Enuresis in children - a violation of the controlled emptying of the bladder, accompanied by involuntary urination during sleep. Enuresis in children manifests leak urine during sleep that can occur intermittently or repeated up to several times per night. Diagnosis of enuresis in children requires the establishment of the causes of violations and includes voiding diary, laboratory tests of blood and urine tests, ultrasound of the bladder, urodynamic studies, neurological examination, and so forth. In the treatment of enuresis in children applied psychotherapy, physiotherapy, drug therapy.
Enhondroma - benign tumor that consists of cartilage. Localized intraosseous, usually - in the diaphyseal area and metadiaphysis tubular bones. Most often it affects the small tubular bones of the hands and feet, can be both single and multiple. Usually asymptomatic, large enhondromy can cause deformation of the limb segment. Sometimes enhondroma complicated by pathological fracture. Degeneration of a malignant tumor is rare. The diagnosis is confirmed by means of X-ray, CT scan and biopsy. Treatment operative.
Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain substance. The term "encephalitis" refers to infectious, allergic, infectious, allergic and toxic brain damage. Distinguish primary (tick, mosquito Japanese encephalitis savings) and secondary (measles, flu-like, post-vaccination) encephalitis. In the event of any cause of encephalitis require a comprehensive therapy. As a general rule, it includes etiotropic treatment (antiviral, antibacterial, anti-allergic), dehydration, fluid therapy, anti-inflammatory treatment, vascular and neuroprotective therapy, symptomatic treatment. Have borne encephalitis patients also require rehabilitative treatment.
Rasmussen's encephalitis - a progressive encephalitis, affecting only one brain hemisphere and has a chronic course. Clinically is a combination of Kozhevnikov epilepsy, cognitive decline and focal sensorimotor deficits. During the diagnostic data are compared medical history, neurological examination, EEG, perimetry, tomographic brain studies. Treatment includes anti-epileptic, glucocorticosteroid, immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive components. Possible surgical treatment, which aims to "turn off" the affected hemisphere of the central nervous system functioning.
St. Louis encephalitis - a viral natural focal neuroinfections, primarily affecting the shell and the brain substance. Debuts acute obscheinfektsionnymi, meningeal and cerebral symptoms. Observed disorders of consciousness, headache, vomiting, spastic muscle hypertonus, paresis, depression and abdominal tendon reflexes, episyndrome. Diagnosis is based on epidemiological data, neurological examination results, clinical analysis, the study of cerebrospinal fluid, serological assays and brain tomography examination. Treatment antiviral symptomatic and neurometabolic.
Encephalopathy - generalizing the name of the variety in its genesis of pathological processes, which are based on the degeneration of neurons in the brain due to a violation of their metabolism. Encephalopathy manifested polymorphic neurological disorders, disorders in the intellectual-mental and emotional-volitional sphere. Diagnostic search consists of a comprehensive neurological examination and establish the causal pathology. encephalopathy treatment is to remove it which caused a pathological condition, the causal treatment of the disease and maintain optimal metabolism of cerebral neurons.
Encephalocele - a malformation of the skull and the brain, in which part of the brain substance is outside the skull due to the bone defect. Manifested visible protrusion of bone junction, accompanied by a variety of symptoms, depending on the size and location. Possible convulsions, hydrocephalus, liquorrhea, visual disturbances, symptoms of mental retardation. encephalocele diagnosis is based on the clinical picture of developmental abnormalities when confirming the results of CT and MRI. Treatment operative, carried out the removal of the hernia sac and closure of the bone defect.
Eosinophilic pneumonia - an allergy, inflammation of lung tissue, accompanied by the formation of unstable migratory infiltrates of eosinophilic nature and development of hypereosinophilia. The disease usually occurs with malaise, low-grade fever, a small dry cough, sometimes with scanty sputum; the acute form - with chest pain, myalgia, development of acute respiratory failure. Set eosinophilic pneumonia allow data radiography and CT of the lungs, the general analysis of blood, bronchoalveolar lavage, allergy tests, serodiagnosis. The basis of treatment is specific desensitization and hormonal therapy.
ependymoma brain - tumor tissue of ependymal ventricular system of the brain. Clinically evident, above all, signs of increased intracranial pressure, as well as ataxia, disorders of the eye and ear, convulsive seizures, speech and swallowing. Diagnosis is carried out mainly with the help of MRI of the brain, spinal puncture, EEG, histological examination. The basis of treatment is radical removal of ependymomas followed by radiation or chemotherapy. In adults, the use stereotactic radiosurgery.
Epiglottitis in children - acute bacterial inflammation, epiglottis and hypopharynx exciting fabrics and accompanied by life-threatening upper airway obstruction. Development of epiglottitis in children occurs rapidly: within a few hours increases dysphonia, dysphagia, sore throat, excessive salivation, difficulty breathing, wheezing. The diagnosis of epiglottitis in children helps to hold the neck radiography or fibrolaringoskopii pharyngoscope, bacteriological seeding swabs from the throat. Treatment of epiglottitis in children requires the restoration of patency of the respiratory tract by tracheostomy and tracheal intubation, purpose antibiotic, infusion and symptomatic therapy.
Epidemic pemphigus newborns - a highly contagious staphylococcal skin lesion newborns, manifested appearance of fine bubbles with purulent contents, which increase and bursting with the formation of erosions. It may be accompanied by lesions of the mucous membranes. Diagnose epidemic pemphigus newborns allows age of onset, the typical clinical picture and results of bacteriological studies of fluid from blisters and erosions discharge. Treatment includes antibiotics, vitamins, albumin, bath with potassium permanganate, UFO, opening blisters and erosions processing. Given the contagiousness of epidemic pemphigus newborns necessarily conduct quarantine and disinfection.
Epidemic hemorrhagic conjunctivitis - an acute highly contagious oftalmoinfektsiya caused by picornavirus that affects the conjunctiva of the eye and is accompanied by massive subconjunctival hemorrhages. Epidemic hemorrhagic conjunctivitis occurs with severe erythema, edema and chemosis mucosa, sharp pain in the eyes, photophobia, sero-purulent discharge, subconjunctival hemorrhage, which occur against a background of general symptoms (adenopathy prootic lymph nodes, headache, high temperature, tracheobronchitis, etc). In order difdiagnostiki performed Biomicroscopy eyes instillyatsionnaya Fluorescein test, serological, virological and cytological studies. The treatment of epidemic hemorrhagic conjunctivitis is carried out by instillation of antiviral, anti-allergic and anti-bacterial drugs.
Mumps (pig) is an acute infection caused by an RNA virus genus paramyxovirus, primarily affecting the salivary glands and nerve cells. The causative agent of mumps is transmitted by airborne droplets, sometimes, by contact through objects contaminated with the patient's saliva. svinki Clinic begins with a fever and symptoms of intoxication, against this background, growing swelling and pain in the parotid region. Suffice typical clinic to diagnose mumps without further examination. Treatment is mainly symptomatic.
Athlete's nails - a common fungal infection of nails on the feet, manifesting the appearance of yellow stripes or spots, and then diffuse yellowish entire nail plate, its thickening, deformation and increased fragility. Diagnostic event at the athlete's nails include inspection of the affected nail and microscopy scrapings taken from its surface. Treatment of diseases involved dermatologists, chiropodists and mycologists. It involves the removal of the nail plate, post-operative treatment and the imposition of bandages on her bed with antifungal ointments and keratolytic agents.
Athlete's foot - a widespread fungal skin lesions and nails stop. Depending on the clinical form of plaques may appear red, flat spots and papules with whitish scaling on the surface bubbles, cracks, erosions, the appearance of yellow stripes and spots on the nail plate thickening, or its rejection. Diagnosis of athlete's foot include dermatoscopy, fluorescent study, the definition of the pH-skin scrapings microscopy on pathogenic fungi, identification of related foot problems. athlete's foot treatment is carried out by the system and the local application of antifungal agents to conduct preliminary exfoliating or anti-inflammatory therapy.
Epididymitis - inflammation of the epididymis. It is characterized by sudden onset, body temperature rise to 39-40 degrees. Appears pain and swelling in the scrotum by the defeat, increased epididymis several times, redness of the skin of the scrotum. Often combined with inflammation of the testicle (orchiepididymitis). Can develop bilateral disease of the appendages, a chronic form of epididymitis, vas obstruction flow, infertility. As a rule, in respect of epididymitis urologists conduct outpatient treatment, hospitalization is necessary only in case of complications. In acute epididymitis requires bed rest, anti-bacterial and local treatment; abscess is an indication for surgical incision and drainage of an abscess.
Epidural hematoma - blood congestion, filling formed as a result of the injury the space between the skull bones and hard cerebral membrane. In typical cases, characterized by a disturbance of consciousness with the presence of the light period, signs of intracranial hypertension and brain compression, focal symptoms, relevant hematomas location. The diagnosis is made on the basis of the clinic using craniography, Echo-EG, cerebral angiography, CT and MRI. The treatment mainly surgical - craniotomy, removing a hematoma, search and elimination of the source of bleeding.
Epicondylitis - degenerative and inflammatory disease of the tissues in the elbow joint. Developed in places of attachment of tendons, internal and external surface of the forearm to, respectively, the internal and external epicondyle of the humerus. Taking into account the localization distinguish external and internal epicondylitis. Outdoor epicondylitis occurs in 7-10 times more internal. The disease develops gradually and affects mostly middle-aged patients. The cause - repetitive microtrauma due to overload of the forearm muscles. Epicondylitis causes pain in the elbow, aggravated by extension (for external epicondylitis) and grasping (for internal epicondylitis). Treatment is usually conservative. Forecast favorable in the majority of cases, the disease responds well to treatment.
Epicondylitis of the elbow joint - degenerative and inflammatory lesion tendons in their attachment to the external and internal condyles of the humerus. The reason for the development is overloaded muscles of the forearm and hand. The disease is manifested by pain in the elbow, aggravated by movements of the wrist and fingers. Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of medical history, complaints and inspection data. Instrumental studies provide little information and are used only to exclude other diseases. Treatment is conservative.
Epilepsy - a condition characterized by recurrent (more than two), epileptic seizures, is not provoked by any immediately determines the cause. Epileptic seizures - clinical manifestation of abnormal and excessive discharge of brain neurons causes a sudden transient pathological phenomena (sensory, motor, mental, vegetative symptoms, changes in consciousness). Keep in mind that some provoked or caused by any distinct causes (brain tumor, head injury) epileptic seizures do not indicate the patient has epilepsy.
Epilepsy in children - chronic cerebral disorder characterized by repetitive, stereotyped seizures that occur without obvious precipitating factors. The leading symptoms of epilepsy in children are seizures that may occur in the form of tonic-clonic seizures, absence seizures, myoclonic seizures with impaired consciousness or without its violation. Instrumental and laboratory diagnosis of epilepsy in children involves performing EEG, skull X-ray, CT, MRI and PET brain, biochemical analysis of blood and cerebrospinal fluid. General principles of treatment of epilepsy in children suggest observance of protective mode, anticonvulsant therapy, psychotherapy; if necessary - neurosurgical treatment.
Status epilepticus - one epipristup, lasting more than 30 minutes, or a series of seizures of the same duration, between which there is not a complete or almost complete recovery of consciousness and the normalization condition. Status epilepticus may be convulsive and non-convulsive form, occur against a background of epilepsy or wear symptomatic. The diagnosis is made based on history and clinical status, complemented by EEG data, laboratory analysis, MRI, spiral CT or CT of the brain. Status epilepticus of any etiology is a medical emergency. Held sedative, anticonvulsant, dehydration, symptomatic therapy.
Epispadias - malformation of the urethra development, characterized by partial or complete splitting of the upper wall. Epispadias occurs in both boys and girls, and in addition to the anatomical defect manifests itself in violation of urination (spray, incontinence), sexual function (painful erections, difficulty in sexual intercourse), urinary tract infections. The complex of diagnostic measures when epispadias includes full urological examination: ultrasonography, excretory urography, cystography, X-rays of the symphysis pubis, urodynamic studies. epispadias treatment - surgery, depending on the shape and the degree of severity of defect.
Epithelial coccygeal course - congenital abnormality characterized by the presence of the defect (narrow channel) in the subcutaneous tissue mezhyagodichnoy area. Clinical manifestations associated with inflammation coccygeal. It appears pain sacrococcygeal region selection ichor or pus, redness and thickening of the skin. Neglect of the disease leads to prolonged recurrent course: abscess, fistula formation of the secondary purulent, the development of pyoderma on the skin of the perineum and buttocks.
Epithelioma - tumor of the skin and mucous membranes, which develops from the cells of the surface layer - the epidermis. Epithelioma different variety of clinical options from small nodules to the considerable size of tumors, plaques and ulcers. There may be benign or malignant nature. Their diagnosis includes dermatoscopy, bakposev discharge, ultrasound education, histological examination of removed tissue or biopsy material. Treatment is mainly surgical, with the malignant nature of the tumor - radiation, chemotherapy, photodynamic, using both general and local methods of influence.
Pseudoerysipelas - an infectious disease transmitted to humans from animals and manifested inflammatory lesions of the skin and joints. The preferential localization process at pseudoerysipelas - the skin and the joints of the fingers, its rear surface. Perhaps the development of a generalized form of the disease. Diagnosis is based on pseudoerysipelas his clinic, epidemiological anamnesis and abjection of skin biopsy or blood of a patient. The basis of treatment is antibiotics pseudoerysipelas. According to the testimony used anti-inflammatory, detoxification, anti-histamines, physiotherapy.
newborn Erythema - transient redness of the skin associated with the adaptation of the child to extrauterine life and accompanied by polymorphic eruptions. The main symptom is a pinkish-red color of the skin, which is celebrated in the first hours or 2-3 days of life. Against the background of redness in some cases found small gray-yellow rash. The general condition is usually not affected. Diagnosis erythema newborn based on characteristic symptoms appearing at a certain age (the first days of life), and the clinical and laboratory signs of inflammation and infection are absent. Treatment is usually not required, according to testimony appointed desensitizing agents.
Pemphigus erythematosus (seborrheic pemphigus, Senir-Usher syndrome) - clinical form of pemphigus that combines the true manifestations of pemphigus, seborrheic dermatitis and erythematous variant of systemic lupus erythematosus. Typical symptoms are erythematous pemphigus covered with thick crusts red lesion areas of the skin combined with seborrheic lesions on the scalp. It is characteristic for a long period of remission. Diagnosis of pemphigus erythematosus based on the study of smears and biopsies. Treatment is carried out glucocorticosteroids, extracorporeal blood correction methods, local administration and the imposition of glucocorticoid triamcinolone ointment.
Erythrasma - psevdomikoz chronic bacterial origin which affects the epidermis mainly in large areas of skin folds. Manifested erythrasma appearance and merging painless gray-brown, brownish-red or yellowish-brown spots, covered with fine desquamation. Diagnosis erythrasma based on her clinical picture, localization of foci, typical glow under fluorescent study the characteristic microscopic picture. In the treatment of erythrasma considerable importance is the disinfection of linen and clothes. Held treatment of lesions, antibiotic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, blood sugar correction, hyperhidrosis treatment.
Erythroderma - generalized diffuse inflammation of the skin, accompanied by hyperemia and edema of the dermis, rash papules, pustules and bullae, which erode with crusting and scaling, have a tendency to peripheral growth and mergers. Spreading, inflammatory foci capture all the new portions of the dermis, marked hair loss and nail. Rash accompanied by prodrome, itching, cracking, joining a secondary infection. Erythroderma diagnosed clinically and based on laboratory tests. Treatment stationary includes antibiotics, steroids, immunomodulators, antihistamines and other drugs.