Traumatic disease - a common body's response to traumatic exposure. It includes a number of adaptive and pathological reactions, as well as local and general changes occurring in the body from the moment of injury until recovery or death of the patient. Influence the outcome of the injury, to a large extent determines the outlook on life and disability. It includes changes in the field of psycho-emotional, metabolic and hemostatic processes, state of the immune system, the heart, lungs, digestive organs and the central nervous system. It has phasic flow.
Traumatic dermatitis (mechanical dermatitis) - an inflammatory reaction of the skin that occurs in response to a mechanical action (pressure, friction). Traumatic dermatitis is local and usually goes away in eliminating the causative factor. Its clinical forms are: hydrocele, attrition, callus, corn, diaper rash. Diagnosis of traumatic dermatitis includes inspection, dermatoscopy, bacteriological examination of discharge or scraping, measuring the pH of the skin, revealing concomitant violations trophism. Treatment of traumatic dermatitis is to eliminate the mechanical impact and contributing factors of its action, the use of local disinfectant and anti-inflammatory agents, carrying out the necessary hygiene procedures.
Traumatic periodontitis - an inflammation of the periodontal tissues as a result of acute or chronic injury. In acute traumatic periodontitis patients complain of pain at the site of the causal tooth. There may be abnormal mobility of the damaged tooth, bleeding from the sulcus. Chronic periodontitis occurs without the expressed clinic. Diagnosis of traumatic periodontitis include the collection of complaints, the elucidation of the medical history, clinical examination, radiography, EDI. While maintaining the viability of the pulp is carried out temporary splinting, damaged tooth is removed from the occlusion. If the pulp necrosis shown endodontic treatment.
Traumatic shock - a pathological condition which is caused by blood loss and pain in trauma and a serious threat to the patient's life. Developed for injuries involving large blood loss or a decrease in the number of plasma: Craniocerebral trauma, severe injuries of the neck, chest, abdomen or limbs, multiple fractures, frostbite, burns, etc. Regardless of its cause, traumatic shock always takes "one scenario", that is, manifested the same symptoms. Urgent stop bleeding, pain relief and immediate delivery of the patient to the hospital. Treatment of traumatic shock is carried out under conditions of intensive care unit and includes a package of measures to compensate for any irregularities. The prognosis depends on the severity of the shock and phase, as well as the severity of the injury that caused it.
Injuries pharynx - external and internal throat injuries that occur on impact, wounding with firearms, blunt or sharp object, chemical and thermal stresses. pharynx injuries may be accompanied by a violation of swallowing and voice function, respiratory disorders, paresis of the larynx, massive bleeding, liquorrhea nose, subcutaneous emphysema of the neck. Perhaps a combination of the throat injury with damage to the spine and spinal cord, sinuses, the ethmoid bone. The basis of the diagnosis of injuries of the pharynx constitute radiological and endoscopic examinations, voice-analysis functions, bacteriological smear from the throat. Treatment of injuries of the pharynx include hemostasis, analgesia, anti-shock and infusion event, decongestants and anti-inflammatory therapy, antibacterial and detoxification treatment; performed surgical intervention, if necessary.
larynx injury - damage to the larynx that are caused by direct or indirect exposure to a traumatic factor, which can act as the outside (external injuries of the larynx) and the inside (internal injuries of the larynx). laryngeal trauma clinic depends on its nature and severity. It can include respiratory disorders, pain, external or internal bleeding, dysphagia and dysphonia, cough, hemoptysis, subcutaneous emphysema. larynx injury diagnosed according to inspection and palpation of the injury site, laryngoscopy, laboratory tests, ultrasound, X-ray and tomography, evaluation of respiratory function and phonation. laryngeal injuries require analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-treatment. According to the testimony is conducted and antishock infusion therapy, surgery.
Injuries to the abdomen - a large group of heavy damage, in most cases, represent a threat to the life of the patient. There may be both closed and open. Open most often occur as a result of stab wounds, although other causes (falling on a sharp object, a gunshot wound). The reason for the closed injuries usually become a fall from a height, car accidents, accidents at work and so on. D. The severity of the damage in the open and closed abdominal trauma can vary, but the particular problem are contusions. In this case, due to the absence of external wounds and bleeding, as well as due to the concomitant damage so traumatic shock or severe the patient's condition often have difficulties at the stage of initial diagnosis. If you suspect abdominal trauma require urgent delivery of the patient to a specialized medical facility. Treatment is usually surgical.
Dental Injuries - a violation of the anatomical integrity of the tooth and /or its relationship with the periodontal tissues, leading to a reversible or irreversible loss of its functional properties. Injuries teeth presented a bruise, fracture, fracture the crown or root damage tooth germ, tooth dislocation. Clinic dental injuries is varied and may include pain in the tooth, its mobility, change shape or position in the dentition, violation of chewing function and so forth. The diagnosis of a tooth injury is established on the basis of clinical and radiological data. A method of treating a tooth injury is determined, based on the type of damage, and can be conservative (restoration of a tooth crown, endodontic therapy, splinting, and so on. D.) Or surgically (replantation or tooth extraction).
Injury nasal septum - mechanical damage osteochondral plate separating the nasal cavity into two parts. More frequent fractures of the nasal septum and nasal bones and bruises nose. Manifest difficulty of nasal breathing, nosebleeds, pain, edema. The consequences of injury are nosebleeds, bruising and abscesses, deviated septum, nasal deformity, chronic inflammation in the nasal cavity.
Injury of the knee - Soft tissue injury and bone structures that form the knee joint. It belongs to the category of common injuries. It may vary considerably in severity - from mild injuries to the intra-articular comminuted fractures and crushed. Most often it occurs when dropped or bumped his knee. It is accompanied by swelling, pain and limitation of movement. Usually there hemarthrosis. For diagnosis using X-rays, ultrasound joint, arthroscopy, CT, MRI and other tests. Therapeutic strategy depends on the type of damage.
Injuries scrotal organs - Damage to the testes, epididymis, spermatic cord, caused by exposure to various traumatic factors. scrotum injuries are accompanied by sharp pain, a painful shock, the formation of hematoma and swelling of the scrotum, sometimes - open wounds, loss of testicular rupture and separation of the scrotum. Diagnosis of injuries of the scrotum and its organs is carried out with the help of ultrasound, transillumination, MRI, audit scrotum. Depending on the type of trauma treatment scrotum injury may include hematoma removal, stop bleeding, anti shock therapy, resection of the testis orchiectomy or epididymectomy, stitching the vas deferens, and others.
Injury of peripheral nerves - the different mechanism of damage of nerve trunks of the peripheral nervous system. Manifest symptoms of pain and reduction or loss of motor, sensory, autonomic and trophic function of nerve distal to the injury site. Diagnosis of peripheral nerve injury based on the results of neurological examination and electrophysiological studies data neuromuscular system. Treatment can be conservative (pain relievers, vitamins, physiotherapy, neostigmine, vasoactive drugs, physical therapy) and surgery (neurolysis, autoplasty nerve, nerve suture, neuroticism).
Injury of the liver - one of the most severe, and difficult to diagnose the patient's life-threatening abdominal injuries. Usually accompanied by massive bleeding from the hepatic parenchyma tissue and major blood vessels of the liver. It is also possible the outpouring of bile into the abdominal cavity with subsequent development of bile peritonitis. The reason for such an injury can be a car accident, a fall from a height, hit in the abdomen, a knife or a gunshot wound, and so on. D. Observed symptoms of acute blood loss in combination with pain and muscle tension in the right hypochondrium. Suspicion of damage to the liver is an indication for immediate delivery of the patient to the hospital. Surgical treatment, performed on an emergency basis. The volume of surgery and the prognosis depends on the nature and severity of liver injury.
Injuries of the penis - different in their origin and severity of damage to the skin, spongy and cavernous bodies, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, muscles and tunica albuginea of the penis. Symptoms of penile injuries depend on the type of damage, and can include swelling, pain, bleeding, hematoma, hematuria, urination disorders. Injuries of the penis are diagnosed on the basis of history, examination, palpation, ultrasound examination. First aid for injuries of the penis is to stop the bleeding, PECVD wounds, removal of foreign bodies; further tactics determined by the type and severity of damage.
Injuries of the joints - a large group of lesions that differ in severity and consequences. It includes injuries, damage to ligaments, sprains and intraarticular fractures. The reason may be a home or a sports injury, an accident, a criminal incident, accident at work, industrial or natural disaster. Most persistent symptoms - pain, swelling and limitation of movement. In some joint injuries detected deformation, hemarthrosis and abnormal mobility. To clarify the diagnosis using X-rays, CT, MRI, ultrasound, arthroscopy and other studies. Treatment can be either conservative or surgical.
Injuries ear - different in character damage the ear, external auditory canal, middle or inner ear. Clinically, depending on the location of the injuries of the ear injury can be manifested by the presence of wound margin of the ear, bleeding, pain, hearing loss, congestion in the ear, ear noise, incoordination, dizziness and nausea. For diagnostic purposes trauma ear held otoscopy, neurological examination, CT scans and X-rays of the skull, brain MRI, the study of the vestibular and auditory function. Treatment may be medical and surgical. It includes a wound treatment, removal of hematoma, restore the integrity of damaged anatomical structures, infection prevention, anti shock, anti-edema, infusion and anti-inflammatory therapy.
Transient ischemic attack - a temporary acute cerebral circulatory disorder, accompanied by the appearance of neurological symptoms that completely regressed, not later than 24 hours clinic varies depending on the vascular pool in which there was a decrease of blood flow The diagnosis is made based on medical history, neurological examination, laboratory data, ultrasonography results, duplex scanning, CT, MRI, PET brain. Treatment includes antiplatelet, vascular, neurometabolic, symptomatic therapy. Conducted operations aimed at the prevention of recurrent attacks and stroke.
Transposition of the great vessels - severe congenital heart disease, characterized by violation of the provisions of the major vessels: the aorta from the discharge of the right heart and the pulmonary artery - the Left. Clinical signs of transposition of the great vessels include cyanosis, shortness of breath, tachycardia, malnutrition, heart failure. Diagnosis of transposition of the great vessels is based on data from PCG, ECG, X-ray examination of the chest, catheterization of heart cavities, ventriculography. The methods of surgical correction of transposition of great vessels are palliative intervention (balloon atrioseptostomiya) and radical surgery (Mustard, Senning, Zhatene, Rastelli, arterial switch).
Tracheitis - an inflammatory disease of the trachea, usually of an infectious nature. Tracheitis accompanied by paroxysmal cough or dry character with the release of a thick mucous or muco-purulent sputum, and pain sensations in the chest during and after coughing. Diagnosis tracheitis includes CBC, laringotraheoskopiyu, bacteriological examination of sputum and throat swabs, X-ray of lungs, consultation phthisiatrician, allergist, pulmonologist. Treatment is carried out etiotropic drugs (antibacterial, antiviral, anti-allergic), mucolytics, expectorants and antitussives, methods of physiotherapy effects.
Tracheitis a child - a respiratory disease characterized by infectious and inflammatory lesions of the trachea of various etiologies. Tracheitis a child runs with bouts of dry cough and rawness in the chest, fever. Diagnosis tracheitis the child is based on the clinical data, auscultation, laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy. Treatment of tracheitis in a child include the appointment etiotropic antiviral or antibacterial drugs, expectorants; physiotherapy (inhalation, UHF, electrophoresis, inductothermy), mustard plasters, rubbing the chest.
Tracheobronchitis - diffuse inflammatory process, covering the lower airways - the trachea and bronchi. The duration and characteristics of the tracheobronchitis is closely related to its form; symptoms usually include cough (dry or productive), soreness and pain in the chest, the reaction temperature, malaise, wheezing, shortness of breath. Verification of diagnosis facilitates evaluation of data auscultation, lung X-ray results, bronchoscopy, sputum, allergodiagnostic. In the treatment of tracheobronchitis used pharmacotherapy (expectorants, mucolytic, anti-viral, anti-histamines) and non-pharmacological methods (inhalation, FTL, massage).
Tracheoesophageal fistula - pathological fistula connecting the lumen of the trachea to the esophagus. It may be an anomaly of development or acquired pathology. Tracheoesophageal fistula manifested bouts of coughing during meals, which are accompanied by dyspnea, cyanosis, frothy sputum release with pieces of food. Often it is developing aspiration pneumonia. Confirmatory diagnosis is carried out using endoscopic techniques (esophagoscopy, bronchoscopy), esophageal radiography. Treatment only operative - the closure of tracheoesophageal fistula, often with simultaneous traheoplastikoy, circular resection of the trachea, esophagoplasty.
Trachoma - chronic chlamydial infection of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye. Trachoma is showing signs of conjunctivitis, keratitis, formation trachomatous grains (follicles) on the conjunctiva. At the end of trachoma can lead to scarring of the mucosa, the destruction of cartilage and age blindness. In the diagnosis of trachoma using biomicroscopy, cytology smears with conjunctival epithelium, ELISA techniques, IEF, PCR. In the treatment of trachoma using local instillation and the imposition of anti-bacterial ointments, vitamin therapy, immunotherapy, expression and diathermocoagulation follicles, epilation eyelash. Complications of trachoma are removed surgically.
Avoidant personality disorder - personality disorder, which is characterized by feelings of inadequacy, social withdrawal, increased sensitivity to the evaluation of other people, avoiding social contact for fear of being rejected, humiliated or mocked. Usually develops in adolescence. It manifests itself in many forms with slightly different symptoms. Often it combined with other anxiety spectrum disorders. Diagnosis is based on interviews and specific test results. Treatment - psychotherapy, drug therapy.
Three - the gaps between the teeth. The main complaints are reduced to having an aesthetic defect. Diagnosis includes three history data analysis, clinical examination, radiography, TWG, anthropometric measurement models. For the aging period of temporary occlusion physiological characteristic of three, which do not require orthodontic intervention. Treatment of three patients with permanent dentition is aimed at restoring tselostnostnosti dentition, to achieve intimate contact between the side surfaces of the teeth. If tremas are one of the symptoms of prognathism or progeny is shown orthodontic bite correction.
Ventricular flutter - ventricular tachyarrhythmia with the right part (up to 200-300 m.) Pace. Ventricular flutter accompanied by a drop in blood pressure, loss of consciousness, pallor or cyanosis of the skin diffuse, agonistic breathing, convulsions, dilated pupils, and can cause sudden cardiac death. The diagnosis of atrial ventricular established on the basis of clinical and electrocardiographic data. Emergency aid for ventricular fibrillation is immediate defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Atrial flutter - tachyarrhythmia with the right part (up to 200-400 in 1 min.), The rhythm of the atria. Atrial flutter is manifested paroxysmal palpitations lasting from a few seconds to several days, hypotension, dizziness, loss of consciousness. To identify atrial fibrillation conducted clinical examination, 12-lead ECG, Holter monitoring, transesophageal electrocardiography, rhythmography, ultrasound of the heart, EFI. For the treatment of atrial fibrillation using drug therapy, radiofrequency ablation and atrial pacing.
Tertiary syphilis - third period syphilis develops in insufficiently treated patients or patients are not treated at all. Manifested form syphilitic infiltrations (granulomas) in the skin, mucous membranes, bones and internal organs. Granulomas with tertiary syphilis compress and destroy the tissue in which there are, which can lead to fatal diseases. Diagnosis of tertiary syphilis include clinical examination of the patient, the formulation of serological and immunological responses, the survey of affected systems and organs. Therapy tertiary syphilis is carried out courses of penicillin-bismuth treatment with the additional use of symptomatic and bracing means.
Trehpredserdnoe heart - congenital cardiac anomaly in which the left atrium has a partition separating it into two chambers. When trehpredserdnom heart patients suffer from recurrent respiratory infections, retarded physical development, dyspnea, peripheral cyanosis, cough, heart failure. Trehpredserdnoe heart detected by integrated diagnostics, including auscultation, ECG, X-ray, echocardiography, cardiac sensing cavities. Surgical correction trehpredserdnogo heart is to remove the membranous septum and atrial septal defect closure.
Cracked nipples - defect, damage the integrity of the skin on the nipple of the mammary glands. Shows sharp soreness radiating to the shoulder blade while feeding your baby. May be complicated by infection of wounds, candidiasis development on the nipple, mastitis. When infected fractures there is a risk of infection of the child during feeding. May lead to the abandonment of breastfeeding. Treatment of cracked nipples begin to eliminate their causes. At the same time carry out the prevention of infection, use tools that promote rapid healing (sea buckthorn oil, vit. E, Bepanten et al.).