Phlegmon admaxillary - purulent fusion of subcutaneous fat in the maxillofacial area. Most often has odontogenic character, but could be due to penetration of infection of the affected areas of stomatitis or pustular skin elements. Characterized by a sharp soreness in the jaw, limited mouth opening and labored swallowing, swelling of the face and neck, severe general condition, fever, high body temperature. Displaying surgical opening of cellulitis. Admaxillary abscess is a terrible danger in the spread of infection in the mediastinum (mediastinitis) or meninges (meningitis), which often leads to the death of patients.
Phlegmonous appendicitis - an acute inflammation of the appendix, it is accompanied by pronounced edema, an accumulation of pus and fibrin deposition on the surface. Manifested by severe pain, especially in the lower right abdominal area may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, a temperature rise. Diagnosis is based on history taking, examination, appoint more general analysis of blood, sometimes abdominal ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment operative, you need emergency surgery to remove the appendix (classical or laparoscopic). Forecast with timely assistance favorable.
Fluorosis - loss of tooth enamel, associated with constant and long ingestion of excessive amounts of fluoride. Fluorosis can wear endemic and professional character. Manifested appearance on the teeth at first whitish, then yellow spots or stripes, erosive or destructive changes of enamel. In severe cases, accompanied by a lesion of the bone tissue of the skeleton. In the case of fluorosis diagnosis the patient must first change being used by him drinking water. fluorosis Treatment consists mainly in the aesthetic and mineral recovery of affected teeth. To this end, a whitening, remineralization, restoration, installation of crowns.
Phobic disorder (phobia) - sudden intense fear steadily arising from certain objects, activities, or situations. It is combined with the avoidance of the feared situation and anxiously waiting. Mild forms of phobias are common, but the diagnosis is "phobic disorder" is established only when the fear of the patient and limits the negative impact on the various aspects of his life: personal relationships, social activities, professional realization. The diagnosis is carried out on the basis of history. Treatment - psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy.
Phobophobia - fear of occurrence of phobias, the fear of fear. Unlike all other phobias, it is not associated with a specific object, activity or situation. Provokes horror at once felt a sense of intense anxiety, a sense of helplessness and hopelessness of the situation, is the fear, "closed on itself." Phobophobia occurs in people who suffer or have suffered other phobias ever experienced one or more panic attacks. Diagnosis is based on medical history and the patient's complaints. Treatment - psychotherapy, drug therapy.
Folic acid deficiency anemia - megaloblastic anemia due to violation of medullary hematopoiesis due to deficiency of folic acid (B9 vitamin). If folic acid deficiency anemia develop all the symptoms of anemia (pallor, fatigue, tachycardia, decreased blood pressure), slight jaundice, enlarged spleen, anorexia, unstable chair. In order to confirm the diagnosis carried out a study hemogram, bone marrow, the determination of folic acid levels in erythrocytes and blood serum. Treatment B9-deficiency anemia requires folic acid replacement therapy.
Folliculitis - infection of the middle and deep parts of the hair follicle, resulting in its purulent inflammation. Folliculitis may be bacterial, fungal, viral, parasitic etiology. It is manifested in the appearance of hair growth in places of single or multiple pustules, which runs through the middle of hair. Revealed the pustules form sores, their healing at a deep lesion of the hair follicle is accompanied by scarring. Diagnosis of folliculitis is carried out by dermoscopy, smear microscopy and research discharge pustules. Treatment is carried out with solutions of aniline dyes, antiseptics, local and systemic application etiotropic drugs: antibiotics, antifungals, acyclovir.
Follicular ovarian cyst - functional ovarian tissue retention education, emerging from neovulirovavshego follicle. In most cases, ovarian follicular cysts klinicheski does not occur; sometimes marked abdominal pain, delayed menstruation, infertility. Diagnosis of follicular ovarian cysts provides for gynecological investigation, dynamic ultrasound, laparoscopy. Treatment subject to recurrent and persistent brushes: in this case, a hormone and anti-inflammatory therapy. While maintaining follicular ovarian cysts or complications occur, surgical treatment.
Follicular hyperkeratosis - dermatitis caused by excessive growth of the stratum corneum, epidermis peeling violation and sealing the mouths of the follicles epidermal scales. Follicular hyperkeratosis looks like a "goose" the skin, covered with small bright red nodules in the elbows, knees, buttocks, outer thighs. At the touch of the skin, the affected follicular hyperkeratosis, it becomes rough, dry, rough. Treatment is carried out by a dermatologist; It includes topical application of steroid agents, conducting chemical peels (AHA, Jessner, salicylic), vitamin A, selection keratolytic cosmetic products for skin care.
Follicular thyroid cancer - a form of thyroid cancer, which is characterized by follicular tumor structure. Manifested by the presence of tumor formation in the thyroid, pain, change in voice, difficulty breathing and swallowing, combined with common symptoms of cancer. Rarely affects the regional lymph nodes. It can metastasize to the lung, bone, brain, skin and other organs. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, inspection data, laryngoscopy, ultrasound, CT, MRI, biopsy and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment - hemithyroidectomy or thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine replacement therapy.
Phonetic and phonemic hypoplasia (FFN) - a violation of zvukoproiznoshenija processes and perception of phonemes in various speech disorders in children with normal intelligence and biological hearing. FFN is characterized by substitutions, mixing and sound distortion, a violation of the syllabic structure of the word, not sharply pronounced lexical and grammatical irregularities. Logopedic examination at FFN includes the study of the state of sound pronunciation, phonemic perception, syllabic structure of the word, lexical and grammatical structure of speech, word-building skills, coherent speech. Correctional work with FFN conducted on speech disorders parties.
Phosphate-diabetes - genetically caused a violation of mineral metabolism at which suffers absorption and assimilation in the body of phosphorus compounds, leading to the pathology of the skeletal system. According to recent reports, a whole group of hereditary diseases. Manifested hypotonia of muscles, rachitic skeletal changes (varus deformity of the lower limbs, rachitic rosary, etc.), retarded growth. Diagnosis of phosphate diabetes is based on the results of blood and urine laboratory tests (serum alkaline phosphatase, calcium ions, active form of vitamin D), and molecular genetic testing. Treatment of this disease produce high doses of vitamin D, phosphorus and calcium, orthopedic or surgical correction of skeletal deformities.
skin photoaging - a set of biochemical, structural, and visible (health) skin changes caused permanent damage to the skin sunlight. Typical signs of photoaging include increased dryness of the skin, the appearance of hyperpigmentation and vascular changes, rough skin pattern, superficial and deep wrinkles. Confirmatory diagnosis may include dermatoscopy, biopsy and histological examination of the epidermis. To combat skin ftostareniem effectiveness, such cosmetic procedures like chemical peels, biorevitalization, Plazmolifting and others. Need skin protection from ultraviolet radiation by means of special funds from the SPF.
Toadskin - a rare pathology of the skin associated with the lack of retinol in the body on the background of violations of its consumption or absorption in the intestine. Clinically manifested in the process of keratinization zone of the hair follicle, resembling hyperkeratotic "grater phenomenon", eventually transforming the patient's skin in the rough "shell toad." The process involved the mucous membranes of the mouth, losing shine and moisture. Diagnose toadskin taking into account medical history, clinic, histology and analysis of blood serum carotene, vitamin A, systemic pathologies requires consultation of relevant experts. toadskin retinol treatment is carried out at high doses: a medication, and with the help of increasing its revenue from food.
Funikulotsele - cyst, formed as a result of accumulation of serous secretion between the sheets of the shell of the spermatic cord. Funikulotsele characterized by the appearance of palpable nodular education, non-testis and epididymis; sometimes - aching in the scrotum, worse walking and activity. The diagnosis funikulotsele decisive role played by palpation and ultrasound of the scrotum, transillumination. When funikulotsele, bring aesthetic discomfort or accompanied by clinical symptoms, surgical treatment - husking cyst of the spermatic cord.
Funicular myelosis - spinal cord lesion that develops due to vitamin B12 deficiency. As a rule, combined with pernicious anemia. Disorder manifested deep sensitivity, movement disorders in the form of flaccid paralysis with lower pyramidal signs, mental health disabilities. Diagnosed funicular myelosis by determining the levels of B12 in the blood of the neurological, gastrointestinal and hematological examinations. Treatment consists in filling the deficit of vitamin B12 vitamin B12 compliance rich diet, the introduction of other B vitamins Weather favorable.
The functional autonomy of the thyroid gland - increased secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland, uncontrolled thyroid stimulating hormone pituitary gland and external stimulants. The functional autonomy of the thyroid manifested symptoms of hyperthyroidism: weight loss, low-grade fever, heat intolerance, sweating, muscle weakness, cardiovascular, neurological, digestive disorders. The diagnosis of the functional autonomy of the thyroid gland is based on clinical presentation, history, results of a study of TSH, T3 and T4 in the blood, ultrasound, scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules. In the treatment of functional autonomy of thyroid radioiodine used, subtotal (total) thyroidectomy.
Functional diarrhea - continuous or intermittent disorder of the intestine functions, shown increased frequency of bowel movements up to 3 or more times a day with the discharge of liquid or mushy stool. Abdominal pain are absent. Possible urgency, rumbling, flatulence and a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bowel. The feces are often found mixed with mucus. Functional diarrhea is diagnosed on the basis of complaints, medical history, endoscopic and radiological methods of investigation, ultrasound, ballonografii, laboratory tests and other methods. Treatment - removal of provoking factors, diet, drug therapy, psychotherapy.
Functional dyspepsia - a number of pathologies associated with impaired motility and secretory function of the stomach without significant changes mucosa structure. Exhibit symptoms of dyspepsia (nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting periodic) and pain. For the diagnosis carried out the following studies: fractional gastric intubation, esophagogastroscopy, electrogastrography, radiography of the stomach, ultrasound of the abdomen. Treatment - conservative, includes drug therapy, diet therapy, the correct diet.
Functional paresis of the larynx - voice-reduction function of the larynx due to disturbances in the central nervous system. Functional laryngeal paresis manifested whisper speech or complete aphonia, which disappears when crying, laughing or coughing. Observed general symptoms: sleep disturbance, headache, irritability, and mental instability, anxiety. In addition to a full examination of the neuromuscular apparatus of the larynx (laryngoscopy, radiography and CT laryngeal electromyography gortannyh muscles, the study of voice function), for the diagnosis of functional laryngeal paresis should consult a neurologist and a therapist with the patient's conduct psychological testing. Treatment of functional paresis of the larynx performed with the use of antidepressants, tranquilizers, sedatives, antipsychotics, psychotherapeutic techniques and physiotherapy.
Furunkul - an acute purulent inflammation of the hair follicle, exciting the surrounding soft tissue and surrounding sebaceous glands. Furunkul begins with the formation of a dense infiltrate in the center of which is formed necrotic core, ending pustules. Then the opening of pustules, passage of the rod with purulent contents and healing boils, after which the skin remains a scar. Diagnosis includes furunkula dermatoscopy, bakposev discharge, blood tests, the study of the immune system, the identification of comorbidities and complications. Treatment is carried out locally, in accordance with the stages of development furunkula. According to the testimony assigned antibiotic therapy, immunotherapy, treatment of complications.
Furunculosis - a necrotic disease of the hair follicle and okolofollikulyarnoy connective tissue. The primary element is an inflammatory inflammatory node that forms around the hair follicle. The main cause of boils are staphylococcus infection. A typical dermatological picture, signs of inflammation in the clinical blood test and the results of bacteriological seeding separated skin cells allow without difficulty diagnosing abrasions. Patients with boils are treated by a dermatologist.
X-shaped legs (valgus bending feet) - a pathology in which a person standing with straight and information with their feet, the distance between the heels of more than 5 centimeters. In most cases, X-shaped legs are not a congenital disease, and develop because of excessive load on the legs of the child in the first years of life. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of visual inspection, radiography and other studies. At an early age performed conservative correction surgery is indicated for failure of conservative treatment and progression of deformity.
Chalazion - a benign tumor seal (hailstone) in the thickness of the century, developing on the background of chronic inflammation and blockage of meibomian gland. Chalazion manifested by the presence of nodules and swelling of the eyelid, the pressure on the eyeball, irritation of eyes, sometimes - suppuration and spontaneous opening. Diagnosis of chalazion usually requires no additional tools of research and is based on external examination of the century. chalazion Treatment can be conservative (instillation of drugs, laying ointments, injection into the formation) or surgery (removal of chalazion).
Хейлит – воспалительный процесс, поражающий красную кайму, слизистую оболочку и кожу губ. Проявляется отеком, покраснением, шелушением губ, появлением на них кровоточащих язвочек, гнойных корочек, жжением и болью при открывании рта и приеме пищи. Часто заболевание носит длительный рецидивирующий характер. У людей молодого возраста течение более благоприятное, возможно самоизлечение. В пожилом возрасте есть риск возникновения лейкоплакии и озлокачествления.
Cheilitis Manganotti - obligatny precancer red border of the lips. The disease occurs to form one or more painless erosions irregularly shaped with irregular edges. Erosive surface is covered with bloody crusts, when you try to remove that bleeding occurs. Diagnostika cheilitis Manganotti based on the basis of patient complaints, anamnesis, physical examination findings and laboratory studies. In identifying precancer obligatnogo pokazany rehabilitation and correction of hygienic condition of the oral cavity. Locally appointed keratoplasty, in the absence of positive dynamics of the pathological focus to be surgical excision.
Chylothorax - abnormal accumulation of lymph (chylous) of fluid in the pleural cavity, arising from a lymphorrhea of the thoracic duct. The development of chylothorax is accompanied by shortness of breath, progressive deterioration of health, collaptoid state, exhaustion, respiratory failure. Chylothorax diagnosed by clinical and historical data, the results of X-rays, thoracentesis, cytological evaluation of chylous fluid, thoracoscopy. chylothorax treatment involves repeated puncture or drainage of pleural cavity to remove the chyle, when persistent lymphorrhea - perevyazku thoracic duct, plevroperitonealnoe bypass surgery, pleurodesis, imposing lymphoveinous anastomosis and others
Chlamydia pneumonia - an infectious-inflammatory process in the lungs caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria of the genus Chlamydia and Chlamydophila. For chlamydial pneumonia characterized by respiratory symptoms (rhinitis, bronchitis), unproductive cough, low-grade and febrile temperature, extrapulmonary symptoms (arthralgia, myalgia). When the diagnosis takes into account auscultation and radiographic data, however, the decisive role is played by laboratory diagnosis (IFA, MIF, PCR and others.). For the treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae used antimicrobial agents (macrolides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones), immunomodulators, physiotherapy.
Chlamydial Conjunctivitis - an infection of the mucous membrane of the eye chlamydia, accompanied by acute or chronic inflammation of the conjunctiva. Chlamydial conjunctivitis occurs with swelling of the conjunctiva and transient folds, purulent discharge from the eyes, watery eyes, sharp pain in the eyes, follicular rash on the lower eyelid, the parotid adenopathy, evstahiita phenomena. Diagnosis of chlamydial conjunctivitis is to conduct biomicroscopy, cytology, culture, enzyme immunoassay, immunofluorescence, PCR studies for determination of chlamydia. Treatment of chlamydial conjunctivitis is performed using antibiotics tetracycline, macrolides and fluoroquinolones to complete clinical and laboratory recovery.
Chlamydia - a group of diseases caused by various kinds of chlamydia. Affects the respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, urogenital system, organs of vision. Urogenital chlamydiosis is manifestation of inflammatory diseases: urethritis, prostatitis, cystitis, vulvovaginitis, cervicitis erosion, endometritis and revealed only specific diagnostic methods. The characteristic symptom - vitreous separation from the urinary tract. Chlamydial infections are dangerous multiple complications, including ascending urinary tract infections, infertility, neyrohlamidiozy, joint damage, heart and vascular diseases, impotence - in men.