Phonetic and phonemic hypoplasia (FFN) - a violation of zvukoproiznoshenija processes and perception of phonemes in various speech disorders in children with normal intelligence and biological hearing. FFN is characterized by substitutions, mixing and sound distortion, a violation of the syllabic structure of the word, not sharply pronounced lexical and grammatical irregularities. Logopedic examination at FFN includes the study of the state of sound pronunciation, phonemic perception, syllabic structure of the word, lexical and grammatical structure of speech, word-building skills, coherent speech. Correctional work with FFN conducted on speech disorders parties.
Phosphate-diabetes - genetically caused a violation of mineral metabolism at which suffers absorption and assimilation in the body of phosphorus compounds, leading to the pathology of the skeletal system. According to recent reports, a whole group of hereditary diseases. Manifested hypotonia of muscles, rachitic skeletal changes (varus deformity of the lower limbs, rachitic rosary, etc.), retarded growth. Diagnosis of phosphate diabetes is based on the results of blood and urine laboratory tests (serum alkaline phosphatase, calcium ions, active form of vitamin D), and molecular genetic testing. Treatment of this disease produce high doses of vitamin D, phosphorus and calcium, orthopedic or surgical correction of skeletal deformities.
skin photoaging - a set of biochemical, structural, and visible (health) skin changes caused permanent damage to the skin sunlight. Typical signs of photoaging include increased dryness of the skin, the appearance of hyperpigmentation and vascular changes, rough skin pattern, superficial and deep wrinkles. Confirmatory diagnosis may include dermatoscopy, biopsy and histological examination of the epidermis. To combat skin ftostareniem effectiveness, such cosmetic procedures like chemical peels, biorevitalization, Plazmolifting and others. Need skin protection from ultraviolet radiation by means of special funds from the SPF.
Toadskin - a rare pathology of the skin associated with the lack of retinol in the body on the background of violations of its consumption or absorption in the intestine. Clinically manifested in the process of keratinization zone of the hair follicle, resembling hyperkeratotic "grater phenomenon", eventually transforming the patient's skin in the rough "shell toad." The process involved the mucous membranes of the mouth, losing shine and moisture. Diagnose toadskin taking into account medical history, clinic, histology and analysis of blood serum carotene, vitamin A, systemic pathologies requires consultation of relevant experts. toadskin retinol treatment is carried out at high doses: a medication, and with the help of increasing its revenue from food.
Funikulotsele - cyst, formed as a result of accumulation of serous secretion between the sheets of the shell of the spermatic cord. Funikulotsele characterized by the appearance of palpable nodular education, non-testis and epididymis; sometimes - aching in the scrotum, worse walking and activity. The diagnosis funikulotsele decisive role played by palpation and ultrasound of the scrotum, transillumination. When funikulotsele, bring aesthetic discomfort or accompanied by clinical symptoms, surgical treatment - husking cyst of the spermatic cord.
Funicular myelosis - spinal cord lesion that develops due to vitamin B12 deficiency. As a rule, combined with pernicious anemia. Disorder manifested deep sensitivity, movement disorders in the form of flaccid paralysis with lower pyramidal signs, mental health disabilities. Diagnosed funicular myelosis by determining the levels of B12 in the blood of the neurological, gastrointestinal and hematological examinations. Treatment consists in filling the deficit of vitamin B12 vitamin B12 compliance rich diet, the introduction of other B vitamins Weather favorable.
The functional autonomy of the thyroid gland - increased secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland, uncontrolled thyroid stimulating hormone pituitary gland and external stimulants. The functional autonomy of the thyroid manifested symptoms of hyperthyroidism: weight loss, low-grade fever, heat intolerance, sweating, muscle weakness, cardiovascular, neurological, digestive disorders. The diagnosis of the functional autonomy of the thyroid gland is based on clinical presentation, history, results of a study of TSH, T3 and T4 in the blood, ultrasound, scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules. In the treatment of functional autonomy of thyroid radioiodine used, subtotal (total) thyroidectomy.
Functional diarrhea - continuous or intermittent disorder of the intestine functions, shown increased frequency of bowel movements up to 3 or more times a day with the discharge of liquid or mushy stool. Abdominal pain are absent. Possible urgency, rumbling, flatulence and a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bowel. The feces are often found mixed with mucus. Functional diarrhea is diagnosed on the basis of complaints, medical history, endoscopic and radiological methods of investigation, ultrasound, ballonografii, laboratory tests and other methods. Treatment - removal of provoking factors, diet, drug therapy, psychotherapy.
Functional dyspepsia - a number of pathologies associated with impaired motility and secretory function of the stomach without significant changes mucosa structure. Exhibit symptoms of dyspepsia (nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting periodic) and pain. For the diagnosis carried out the following studies: fractional gastric intubation, esophagogastroscopy, electrogastrography, radiography of the stomach, ultrasound of the abdomen. Treatment - conservative, includes drug therapy, diet therapy, the correct diet.
Functional paresis of the larynx - voice-reduction function of the larynx due to disturbances in the central nervous system. Functional laryngeal paresis manifested whisper speech or complete aphonia, which disappears when crying, laughing or coughing. Observed general symptoms: sleep disturbance, headache, irritability, and mental instability, anxiety. In addition to a full examination of the neuromuscular apparatus of the larynx (laryngoscopy, radiography and CT laryngeal electromyography gortannyh muscles, the study of voice function), for the diagnosis of functional laryngeal paresis should consult a neurologist and a therapist with the patient's conduct psychological testing. Treatment of functional paresis of the larynx performed with the use of antidepressants, tranquilizers, sedatives, antipsychotics, psychotherapeutic techniques and physiotherapy.
Furunkul - an acute purulent inflammation of the hair follicle, exciting the surrounding soft tissue and surrounding sebaceous glands. Furunkul begins with the formation of a dense infiltrate in the center of which is formed necrotic core, ending pustules. Then the opening of pustules, passage of the rod with purulent contents and healing boils, after which the skin remains a scar. Diagnosis includes furunkula dermatoscopy, bakposev discharge, blood tests, the study of the immune system, the identification of comorbidities and complications. Treatment is carried out locally, in accordance with the stages of development furunkula. According to the testimony assigned antibiotic therapy, immunotherapy, treatment of complications.
Furunculosis - a necrotic disease of the hair follicle and okolofollikulyarnoy connective tissue. The primary element is an inflammatory inflammatory node that forms around the hair follicle. The main cause of boils are staphylococcus infection. A typical dermatological picture, signs of inflammation in the clinical blood test and the results of bacteriological seeding separated skin cells allow without difficulty diagnosing abrasions. Patients with boils are treated by a dermatologist.
X-shaped legs (valgus bending feet) - a pathology in which a person standing with straight and information with their feet, the distance between the heels of more than 5 centimeters. In most cases, X-shaped legs are not a congenital disease, and develop because of excessive load on the legs of the child in the first years of life. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of visual inspection, radiography and other studies. At an early age performed conservative correction surgery is indicated for failure of conservative treatment and progression of deformity.
Chalazion - a benign tumor seal (hailstone) in the thickness of the century, developing on the background of chronic inflammation and blockage of meibomian gland. Chalazion manifested by the presence of nodules and swelling of the eyelid, the pressure on the eyeball, irritation of eyes, sometimes - suppuration and spontaneous opening. Diagnosis of chalazion usually requires no additional tools of research and is based on external examination of the century. chalazion Treatment can be conservative (instillation of drugs, laying ointments, injection into the formation) or surgery (removal of chalazion).
Хейлит – воспалительный процесс, поражающий красную кайму, слизистую оболочку и кожу губ. Проявляется отеком, покраснением, шелушением губ, появлением на них кровоточащих язвочек, гнойных корочек, жжением и болью при открывании рта и приеме пищи. Часто заболевание носит длительный рецидивирующий характер. У людей молодого возраста течение более благоприятное, возможно самоизлечение. В пожилом возрасте есть риск возникновения лейкоплакии и озлокачествления.
Cheilitis Manganotti - obligatny precancer red border of the lips. The disease occurs to form one or more painless erosions irregularly shaped with irregular edges. Erosive surface is covered with bloody crusts, when you try to remove that bleeding occurs. Diagnostika cheilitis Manganotti based on the basis of patient complaints, anamnesis, physical examination findings and laboratory studies. In identifying precancer obligatnogo pokazany rehabilitation and correction of hygienic condition of the oral cavity. Locally appointed keratoplasty, in the absence of positive dynamics of the pathological focus to be surgical excision.
Chylothorax - abnormal accumulation of lymph (chylous) of fluid in the pleural cavity, arising from a lymphorrhea of the thoracic duct. The development of chylothorax is accompanied by shortness of breath, progressive deterioration of health, collaptoid state, exhaustion, respiratory failure. Chylothorax diagnosed by clinical and historical data, the results of X-rays, thoracentesis, cytological evaluation of chylous fluid, thoracoscopy. chylothorax treatment involves repeated puncture or drainage of pleural cavity to remove the chyle, when persistent lymphorrhea - perevyazku thoracic duct, plevroperitonealnoe bypass surgery, pleurodesis, imposing lymphoveinous anastomosis and others
Chlamydia pneumonia - an infectious-inflammatory process in the lungs caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria of the genus Chlamydia and Chlamydophila. For chlamydial pneumonia characterized by respiratory symptoms (rhinitis, bronchitis), unproductive cough, low-grade and febrile temperature, extrapulmonary symptoms (arthralgia, myalgia). When the diagnosis takes into account auscultation and radiographic data, however, the decisive role is played by laboratory diagnosis (IFA, MIF, PCR and others.). For the treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae used antimicrobial agents (macrolides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones), immunomodulators, physiotherapy.
Chlamydial Conjunctivitis - an infection of the mucous membrane of the eye chlamydia, accompanied by acute or chronic inflammation of the conjunctiva. Chlamydial conjunctivitis occurs with swelling of the conjunctiva and transient folds, purulent discharge from the eyes, watery eyes, sharp pain in the eyes, follicular rash on the lower eyelid, the parotid adenopathy, evstahiita phenomena. Diagnosis of chlamydial conjunctivitis is to conduct biomicroscopy, cytology, culture, enzyme immunoassay, immunofluorescence, PCR studies for determination of chlamydia. Treatment of chlamydial conjunctivitis is performed using antibiotics tetracycline, macrolides and fluoroquinolones to complete clinical and laboratory recovery.
Chlamydia - a group of diseases caused by various kinds of chlamydia. Affects the respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, urogenital system, organs of vision. Urogenital chlamydiosis is manifestation of inflammatory diseases: urethritis, prostatitis, cystitis, vulvovaginitis, cervicitis erosion, endometritis and revealed only specific diagnostic methods. The characteristic symptom - vitreous separation from the urinary tract. Chlamydial infections are dangerous multiple complications, including ascending urinary tract infections, infertility, neyrohlamidiozy, joint damage, heart and vascular diseases, impotence - in men.
Chloasma - focal hyperpigmentation of the skin of various sizes, located mostly on the face and having clear boundaries. Chloasma looks like spots of light brown, brown or brownish color. It may be worn multiple character. The diagnosis is established by a typical clinical presentation and localization of pigmentation additionally spend Siascopy, dermatoscopy, examined the liver, gynecological and digestive tract. chloasma treatment involves the use of cosmetic ways to reduce its saturation color. Apply exfoliating and whitening agents, dermabrasion, laser peels, photorejuvenation, mesotherapy and cryotherapy.
Cholangiocarcinoma - a malignant tumor of the bile ducts. Symptoms generally associated with cholestasis (jaundice, pruritus), and patients may experience pain in the right upper quadrant, severe weight loss. To be diagnosed using ultrasound of the abdomen, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), percutaneous cholangiography, determination of tumor markers in the blood. The main method of treatment of cholangiocarcinoma - operative. Chemotherapy and radiation are used in combination with surgically or as palliative treatment.
Cholangitis - non-specific inflammation of the bile ducts acute or chronic course. When cholangitis noted in the right upper quadrant pain, fever with chills, dyspepsia, jaundice. Cholangitis diagnosis involves analysis of biochemical parameters of blood, holding a fractional duodenal intubation with bakissledovaniem bile, ultrasonography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, ERCP. In the treatment of cholangitis used antibiotic therapy, detoxification therapy, the purpose of enzymes, FTL (mud baths, sodium chloride baths, paraffin and ozokeritoterapiya, UHF, diathermy), sometimes - surgical decompression of the biliary tract.
Choledocholithiasis - the presence of stones in the bile ducts, causing a violation zhelcheottoka. Symptoms choledocholithiasis determined by the degree of overlap duct stone and include pain, jaundice and sometimes fever. In the initial stages of the disease may pass without symptoms. For an accurate diagnosis is performed ultrasound of the liver and gall bladder, holedohoskopiyu, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, MR cholangiopancreatography, evaluate biochemical liver tests. Remove the stones surgically or endoscopically.
Cholera - an acute intestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae human defeat. Cholera diarrhea frequently manifested expressed, abundant repeated vomiting, resulting in a significant loss of fluid and dehydration. Signs of dehydration are dry skin and mucous membranes, reduced turgor of tissues and skin wrinkling, facial sharpening, oligoanuria. The diagnosis of cholera is confirmed by the results of bacteriological seeding feces and vomit, serological methods. Treatment includes isolation of the cholera patient, parenteral rehydration, antibiotics tetracycline therapy.
Cholestasis - clinical and laboratory syndrome characterized by an increase in blood levels of substances excreted in the bile as a result of breach of any of its production of bile outflow. Symptoms include itching, jaundice, constipation, bitter taste in the mouth, pain in the right upper quadrant, dark urine and stool discoloration. Diagnosis of cholestasis is to determine the levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, bile acids. From instrumental methods using ultrasound, radiography, gastroscopy, Duodenoscopy holegrafiyu, CT and others. Treatment of complex, appointed gepatoprotektory, antibacterial drugs, cytotoxic agents and drugs of ursodeoxycholic acid.
Cholestasis newborn - a pathological condition which is characterized by impaired bile secretion, leading to hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice. Clinical manifestations include subikterichnost sclera, yellowing of the mucous membranes and skin, hepatomegaly, delay in physical development, hypovitaminosis A, D, K, E. Diagnosis of cholestasis newborn is to identify the underlying disease, laboratory evaluation of liver ultrasound, hepatobiliary scan and liver biopsy. Treatment depends on the etiologic factors and includes a balanced diet, the introduction of the diet of easily digestible fats, vitamin therapy, or surgery.
Cholestatic hepatitis - a disease in which the development is crucial obstruction of bile flow and the accumulation of its components in the liver. Clinically, the disease is manifested by itching, discomfort in the right hypochondrium region, intense jaundice, dyspepsia, enlargement of the liver and the emergence xanthelasma skin. In the diagnosis of primary importance are the general clinical and biochemical blood analysis with determination of liver function tests, ultrasound of the liver and gall bladder, pancreas ultrasound, MRI of the abdominal cavity. The therapy is aimed at improving the outflow of bile and normalization of body functions.
Cholesteatoma Ear - encapsulated tumor formation of the middle ear, which consists mainly of cells desquamated epithelium and cholesterol crystals. There are true (congenital) and false ear cholesteatoma. Disease manifests a sense of fullness and pain in the ear, reduced hearing mixed type, with a small amount of putrid odor discharge from the ear. Ear Cholesteatoma is diagnosed through X-rays and CT scans of the skull, otoscopy, probing and lavage of the tympanic cavity, vestibular and auditory research analyzers. cholesteatoma ear treatment in most cases consists of surgical removal of the radical. Sometimes it is possible to wash nadbarabannoy cavity accommodating the cholesteatoma.
Cholesterosis gallbladder - a pathological condition characterized by the deposition of lipids in the wall of the gallbladder associated with metabolic disorders of fat and cholesterol. It flows in many cases without any symptoms or minimal symptoms of aching pain in the right hypochondrium, dyspeptic symptoms. Main diagnostic study at Cholesterosis - ultrasound of the liver and gall bladder. Sometimes abnormalities detected incidentally during cholecystectomy. Treatment is mainly conservative, aimed at restoring the metabolism. Surgical treatment is used if the gallbladder cholesterosis accompanies cholelithiasis, acute inflammatory diseases.