Malformations mammary glands. - A group of birth defects, including various anomalies of number, shape and position of the breast, areola and nipple. By the number of breast abnormalities include amazia, monomastiyu, polimastiyu; defects location - asymmetry and ectopic breast; vices to the nipple-areola complex - the expansion of the areola, invaginated (retracted) nipples, etc. Treatment of malformations of the mammary glands -. surgery using different types of reconstructive mammoplasty.
mammalogy faced with developmental disabilities in 1-3% of cases of all breast pathology. Various congenital defects are embryonic, emerging in violation Bookmark breast. Malformations are found in both sexes, but more common in women. Cause anomalies usually serves adverse effects on the mother's body during this period of gestation.
Bookmark the mammary glands of the embryo begins at 6 weeks of fetal development. Initially, the ventrolateral body wall from the axilla to the inguinal folds appear symmetrical ribbon-like thickening - milk line. Further thickening and overgrowth of these strands results in formation of the mammary glands. From 3-4 months of intrauterine fetus begin to develop the formation of the main milk ducts. Development of the nipple and areola starts at 7-8 month of intrauterine life of the primary glandular rudiments and surrounding skin rolls and continues after the birth for the first 2 years of life. By the third year of life nipple fully formed and their size increase occurs in the future. When developmental delay nipples may be in the form of small elevations flattened (flat nipples); at the location below the skin say about inverted nipples.
Men have mammary glands for life remain rudimentary. Breast cancer in women in their lifetime (at puberty, during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation, age involution process) undergo physiological changes. The primary function of mammary glands is the secretion of milk and breastfeeding offspring.
breast asymmetry. Abnormalities of breast sizes and include mikromastiyu makromastiyu, aplasia and hypoplasia of the glands; among the violations mastoptosis form belongs. Among the defects of the nipple-areola complex meet the expansion of the areola, nipple invagination and others.
mastitis, fibroadenoma, breast cancer, breast cancer, and others.) necessary to carry out a full inspection in mammalogy.
Polimastiyu be distinguished from polythelia when formed only extra nipples. In turn, an extension nipple is often mistaken for fibroids or nevus, making it insufficiently radical removal. Directly opposite option is to establishments - an anomaly, characterized by the absence of a normally formed nipple breast.
Under amazia implied unilateral or bilateral total absence of breast and nipple-arelyarnogo complex associated with the termination of embryonic development of mammary primordia.
mikromastii (gipomastiya) say that if there are small breasts with the normal development of sexual glands and genitals. When mikromastii size of mammary glands do not meet the age, height, body weight, the proportions of the chest, shoulders, hips.
In the case of hypoplasia (underdevelopment), mammary gland and nipple-areola complex is partially developed. When aplasia - complete underdevelopment of the mammary glands of the skin revealed the presence of a small areola and nipple underdeveloped. In rare cases with unilateral aplasia of the breast meets compensatory hyperplasia of the other breast - anizomastiya.
Makromastiya (gigantomastia) is characterized by an increase in mammary glands due to hypertrophy of all elements of the breast tissue. Makromastiya often combined with mastoptosis - Small breasts and juice-areola complex.
Secondary monomastiya and unilateral hypoplasia may result from surgical procedures (mastectomy), mastitis neonatal exposure (for example, hemangiomas). Surgery or radiation exposure can lead to a loss of glandular tissue, rough scar deformity and an end to the development of the mammary glands.
In medicine, genetic syndromes described, which is also marked in the development of breast abnormalities. Thus, in Poland's syndrome, along with congenital syndactyly, chest deformation and partial absence of the pectoralis major muscle observed unilateral aplasia of the breast. Also with this disease often present structure of the spine defects, heart disease, and lung. External manifestation of the syndrome include Tinley protruding ears, baldness and breast hypoplasia.
The most frequent anomalies in the structure of the nipple-areola complex are flat and invaginated (retracted) nipples, too protruding nipple, areola expansion of boundaries. Expansion of the areola can occur in isolation or be a consequence of makromastii.
endocrinologist, gynecologist. Conducting additional tests (breast ultrasound, CT, MRI, mammography) helps determine the usefulness of functional glands, presence of pathological processes. Eliminating malformations of breast plastic surgery methods performed.
Indications for mammoplasty in various forms of defects of the mammary glands are aesthetic defect, pain, revealed the disease, dysfunction, and others.
If monomastii cosmetic defect elimination is possible by recreating the missing gland by replacement or reconstruction TRAM-flap. Identify polimastii requires a mastectomy - removal of additional mammary glands.
When makromastii performed Reducing plastic mammary (breast reduction); when mastoptosis - mastopexy shows, sometimes with simultaneous arthroplasty breast. Breast augmentation is performed in the case of aplasia and hypoplasia of the mammary glands.
In various embodiments, the anomalies of the nipple-areola complex may require correction of inverted nipples, nipple and areola reduction, correction of excessively protruding nipple.