaise, dull pain in the lower back, low-grade fever, dysuric symptoms. In the process of diagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis conduct laboratory tests of urine and blood, renal ultrasound, retrograde pyelography, scintigraphy. Treatment consists of a diet and gentle treatment, the appointment of antimicrobial therapy, nitrofurans, vitamins, physiotherapy.
Chronic superficial gastritis - a disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous layer of the stomach wall, in which the pathological process does not extend to deeper layers and does not affect the secretory function of the organ. The main symptoms are considered to discomfort and dull pain in the upper abdomen, which appear after a meal. Also, the disease may be accompanied by a nausea, belching and heartburn. A key role in the diagnosis plays esophagogastroscopy, endoscopic biopsies and breath test on helicobacter pylori. For the treatment of chronic superficial gastritis used antisecretory drugs, antacids, antibiotics. Forecast favorable with timely treatment.
Chronic proctitis - chronic inflammation of the rectal mucosa. Often combined with sigmoiditom (Proctosigmoiditis). It is accompanied by tenesmus, discomfort, itching, burning and pain in the area of non-intensive rectum. The feces revealed traces of mucus, blood and pus. During exacerbation of chronic proctitis symptoms become more pronounced, possibly raising the temperature to subfebrile. Diagnosis is based on complaints, medical history, examination of the anal region, a rectal exam, rectoscopy, biopsy, stool analysis and other techniques. Treatment - diet, drug therapy, non-drug methods.
Chronic prostatitis - a prolonged inflammation of the prostate, resulting in a breach of the morphology and functioning of the prostate. Chronic prostatitis is manifested prostatic triad - a pain in the pelvic region and genitals, urinary disorders, sexual disorders. Diagnosis of chronic prostatitis include palpation of the prostate, prostate secretion study, ultrasonography, uroflowmetry, cystoscopy, needle biopsy of the prostate. In chronic prostatitis is shown a complex medical, physiotherapy, massage, prostate, urethral instillations back. Surgical treatment is appropriate in complicated forms of chronic prostatitis.
Chronic pulpitis - the current long-term inflammation of the neurovascular bundle of the tooth, leading to its functional and structural changes. Various clinical and morphological forms of chronic pulpitis proceed with periodic bouts of pain arising from the effects of thermal and mechanical stimuli, the presence of cavities in the tooth. Diagnosis of chronic pulpitis contribute data inspection tool, electric pulp test, X-ray diffraction. Treatment of chronic pulpitis implies a hysterectomy (at least - amputation) pulp followed by the filling of canals and restoring the tooth shape.
Chronic sigmoid - a chronic inflammation of the lining of the sigmoid colon. Manifested abdominal pain, often given into the lower back, leg and chest rumbling, flatulence, feeling of fullness, false desires, disorders stool, mucus and blood in the stool. During exacerbation of chronic sigmoidita symptoms are worse, there is a weakness and a slight hyperthermia. Perhaps the inflammation spread to the peritoneum with the development perisigmoidita. The disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical examination, barium enema, sigmoidoscopy and stool tests. Treatment - diet, drug therapy.