Chloasma - focal hyperpigmentation of the skin of various sizes, located mostly on the face and having clear boundaries. Chloasma looks like spots of light brown, brown or brownish color. It may be worn multiple character. The diagnosis is established by a typical clinical presentation and localization of pigmentation additionally spend Siascopy, dermatoscopy, examined the liver, gynecological and digestive tract. chloasma treatment involves the use of cosmetic ways to reduce its saturation color. Apply exfoliating and whitening agents, dermabrasion, laser peels, photorejuvenation, mesotherapy and cryotherapy.
Cholangiocarcinoma - a malignant tumor of the bile ducts. Symptoms generally associated with cholestasis (jaundice, pruritus), and patients may experience pain in the right upper quadrant, severe weight loss. To be diagnosed using ultrasound of the abdomen, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), percutaneous cholangiography, determination of tumor markers in the blood. The main method of treatment of cholangiocarcinoma - operative. Chemotherapy and radiation are used in combination with surgically or as palliative treatment.
Cholangitis - non-specific inflammation of the bile ducts acute or chronic course. When cholangitis noted in the right upper quadrant pain, fever with chills, dyspepsia, jaundice. Cholangitis diagnosis involves analysis of biochemical parameters of blood, holding a fractional duodenal intubation with bakissledovaniem bile, ultrasonography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, ERCP. In the treatment of cholangitis used antibiotic therapy, detoxification therapy, the purpose of enzymes, FTL (mud baths, sodium chloride baths, paraffin and ozokeritoterapiya, UHF, diathermy), sometimes - surgical decompression of the biliary tract.
Choledocholithiasis - the presence of stones in the bile ducts, causing a violation zhelcheottoka. Symptoms choledocholithiasis determined by the degree of overlap duct stone and include pain, jaundice and sometimes fever. In the initial stages of the disease may pass without symptoms. For an accurate diagnosis is performed ultrasound of the liver and gall bladder, holedohoskopiyu, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, MR cholangiopancreatography, evaluate biochemical liver tests. Remove the stones surgically or endoscopically.
Cholera - an acute intestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae human defeat. Cholera diarrhea frequently manifested expressed, abundant repeated vomiting, resulting in a significant loss of fluid and dehydration. Signs of dehydration are dry skin and mucous membranes, reduced turgor of tissues and skin wrinkling, facial sharpening, oligoanuria. The diagnosis of cholera is confirmed by the results of bacteriological seeding feces and vomit, serological methods. Treatment includes isolation of the cholera patient, parenteral rehydration, antibiotics tetracycline therapy.
Cholestasis - clinical and laboratory syndrome characterized by an increase in blood levels of substances excreted in the bile as a result of breach of any of its production of bile outflow. Symptoms include itching, jaundice, constipation, bitter taste in the mouth, pain in the right upper quadrant, dark urine and stool discoloration. Diagnosis of cholestasis is to determine the levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, bile acids. From instrumental methods using ultrasound, radiography, gastroscopy, Duodenoscopy holegrafiyu, CT and others. Treatment of complex, appointed gepatoprotektory, antibacterial drugs, cytotoxic agents and drugs of ursodeoxycholic acid.
Cholestasis newborn - a pathological condition which is characterized by impaired bile secretion, leading to hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice. Clinical manifestations include subikterichnost sclera, yellowing of the mucous membranes and skin, hepatomegaly, delay in physical development, hypovitaminosis A, D, K, E. Diagnosis of cholestasis newborn is to identify the underlying disease, laboratory evaluation of liver ultrasound, hepatobiliary scan and liver biopsy. Treatment depends on the etiologic factors and includes a balanced diet, the introduction of the diet of easily digestible fats, vitamin therapy, or surgery.
Cholestatic hepatitis - a disease in which the development is crucial obstruction of bile flow and the accumulation of its components in the liver. Clinically, the disease is manifested by itching, discomfort in the right hypochondrium region, intense jaundice, dyspepsia, enlargement of the liver and the emergence xanthelasma skin. In the diagnosis of primary importance are the general clinical and biochemical blood analysis with determination of liver function tests, ultrasound of the liver and gall bladder, pancreas ultrasound, MRI of the abdominal cavity. The therapy is aimed at improving the outflow of bile and normalization of body functions.
Cholesteatoma Ear - encapsulated tumor formation of the middle ear, which consists mainly of cells desquamated epithelium and cholesterol crystals. There are true (congenital) and false ear cholesteatoma. Disease manifests a sense of fullness and pain in the ear, reduced hearing mixed type, with a small amount of putrid odor discharge from the ear. Ear Cholesteatoma is diagnosed through X-rays and CT scans of the skull, otoscopy, probing and lavage of the tympanic cavity, vestibular and auditory research analyzers. cholesteatoma ear treatment in most cases consists of surgical removal of the radical. Sometimes it is possible to wash nadbarabannoy cavity accommodating the cholesteatoma.
Cholesterosis gallbladder - a pathological condition characterized by the deposition of lipids in the wall of the gallbladder associated with metabolic disorders of fat and cholesterol. It flows in many cases without any symptoms or minimal symptoms of aching pain in the right hypochondrium, dyspeptic symptoms. Main diagnostic study at Cholesterosis - ultrasound of the liver and gall bladder. Sometimes abnormalities detected incidentally during cholecystectomy. Treatment is mainly conservative, aimed at restoring the metabolism. Surgical treatment is used if the gallbladder cholesterosis accompanies cholelithiasis, acute inflammatory diseases.
Acute cholecystitis - an inflammation of the gall bladder, characterized by sporadic violation bile movement as a result of the blockade of its outflow. Perhaps the development of pathological destruction of the walls of the gallbladder. In most cases (85-95%) of acute cholecystitis combined with calculi (stones), more than half (60%) patients determined bile bacterial contamination (coliform bacteria, cocci, salmonella, etc.). In acute cholecystitis symptoms occur only once, and is developing, with adequate treatment, stuhaet, leaving pronounced effects. Repeated repetition of acute inflammation of the gall bladder attacks say chronic cholecystitis.
Chronic cholecystitis - an inflammation of the gall bladder, accompanied by a violation of its motor function and in some cases - the formation of stones. Clinically manifested by pain and heaviness in the right upper quadrant, often occurring after ingestion of fatty foods and alcohol, nausea, vomiting, dryness and bitterness in the mouth. Informative method of diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis are biochemical blood tests, ultrasound gallbladder cholecystography, duodenal intubation. Conservative treatment includes the use of medications, herbal medicine, physiotherapy; with calculous cholecystitis shows removal of the gallbladder.
Cholinergic urticaria - a rare autoimmune kind of allergic urticaria. Clinically is characterized by acute (within an hour), minor rash pruritic vesicles with serous content on exposed skin. The rash tends to spread, accompanied by a prodrome. Diagnosis is based on history, clinical manifestations, provocative tests to acetylcholine, artificial stimulation of an allergic reaction, blood tests for allergens, consultation narrow specialists. Cholinergic urticaria treatment is to neutralize provoking factor correction and concomitant pathology.
Cold dermatitis - inflammatory skin changes, emerging as a response to its cooling. Manifested in the form of red itchy spots, the surface of which is prone to flaking and cracking. Cold localized dermatitis on the face, ears, neck, hands, knees or hips. It can be accompanied by a runny nose, and conjunctivitis. Diagnosis cold dermatitis includes skin pH meter and dermatoscopy, further examination of the patient to identify chronic infectious foci or gastrointestinal disorders. Treatment consists in the removal of cold exposure, correction related disorders, and the appointment of antihistamines funds, improving circulation.
Chondroblastoma - a rare benign tumor, which is usually formed on the articular ends of bones. It comes from chondroblasts and its structure resembles a fairly mature cartilage. Usually of slow growth and favorable course, but in the literature individual cases of malignancy and primary malignant course chondroblasts. As usually develops in childhood or adolescence (10-25 years, the largest number of cases occur in the age of 10-18 years), but can occur in people of older age groups. It causes pain and swelling in the joint. X-ray findings can be nonspecific, so to clarify the diagnosis often requires other additional methods of research. Surgical treatment in a planned manner. Prognosis is usually favorable.
Chondroid siringoma (mucinous gidradenoma) - solitary chondroid-epithelial skin tumor benign nature. The primary elements are small nodules plotnoelasticheskoy consistency that appear spontaneously on previously unaltered skin of the trunk. They rise above the level of the dermis, have a smooth surface, have a slow growth in peripheral, sometimes ulcerate. Diagnostics carries a dermatologist based on history and clinical manifestations with histology results, scarification smear of the lesion and punctate tumors. Treatment is surgical excision or electrosurgical chondroid siringomy.
Chondrocalcinosis (pseudogout) - a chronic disease caused by the accumulation of crystals of calcium pyrophosphate in the joint fluid and in the cartilage. Causes of not exactly clarified, however, in certain forms of communication is marked with heredity and metabolic disorders at some other diseases. Chondrocalcinosis often manifested in the form of sharp pain in the affected joints in combination with a local redness, swelling and fever. Exacerbations last from several days to 2-3 weeks, alternating with long remissions. In some cases, chondrocalcinosis can occur chronically or asymptomatic. Diagnosis is based on X-ray studies and synovial fluid. Sometimes performed synovial biopsies. Treatment is conservative.
Chondroma - a benign tumor consisting of mature cartilage cells (usually hyaline). It may develop in any bone, but most often affects the long bones of the hand. Sometimes there is cartilage or on the larynx in soft tissues. Inclined to slow growth during favorable. In some cases, possible malignancy with degeneration in chondrosarcoma. Symptoms appear gradually. In the initial stages of the clinic is scanty or non-existent, so small chondroma often accidental discovery during the X-ray for another reason. As the deformation occurs at the location in the area of possible joint arthralgias, at least - synovitis. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of X-ray examination and biopsy data. Treatment operative in a planned manner. Weather favorable.
Chondromatosis joints - dysplastic process, accompanied by the formation of cartilage (hondromnyh) bodies in the synovial membrane of joints. The clinical course chondromatosis joints accompanied by arthralgias, local swelling, crunch at movement, limited mobility limb periodic blockades affected joint. Chondromatosis joints diagnosed by ultrasound, X-ray examination, MRI, CT, arthrography, arthroscopy. Treatment chondromatosis joint operational; It involves arthroscopic removal of free intraarticular bodies or conducting synovectomy.
Hondromiksoidnaya fibroma - a very rare benign tumor hryascheobrazuyuschaya. Most often it occurs in the metaphysis and metadiaphysis long bones, but can grow and other bones of the skeleton. During usually beneficial, however, tends to recur, and in some cases may ozlokachestvlyatsya. Manifested gradually intensified pain in the affected area, in severe cases (especially in children) can be blurred or moderate atrophy of the muscles of the affected limb, and limitation of movement in the nearby joint. Surgical treatment is carried out in a planned manner. Running a radical removal of the tumor to prevent recurrence and malignant transformation. Weather favorable. Relapses occur in 10-15% of patients, usually - in the first two years after surgery.
Chondrosarcoma - one of the most common malignant tumors of the skeleton. It comes from the cartilage. Most often occurs in flat bones of the shoulder and pelvic girdle, however, can be found in the long bones. It may develop on the bones or unmodified form as a result of degeneration of some benign tumors. Manifested by progressive pain and swelling in the affected area. In some cases, there is a local increase in temperature, the network expansion of the saphenous veins of the tumor area and limitation of movement in the nearby joint. There are several current options - from relatively favorable, with slow growth and late metastasis to negative, with the rapid growth and the early appearance of metastases. surgical treatment. Prognosis depends on the version of the course and the possibility of radical surgery.
Chordoma - a rare neoplasm, presumably originating from the remnants of the notochord. Currently, increasingly seen as malignant. There is near the spine, can be located at any level, from the coccyx to the base of the skull. Usually develops in the sacrococcygeal department or occipito-basilar skull. Symptoms of chordoma tumor localization are determined and the degree of lesion of different nerves. There may be pain, paresis, sensory disturbances and disorders of the pelvic organs. The diagnosis put considering neurological examination data, X-ray, CT, MRI and biopsy. Treatment - surgery, radiation therapy.
Chorea Huntington - an inherited, slowly progressive disease of the nervous system characterized by trochaic hyperkinesis, mental disorders and progressive dementia. The notion of "Huntington's chorea" correspond to: Huntington's disease, hereditary chorea, chorea a degenerative, chronic progressive chorea. Typically, Huntington's disease begins to manifest itself clinically in the age period from 20 to 50 years. Patients with Huntington's disease symptomatic therapy aimed at the suppression of hyperkinesis. The disease has a poor prognosis, death occurs on average after 10-13 years after the onset of the disease.
Horionkartsinoma - trophoblastic tumor that develops as a result of malignant transformation of the chorionic epithelium. horionkartsinoma Clinic is characterized by bloody, serous or purulent discharge from the genital tract, pain in the abdomen; when metastasis - symptoms of the relevant bodies. Diagnosis requires horionkartsinoma determine the level of hCG and trophoblastic globulin in the blood, histological analysis scraping, US. horionkartsinoma Treatment may include chemotherapy, surgery.
Chorioretinal dystrophy - involution degenerative changes affecting mainly horiokapillyarny layer of the choroid, retinal pigment layer and extending therebetween glassy plate (Bruch membrane). Symptoms include chorioretinal dystrophy distortion of straight lines, the emergence of the field of view of blind spots, flashing lights, loss of visual acuity, the ability to read and write. The diagnosis of chorioretinal dystrophy confirmed by data ophthalmoscopy, visual acuity test, test Amsler, campimetry, laser scanning tomography, perimetry, electroretinography, fluorescein angiography of retinal vessels. When chorioretinal dystrophy provide medical, laser, photodynamic therapy, electrical and magnetic stimulation, as well as vitrectomy, retinal neovascularization and vazorekonstruktsiyu area.
Snoring - violation of breathing during sleep, accompanied by a vibration of the soft tissues of the larynx and throat, and emit a low-frequency rattling sound. It may indicate the presence of upper respiratory disease, obesity or functional disorders. Snoring is often accompanied by bouts of respiratory arrest (apnea), leading to a lack of oxygen to vital organs and systems and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Snoring leads to disruption of sleep full of snoring and the people around him.
Chromhidrosis - secret staining of sweat glands in the red, yellow, blue, green and other colors. Chromhidrosis may be due to synthesis of apocrine glands in the specific pigment with the release into the body and then received by chemicals or dyes forming a result of the activity of microorganisms living on the skin surface. chromhidrosis Treatment depends on its origin and can include removing the sweat glands, elimination of contact with substances leading to the sweat stain, careful skin hygiene.
Chronic anal fissure - nonhealing mucosal defect in the anal area. It manifested burning pain, occurring at the time of defecation and persists for a few minutes or hours. Patients are observed itching, increased sphincter tone and allocation of drops of blood during defecation. Chronic anal fissure is diagnosed on the basis of complaints, inspection of the perianal region, anoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, barium enema and other studies. Treatment - diet, medicines of general and local action, physiotherapy, lateral sphincterotomy, at least - isolated fissurektomiya.
Chronic diarrhea - polietiologic pathological condition in which a period of 3-6 weeks or more is observed more frequent defecation 2-3 times or more per day with a discharge of unformed stool. It may be accompanied by tenesmus, bloating, rumbling, abdominal pain, urgency and presence of pathological admixtures in stool. Chronic diarrhea is diagnosed based on complaints, medical history, physical examination data, contrast radiological methods, colonoscopy (perhaps - with a biopsy), fecal tests and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment - diet, symptomatic and pathogenetic drug therapy.
Chronic diffuse streptoderma - recurrent diffuse inflammation of the skin coccal etiology. The primary elements are flat bullae appearing on the background of edematous erythema, confluent, forming large pockets with jagged edges. Seropurulent bubbles erode, crusted, next appear new. Leather diffusely infiltrated. They diagnose the disease based on clinical, bacteriological microscopy scrapings and smears from the lesion. Treatment involves improving trophism, sanitation foci of infection. Bulla opened, applied wet-drying antiseptic dressings, used vitamin therapy and means of improving peripheral circulation.