Sigmoid - Acute or chronic inflammatory process in the area of the sigmoid colon. Manifested by pain in the left half of the abdomen, bloating, rumbling, more frequent stools, pathological impurities in the faeces, nausea, vomiting and symptoms of intoxication. In the acute form of the disease all of these symptoms more pronounced. In chronic sigmoid smoothed symptoms, some symptoms may be absent. The disease is diagnosed based on complaints, inspection data, rectal examination, endoscopy and other procedures. Treatment sigmoidita - diet, symptomatic and etiotropic means of general and local action.
rektosigmoidit. Sometimes symptoms sigmoidita prevails in colitis - a diffuse inflammation of the colon. The sigmoid colon inflammation develops more frequently than in other parts of the intestine. Sigmoid affects both sexes, among patients with marked predominance of women. Adults who suffer most children. The probability of occurrence increases with age. The treatment carried out by specialists in the field of gastroenterology and proctology.
diverticulitis. A role in the development sigmoidita can play pressure adjacent organs, in particular - the pregnant uterus, as well as quite common local circulatory disorders related to the peculiarities of blood supply to this anatomical area.
The immediate causes of sigmoidita may be enteric infections, goiter, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and atherosclerotic changes in vessels feeding. Furthermore, there is often a sigmoid to background radiation. When dysbacteriosis observed changes in intestinal microflora, it creates favorable conditions for the reproduction of various pathogens and opportunistic pathogens and contributes to the development of inflammation. When sigmoid intestinal infections occur as a result of lesions of the mucous cells of toxins secreted by pathogens diseases (dysentery, salmonellosis).
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are accompanied by the occurrence of ulcers and erosions in the mucosa. In the area of the damaged mucosa easily appear foci of inflammation, spreading to other parts of the sigmoid colon and becoming the cause of sigmoidita. In chronic intestinal ischemia caused by atherosclerosis, impaired intestinal wall power supply, there are areas of necrosis, becoming the primary foci of inflammation in the sigmoid. During radiotherapy ionizing radiation destroys some of the cells, which also promotes inflammation. Along with the listed causes, anatomical and physiological factors, a role in the development of sigmoidita can play a common infectious disease and adhesions occurred after operations on the abdominal organs.
catarrhal sigmoid. Patients complain of severe cramping pain in the left half of the abdomen, often - radiating to the left leg and lower back. Patients sigmoiditom occur nausea, vomiting, rumbling, bloating, and stool disorders, combined with frequent false desires. The chair becomes smelly, it appears mucus and blood veins. When combined proctitis and sigmoidita possible discharge of mucus and blood stool without impurities.
Identify signs of intoxication: weakness, fatigue, pyrexia, headache. On palpation of the abdomen of the patient is determined to sigmoiditom pain in the projection of the sigmoid colon. When rectal examination revealed thickening of the affected intestine. According to its clinical manifestations of acute appendicitis or sigmoid it reminds perityphlitis, but the pain is not localized in the right and the left iliac region. When atypical location of the sigmoid colon pain localization can vary, which sometimes it becomes a cause diagnostic difficulties.
Severe ulcerative sigmoidita prone to subacute or chronic course. There have been a violation of general condition, weakness, intoxication, abdominal discomfort, stool disorders and false desires. Characterized by persistent diarrhea. Chair patients sigmoiditom liquid, foul-smelling, color reminiscent of meat slops. In severe forms of the disease is often observed spread of the inflammatory process with the development of perisigmoidita.
The clinical picture perisigmoidita no different from the usual manifestations sigmoidita. As a result of the inflammatory lesions of the peritoneum in the abdomen gradually formed adhesions. Adhesive disease usually occurs when sigmoid favorably. There have been drawing pains, worse after exercise, bloating, feeling of fullness in the stomach and a tendency to constipation. In some cases, the sigmoid, complicated adhesive disease, there may be problems of intestinal obstruction: growing pains, vomiting, lack of chairs, hyperthermia and leukocytosis.
Exacerbation of chronic sigmoidita usually occurs on the background of diet disorders, alcohol consumption, severe infections (influenza, SARS), general physical or mental fatigue. Severity of symptoms can vary greatly - from a little pain and a slight increased stool to deployed manifestations resembling acute sigmoid. Diarrhea is often combined with locks. Patients complain of a feeling of fullness in the abdomen and pain extending to the leg, crotch and waist. When protracted course sigmoidita possible sleep disorders, fatigue, and irritability caused by the constant discomfort in the abdomen.
proctologist on the basis of clinical symptoms, physical examination data, rectal examination, endoscopy and laboratory tests. On palpation of the abdomen of the patient sigmoiditom reveal tenderness in the left iliac region. When rectal examination detected filled swelling of the lower portion of the sigmoid colon. When combined proctitis and sigmoidita swelling is observed not only in the sigmoid colon, and rectum. After removing your finger from the rectum to the glove traces of blood and mucus.
The most informative method of diagnosis is sigmoidita sigmoidoscopy, allows to evaluate the severity and extent of changes in the intestinal mucosa. General blood test indicates the presence of leukocytosis. Coprogram patients sigmoiditom and fecal bakposev provide an opportunity to confirm the inflammation in the colon and to determine the causative agent of infectious lesions of the colon. In difficult cases (with the atypical localization of pains) for differentiation sigmoidita with acute appendicitis and peritiflitom performed laparoscopy.
Treatment is conservative, depending on the severity of the clinical manifestations is carried out on an outpatient basis or in the hospital. Patients suffering sigmoiditom recommend refuse to accept fried, greasy, spicy, spicy, rough, too cold and too hot food. It is advised to eat pureed boiled or steamed warm meatless meals. When sigmoid, accompanied by severe diarrhea is a diet №4 helps to eliminate inflammation processes of putrefaction and fermentation in the gut. Due to the lack of calories this diet is usually prescribed for a period of not more than 7 days. In severe cases, patients sigmoiditom in 1-2 days Recommend hunger and excessive drinking.
Spend etiotropic and symptomatic therapy. When beam radiotherapy sigmoid stop or adjust the dose. To destroy pathogens prescribed antibacterials. To restore normal intestinal microflora with probiotics used sigmoid. To eliminate spasms used antispasmodics. To compensate for fluid loss and anti-intoxication with heavy sigmoiditah, accompanied by severe diarrhea, use infusion therapy. Assign special preparations for the recovery of the intestinal mucosa.
With timely beginning of treatment and compliance with the doctor's recommendations prognosis is usually favorable enough. The phenomena of acute sigmoidita unable to stop for a few weeks, in many patients the outcome becomes a complete recovery. In chronic sigmoid possible long-term disease-free throughout. In the presence of chronic diseases, provoking inflammation and support in the sigmoid colon (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease), the prognosis is determined by the course of the underlying pathology.