Tracheitis - An inflammatory disease of the trachea, usually of an infectious nature. Tracheitis accompanied by paroxysmal cough or dry character with the release of a thick mucous or muco-purulent sputum, and pain sensations in the chest during and after coughing. Diagnosis tracheitis includes CBC, laringotraheoskopiyu, bacteriological examination of sputum and throat swabs, X-ray of lungs, consultation phthisiatrician, allergist, pulmonologist. Treatment is carried out etiotropic drugs (antibacterial, antiviral, anti-allergic), mucolytics, expectorants and antitussives, methods of physiotherapy effects.
laryngotracheitis or tracheobronchitis. In addition, tracheitis often precedes or accompanies rhinitis and pharyngitis. Tracheitis allergic nature usually develops in conjunction with allergic conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis.
influenza, parainfluenza, acute respiratory viral infections, rubella, measles, scarlet fever, chicken pox. Bacterial tracheitis can cause pneumococci, staphylococci, influenza bacillus, streptococcus. However, most of the bacterial tracheitis occurs when the activation of pathogenic properties located in the respiratory tract of conditionally pathogenic flora.
Factors contributing to the development of tracheitis include: dust inhaled air, tobacco smoke, adverse climatic conditions are too hot or cold, wet or dry air. Normally, the first inhaled air passes through the nose where it is warmed and humidified. The nasal deposited larger particles of dust, which is then removed from the body under the action of ciliary epithelium or mucosa during sneezing. Violation of this mechanism occurs in diseases that lead to difficulty in nasal breathing: rhinitis, sinusitis, choanal atresia, adenoids, tumor or foreign body nose, deviated septum. As a result of the inhaled air directly enters the larynx and trachea, and can cause them to hypothermia or irritation, provoking the development of tracheitis.
Foster the emergence of infectious tracheitis weakened state of the microorganism that can be observed in the presence of chronic infectious foci (tonsillitis, periodontitis, sinusitis, chronic otitis media, the adenoids), immunodeficiencies (HIV infection, the effects of radiation or chemotherapy), chronic infections (tuberculosis, syphilis) and somatic diseases (chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, peptic ulcer, coronary artery disease, heart failure, rheumatic disease, chronic renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus).
Tracheitis allergic genesis is an allergic reaction that develops in response to the inhalation of various allergens: domestic, industrial or library of dust, pollen, animal fur microparticles, chemical compounds in the air of production facilities of chemical, pharmaceutical and perfume industries. Allergic tracheitis can arise against infection, being a result of an allergic reaction to microbial antigens. In such cases, the trachea is called infectious-allergic.
Otolaryngology isolated infectious, allergic and infectious-allergic tracheitis. In turn, the infectious tracheitis divided into bacterial, viral, and bacterial and viral (mixed).
By the nature of the flow tracheitis classified into acute and chronic. Acute tracheitis occurs suddenly and is short duration (on average 2 weeks). When it becomes chronic, periodic exacerbations, interspersed with periods of remission. Chronic tracheitis leads to morphological changes in the mucous membrane of the trachea, which may be of hypertrophic or atrophic character.
headaches and sleep disorders.
In the presence of concomitant tracheitis pharyngitis or laryngitis patients complain of burning, scratchy, dry, tickling and other unpleasant sensations in the throat. Perhaps an increase in cervical lymph nodes due to the development in these reactive lymphadenitis. Percussion and auscultation of the lungs in patients with tracheitis can not detect any abnormalities. In some cases, there diffuse dry rales, usually to listen to in the bifurcation of the trachea.
In patients with chronic cough, tracheitis is permanent. Increased cough occurs at night and after sleeping during the day cough may be practically absent. In hypertrophic form of chronic tracheitis cough accompanied by phlegm, with atrophic - noted a dry paroxysmal cough caused by irritation of the mucous membrane of the trachea accumulated on her crusts. Exacerbation of chronic tracheitis characterized by increased cough, repeated bouts of exhausting cough occurring during the day, low-grade fever.
In allergic tracheitis pronounced discomfort behind the breastbone and in the pharynx. Paroxysmal cough resistant and painful, accompanied by intense pain behind the breastbone. At the height of attack of coughing vomiting may occur in children. When the percussion and auscultation of lung lesions are often absent. Generally, allergic tracheitis accompanied by symptoms of allergic rhinitis, possible allergic keratitis and conjunctivitis.
bronchitis and pneumonia. Most observed bronchitis and bronchopneumonia. Personal involvement in the infectious process of the bronchial tree indicates a higher body temperature, increased cough, the appearance of the lungs breathing hard, dry and damp diffuse large- and medium bubbling rale. With the development of pneumonia marked deterioration in the general condition of the patient tracheitis and worsening of symptoms of intoxication, may cause chest pain when coughing and breathing. In light percussion sound it can be defined by local blunting during auscultation auscultated weakened breathing, crackling, wet finely wheezing.
Constant inflammation and morphological changes in the mucosa of chronic tracheitis may be the cause of tracheal tumors both benign and malignant nature.
Under prolonged exposure to allergens allergic tracheitis may be complicated by the development of allergic bronchitis and bronchial asthma in transition, accompanied by shortness of breath with difficulty breath and attacks of breathlessness.
therapist. However, to clarify the diagnosis and nature of the inflammatory changes (especially in chronic tracheitis) should consult an otolaryngologist. The patient was also prescribed CBC, laringotraheoskopiyu, taking swabs from the throat and nose with their subsequent bacteriological study bakposev sputum for AFB and its analysis.
A history of the patient's indications of allergic diseases (hay fever, eczema, atopic dermatitis, allergic dermatitis) speaks of a possible allergic nature of tracheitis. Determine the nature of tracheitis allows CBC. When tracheitis infectious genesis in the general analysis of blood marked inflammatory changes (leukocytosis, accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate), with tracheitis allergic inflammatory reaction of the blood is expressed slightly, there is an increased number of eosinophils. To permanently exclude or confirm the allergic tracheitis should consult an allergist and conduct allergy tests.
Laringotraheoskopiya in acute tracheitis reveals hyperemia and edema of the mucous membrane of the trachea, in some cases (such as the flu) petechial hemorrhages. Picture hypertrophic chronic tracheitis include cyanotic color of the mucous and its thickening significantly, because of which the border between the individual rings of the trachea is not visualized. Atrophic form of chronic tracheitis is characterized by a pale pink color, dryness and thinning of the mucosa, the presence on the walls of the trachea heavy crusts.
If you suspect a tuberculosis patient is sent to a TB specialist at the development of bronchopulmonary complications - to the lung. Additionally spend rhinoscopy, pharyngoscope, X-rays of the lungs and sinuses.
Tracheitis must be differentiated from bronchitis, whooping cough, false croup, diphtheria, tuberculosis, lung cancer, foreign body in larynx and trachea.
inhalation therapy (alkali and oil inhalation) administration into the airways of pharmaceutical solutions using neybulayzera, spelioterapiya. From physiotherapy tools used UHF and electrophoresis on the area of the trachea, massage and reflexology.