Tuberculous pleurisy - inflammation of the pleural tuberculosis etiology, occurring in dry form, and with the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. The main symptoms of tuberculous pleurisy - stabbing pain in his side, a dry cough, shortness of breath, low-grade or febrile body temperature, malaise. When the diagnosis of X-ray picture is taken into account, the results of Mantoux test, MBT detection in sputum or pleural exudate, data plevroskopii. Treatment of tuberculous pleurisy carried tuberkulostaticheskoy drugs, corticosteroids, NSAIDs; with massive exudation shows a series of pleural effusion puncture aspiration; in the resorption phase is assigned to exercise therapy, physiotherapy.
Tuberkulomah easy - encysted caseous lesion in the lung tissue diameter greater than 1 cm, resulting in the outcome of the various forms of tuberculosis. lung tuberculoma often asymptomatic, so in most cases it is found randomly. With the progression is accompanied by signs of toxicity, low-grade fever, cough, hemoptysis. The main way to detect lung tuberculoma - x-ray. The positive tuberculin reaction; MBT in sputum are not always detected. With regard to lung tubercles applied conservative tactics (specific chemotherapy), in some cases - surgical approach (segmentectomy, lobectomy).
Tuberous sclerosis - gene disease characterized by damage to the nervous system in the form of epilepsy and mental retardation, polymorphic skin symptoms, tumor and non-tumor processes in somatic organs. Diagnostic algorithm consists of the examination of the nervous system (MRI, brain CT, EEG), eye examination, examination of the internal organs (ultrasound, cardiac MRI, CT scan of the kidneys, chest X-ray, sigmoidoscopy). The main areas of treatment are: antiepileptic therapy, neuropsychological correction, monitoring and timely surgical treatment of tumors.
Tubular renal cell carcinoma - a type of kidney cancer histological emanating from the renal tubules (loop of Henle). Symptoms of kidney tubular carcinoma are similar to other types of cancer: hematuria, pain and palpable swelling in the kidney projection, anemia, intoxication. Diagnosing tubular carcinoma is based on laboratory tests, renal ultrasonography, urography, aortography, nefrostsintigrafii, CT, MRI. The main form of treatment of kidney tubular carcinomas - surgical that, if necessary, supplemented by radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy.
Hearing loss - a persistent weakening of the hearing, which interferes with the perception of the world of sounds and speech communication. The degree of hearing loss can vary from mild hearing loss to complete deafness. Diagnosis of hearing loss and held otolaryngologist otonevrologa through research complex (otoscopy, audiometry, kamertonalnyh samples, recording the hearing the EP and otoacoustic emissions, impedance, rotational sample stabilography et al.). Depending on the form of hearing loss can be applied conservative (hearing aids, physiotherapy, drug therapy) or surgical (tympanoplasty, myringoplasty, cochlear implants, etc.). Methods.
Hearing loss in children - hearing loss of varying severity, complicating the perception of speech and environmental sounds. Symptoms of hearing loss in children can be a lack of response to sound toys, maternal voice call, request, whispered speech; lack of Gulen and babble; violation of speech and mental development, and others. Diagnosis of hearing loss in children involves performing otoscopy, audiometry, acoustic impedance, the registration of otoacoustic emissions, the definition of hearing the EP. Taking into account the reasons for and the type of hearing loss in children can be used by medical and physiotherapy treatment, hearing aids, methods of functional otohirurgii, cochlear implantation.
Tularemia - natural focal acute infection of the lymph nodes, skin and sometimes mucous membranes of eyes, throat and lungs. Tularemia occurs with severe symptoms of intoxication, prolonged fever, generalized lymphadenitis, hepatosplenomegaly, polymorphous rash and other symptoms. The specific diagnosis of tularemia is conducted using serological tests (ELISA, RA, Phragmites), PCR, skin-allergic test. In the treatment of tularemia antibiotic is used, detoxification therapy, surgical opening and drainage festering bubo.
Blunt abdominal trauma - Closed traumatic abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space. It belongs to the category of life-threatening injury, often complicated by acute peritonitis and hemorrhagic shock. The cause of the injury can become drop, hit in the stomach or back pain, accident, industrial or natural disaster. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of clinical symptoms, ultrasound data, CT, X-ray, laparoscopy and other studies. surgical treatment.
Uveitis - general concept that refers to the inflammation of various parts of the choroid (the iris, ciliary body, choroid). Uveitis is characterized by redness, irritation and soreness of the eyes, increased sensitivity to light, blurred vision, watery eyes, the appearance of floating spots before the eyes. Eye diagnosis of uveitis include visometry and perimetry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, holding retinographia, US eyes, optical coherence tomography, electroretinography. uveitis Treatment is carried out taking into account the etiology; assignment of general principles are local (in the form of drops and ophthalmic ointments, injections) and systemic drug therapy, surgery complications of uveitis.
Acne is a particular manifestation of acne - skin sprinkler elements, and do not reflect the full clinical picture of the disease. The term "acne" includes various types of acne in adolescence, adult acne, dermatoses and group akneiformnymi rash (acne rosacea, rosacea, sarcoidosis melkouzelkovy face, perioral dermatitis, lupus). Depending on the type of acne and acne flow is determined by the method of its treatment.
neonatal acne - rashes as small white dots located mainly on the skin of the chin, cheeks, nasolabial folds. Newborn Acne occur in children during the first 6 months of life and are associated with hormonal changes occurring in the body. With their appearance is important an adequate skin care baby face, aimed at preventing the inflammation of acne elements. Diagnosis and treatment of newborn acne are only necessary when infection with the development of the inflammatory response. In most cases, neonatal acne are spontaneously within a few weeks.
Doubling of uterus and vagina - a congenital abnormality of the structure of sexual organs, characterized by the presence of two separate uteruses and vaginas of two bifurcated. Clinic doubling of the uterus and the vagina depends on the anatomic form of vice; It may be accompanied by algomenorrhea, forming hematocolpos, hematometra, infertility, miscarriage, or be asymptomatic. Doubling of uterus diagnosed by pelvic exam, ultrasound, MRI, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy. The method of surgical treatment of the doubling of the uterus depends on the nature of the anatomical and functional disorders.
Polyarteritis nodosa - systemic vasculitis characterized by inflammatory and necrotic lesions of the walls of the small and medium-sized visceral and peripheral arteries. Periarteritis nodosa Clinic begins with fever, myalgia, arthralgia, joined by trombangiitichesky, skin, neurological, abdominal, cardiac, pulmonary, renal syndromes. To confirm the diagnosis of periarteritis nodosa conducted morphological study of skin biopsies. In the treatment using corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, cytostatics. Forecast periarteritis nodosa is largely determined by the severity of internal organ involvement.
Narrow pelvis - midwifery concept, implying a reduction of at least one of the female pelvis size compared with the norm (anatomical narrowing) or mismatch of the pelvis and fruit sizes (functional restriction), obstructing the passage of the fetus through the birth canal bony base. Narrow pelvis during childbirth often promotes nuisance the outpouring of water, premature placental abruption, anomalies of labor, bleeding, birth injuries fetus and the mother, postpartum infections. narrow pelvis Diagnosis is via external examinations pregnant, measuring the size of the pelvis and the fetus, vaginal examination, ultrasound, rentgenopelviometrii. Keeping labor with a narrow pelvis has its own characteristics, and often requires surgical benefits.
Erythema nodosum - inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous vessels having an allergic genesis and formation of dense manifested painful inflammatory hemispherical nodes of various sizes. The most common process is localized on the symmetric parts of the lower extremities. Diagnosis of erythema nodosum is based on dermatological examination data, laboratory tests, X-ray light, the conclusion of a pulmonologist, rheumatologist and other specialists. Treatment of erythema nodosum include the elimination of foci of infection, antibiotic therapy, general and local anti-inflammatory therapy, extracorporeal blood correction, application VLOK and physiotherapy.
Uzlovatokistoznye eels - one of the forms of acne adolescence manifested form on the face and body deep infiltrative cells or pus-filled cavities. Resolution uzlovatokistoznyh acne is accompanied by a process of scarring. Diagnosis involves examination of a dermatologist, skin pH meter, dermatoscopy, bakposev with antibiogram. When uzlovatokistoznyh acne held general and local antibiotics, used external means to zinc and azelaic acid, mesotherapy is used, ozone therapy, cryotherapy, and others. Treatments.
Nodal mastopathy - dishormonal benign changes in the breast, characterized by the formation of nodules and cysts in the tissues. Nodal breast disease manifested by the presence of seals in the chest, mastalgia, swelling and breast tenderness before menstruation, discharge from the nipples. Diagnose nodal mastopathy allows holding ultrasound, mammography, ductal studies, biopsy. Treatment of nodular mastopathy includes background correction disorders (inflammatory, endocrine, neuro-humoral), carrying out a sectoral resection or enucleation of breast cysts.
Nodal melanoma - one of the varieties of melanoma, characterized by rapid progression and poor prognosis. Unlike other types of melanoma has no horizontal phase of growth from the start growing vertically penetrates deep into the underlying tissues. It is a dark brown, gray, black or navy blue domed exophytic node or polyp on a stalk with easily bleeding surface. On the surface of the tumor necrosis sites are identified and ulceration. Nodal melanoma is diagnosed based on medical history, data epiluminescence dermoscopy and blood tests for tumor markers. Treatment operative.
Nodular goiter - a group of diseases of the thyroid gland, proceeding with the development of her voluminous nodules of different origin and morphology. Nodular goiter may be accompanied by a visible cosmetic defect in the neck, a sense of compression of the neck, symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis of nodular goiter is based on data palpation, ultrasound examination of thyroid gland, thyroid hormone parameters, fine needle biopsy, scintigraphy, esophageal X-ray, CT, or MRI. Treatment of nodular goiter may include suppressive therapy with thyroid hormone, treatment with radioactive iodine, thyroidectomy or hemithyroidectomy.
The nodes of the thyroid gland - thyroid focal education of all sizes with a capsule determined by palpation or using imaging studies. Cysts of the thyroid gland - thyroid nodules with a cavity filled with liquid contents. Units and thyroid cysts may occur a long time without any symptoms, then there are various phenomena discomfort in the throat and the knot becomes noticeable when you look at his neck. Gormonalnoaktivnye thyroid nodules entail the development of hyperthyroidism. The diagnostic algorithm for suspected node or cyst includes thyroid ultrasound, needle biopsy of Education and hormonal studies.
limb shortening - reducing the length of the one relative to the other limb or decrease the length of both legs, in which violations of the human body proportions. Slight shortening (1-2 cm) is widespread and has no clinical significance. A significant shortening of the lower extremities, especially unilateral, can provoke a number of diseases of the joints and spine. Diagnosis is exposed after special measurements. Possible correction insoles and orthopedic shoes, with severe limb shortening is extended using the Ilizarov apparatus.
Mycoplasmosis and Ureaplasmosis - diseases of the genitourinary system mostly caused by different pathogens, but have similar clinical picture. In men, urethritis symptoms appear. In women, the symptoms cause parauretrita and vulvitis, the formation of pseudo-cervix. If untreated, the inflammation goes quickly into a chronic form with periodic exacerbations. The inflammatory process may involve the internal genitals, which gradually leads to infertility. Perhaps the development of mycoplasma cystitis and pyelonephritis. Meets mycoplasma defeat of skin, internal organs and joints.
Ureterocele - ureter defect characterized by cystic expansion of its distal and bulging into the lumen of the bladder. Ureterocele accompanied by pain in the lower back, dysuric disorders hematuria. Diagnosis ureterocele involves holding ultrasound of the bladder and kidneys, excretory urography, cystography, cystoscopy. Treatment consists in the dissection of the narrowed mouth of the ureter and ureterocele excision followed by ureteral reanastomozom; in some cases required to perform a partial or total nephrectomy.
Urethritis - inflammation of the urethral wall (urethral). Symptoms are pain, stinging and burning during urination, abnormal discharge from the urethra, the nature of which depends on the causative agent. In complicated cases, the inflammatory process advances and adjacent pelvic organs: the prostate, bladder and organs of the scrotum. Another consequence of urethritis is a narrowing (stricture) of the urethra or the full spike. An important point in the diagnosis of urethritis is the determination of its etiology. To this end, a urine culture and smear from the urethra. urethritis treatment is carried out in accordance with its cause (antibiotics, metronidazole, protivomikoticheskie preparations), with the development of adhesions shown bougienage urethra.
brain contusion - type of traumatic brain injury, accompanied by limited morphological changes of cerebral tissue. Manifested loss of consciousness, amnesia, vomiting, dizziness, anisocoria, different focal symptoms, meningeal symptom, changes in cardiac and respiratory rhythm. The main method of diagnosis - a brain CT. Conservative treatment: correction of vital functions, normalization of intracranial pressure, neuroprotective therapy. Surgical treatment is carried out strictly according to indications, including craniotomy, decompression and removal of injury lesions.
Knee injury - Closed traumatic soft tissue in the knee joint. Is one of the most common injuries is classified as lung damage. The reason usually becomes a fall or blow to the home or during sports. Less commonly observed knee injury as a result of accidents at work, road traffic accidents and falls from a height. Manifested by pain, bruises, joint swelling, limitation of movement and support. Often accompanied by a hemarthrosis. Clarify diagnosis using X-ray, MRI and arthroscopy. Treatment is conservative.
Bruised tailbone - soft tissue injury in the coccyx and the sacrococcygeal joint. Usually occurs in the fall on the buttocks, it is more common in the winter season. Manifested by swelling and pain, growing in a sitting position and during movement. Perhaps the formation of a hematoma. In the long term, such an injury may be complicated coccygodynia - chronic pain resulting from damage to the nerve plexus located in the coccyx. Diagnosis bruised tailbone is exposed on the basis of symptoms, examination and X-ray data. Treatment is conservative.
Bruising breast - Closed traumatic breast tissue. The most common injury of the mammary glands occurs at home in the fall, car accidents, strikes in transport and during sports games. Bruising breast accompanied by pain, the formation of the site seal and hematoma. Injury Diagnosis is based on the presence of trauma history, holding breast ultrasound, radiometry, if necessary - mammography. Treatment of breast injury often held conservative; with a large hematoma puncture aspiration is performed it or delete (sectoral resection of the breast).
Bruised foot - Closed traumatic injury to the soft tissues of the lower limb. Most often it occurs in everyday life: at home in the fall or in the street, struck with a blunt object or a heavy object falling on the foot. Less is formed as a result of sports and work-related injuries, accidents and falls from a height. Manifested by swelling and local tenderness. Support is usually preserved, the movement may be limited because of the pain. Diagnosis exhibited after the exclusion of other damages, in the process of diagnosis can be used X-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and other joint research. Treatment is conservative.
Bruised thumb - Closed traumatic soft tissue finger upper or lower limbs. Injury usually occurs in everyday life as a result of impact. Manifested edema, cyanosis, severe pain and restriction of movement. When you hit the nail phalanx sometimes formed subungual hematoma. According to clinical symptoms may resemble a bruised thumb fracture, so when these injuries required inspection trauma. To exclude fracture prescribe X-rays. Treatment is usually conservative, in the presence of a large hematoma hyponychial shown autopsy.