On the eve of the spring and the melting of ice experts gave advice to fans of fishing and outdoor activities, not only to help to survive in an extreme situation and to save another person, if there is a threat to fall through the ice.
What to do if you have failed under the ice
Do not panic
If you feel that fails, hold your breath. After immersing the main thing - to calm down and focus. We must act quickly and decisively, do not just wallow and wasting time for nothing.
In the first few seconds of your body will experience cold shock: you breathless, increased heart rate, the pressure will rise. In such conditions it is easy to panic.
But remember: this is a natural reaction and you have time to escape.
You have 10 minutes before onemeyut muscles, and 1 hour prior to loss of consciousness.
Go up to the surface and try to breathe slowly and deeply.
Do not remove clothing. It may seem that it pulls you down, but do not spend time on it. In addition, between the layers of clothing can be air layers that will keep you afloat.
But from a heavy backpack is better to get rid of.
Climb to the polynya and widely spread your arms to the sides - so it will be easier to keep afloat.
Turn back. The easiest way - the one by which you came. Once you have survived the ice for the first time, then you can go through it again.
But if there is within, in any case do not turn your back on him: a high probability that you will tighten under the ice, and it will be harder to get. In this case, move to the opposite edge of the hole in the ice.
You can choose a variety of ways.
Place both hands on the ice. Actively working legs, the body adopted a horizontal position.
Pull yourself up and lift the elbows to clothing with water glass. Then the sliding motion pull himself to the surface, but do not get up. So your weight is distributed over a larger area, which means that the ice is not will break again.
The procedure is the same, but you will be helping yourself with a sharp object, if such will be in your hand or pocket. Use a ski pole, knife, keys, pen or pencil, to clinging to the ice, pull themselves out of wormwood.
Turn your back to the edge of the hole in the ice, grab it with both hands and pull in the same way as you normally picks up on a high windowsill.
All these methods have the disadvantage of your motions ice can break off again. In addition, it is usually quite slippery, so that it is not easy to grasp. But this does not mean that we should not try.
Persevere to get out by any means.
What if you do not have the strength to get out on their own? Stay on the surface, call for help. Put your hands on the edge of the hole in the ice: your clothes prim?rznet to ice and keep you above water, even if you lose consciousness.
If a miracle does not get wet pocket phone, call 112 and a man who is as close as possible to the place where you have failed.
While waiting for help, do not throw attempts to escape. Remove heavy with garments of water: it is possible, without it you have enough strength to catch up.
Get to the shore
When will be on the surface, roll away from the hole in the ice for at least a few meters. No need to immediately jump to his feet and run at breakneck speed: ice around polynyas may be subtle. Stand up on your feet can be only when the ice would be thick or the ground beneath you.
Return along the same path, how they come.
Warm up and ask for help
This danger does not end there: you run the risk of hypothermia and get frostbite. Therefore it is necessary either to change into dry clothes or remove, wring out and put on the back that you. And as fast as you can run at any warm room, located nearby. If you are far from settlements, dilute fire.
Mangled twigs burdock, mugwort, Artemisia. They are almost always dry. Suitable and a piece of birch bark, dry grass or thin dry branches of alder and birch. Fire can also support the dry twigs of spruce or pine.
You can bring a number of pre-dry fuel tablets. They do not take up much space in your backpack and certainly help to light a fire. You can take the liquid and ignitors.
Clear the place of snow. Fire is recommended to plant in a snow pit dug in the ground. You can also put in two layers of rotten logs, large pieces of trees, and on such a platform to build a fire. But do not place near the fire snowy trees. Cap has melted and can fall on you, and put out the flames along the way.
Construct classic "shalashika" From dry thick sticks or "frame". Burn wood, as usual. When fire breaks out, you can add a thicker stick. The coals can even throw a little mokrovatye firewood. Before leaving, be sure to completely extinguish the fire and covered it with snow.
Movement - life. Do not stop until you are in a safe place.
In no event it is impossible to rub the hands and feet (cold blood from the extremities to the head pril?t) and gulps to drink hot liquids, and especially strong drinks (begin a sharp inflow of blood to the skin). All this is bad for the cardiovascular system, and in the worst case can lead to heart failure.
Once you are in the room, do the following:
Remove wet clothes and wrapped in a blanket.
Drink a warm drink in small sips.
Call an ambulance, even if you think you are in good order.
What if someone else fell through the ice
No need to rush headlong to the rescue: the ice next to the place of failure can break off, and you will find yourself in the water.
First of all, call the emergency number 112. Then find a stick or a rope, or improvise: for example, several tie scarves or belts.
Picked to the ice-hole on all fours, so that your weight is distributed over a larger area, and stop a few meters from the water. Throw the victim stick, rope, or what could replace them, and drag.
Back, too, need to crawl. Stand can be only when the ice would be thick or the ground beneath their feet.
When will be selected on the shore, as soon as possible go to a warm place and face the man first aid before the arrival of emergency: Remove wet clothing, help keep warm, drink tea.
How not to be in the icy water
Going out on the ice, you are putting your life in danger. The most unfortunate time for these walks - the beginning of winter, and early spring thaw. But we must be careful at all times.
The thickness of the ice is constantly changing. Even if you've gone most of the way without any problems, it does not mean that the front of the ice will be as safe.
Do not go out on the ice alone, at night or in poor visibility.
It is safer to move on pure ice, where there is no snow.
Never test the strength of the ice foot. Proceed with a stick or trust your eyes. Ice blue - strong, white - two times thinner, matte white with a yellowish tinge - very unreliable.
You go around the place where reeds grow, shrubs, trees: there is the likelihood to fail under the ice is always higher.
If you go on the ice now, keep a safe interval of 5-6 meters.
Listen. If you hear a strange creaking or cod, better turn around and sliding movements back to the shore.
What are the things to take a walk on the ice
Set of warm clothes.
Rope or strong cord with a weight at the end.
Stick to check the strength of the ice.
Thermos with tea.
Things can be folded into a backpack, but during the transition hang it only on one shoulder, you can easily get rid of it, if you will break under the ice.