In many countries, first among cancers in women takes breast cancer (BC). The earlier were able to identify the disease, the higher the chances of a cure, do not tire of repeating oncologists. The more a woman knows about the risks and how to avoid them diligently, self-controlled, the greater the chance to protect themselves from disease. About the most important rules and the latest scientific and medical data, experts have told.
Excess weight, abortion and late childbirth
Among the risk factors that trigger the growth of malignant tumors in the breast, modern science and medicine isolated in the first hormonal disorders. Most often they are found in women in these situations:
1) very early onset of menstruation - 12 years too late and their termination - after 55 years;
2) lack of labor - the risk of breast cancer in nulliparous women increased an average of 1.4 times;
3) later first birth - after 30 years;
4) abortion, especially in the later stages of pregnancy;
5) premature birth - before 32 weeks of pregnancy;
6) gynecological diseases - both transferred and the current diagnosis: fibroids, uterine polyps, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, ovarian dysfunction, infertility;
8) hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptives at a young age - 20 years.
"With regard to obesity, it is necessary to remember that the fat tissue in our body itself is an endocrine organ, it is synthesized by the female sex hormone estrogen," - he explained the physician oncomammology Tatiana Chichkanova. Accordingly, when the number of "rolls over" estrogen excess adipose tissue, impaired hormonal balance in the body, and this contributes to the development of cancer.
Hormone replacement therapy is not dangerous in itself, but when she inadvertently imposed on women who already have at least the beginnings of cancer, emphasized Dr. Chichkanova. If such deviations not, properly designated HRT, on the contrary, can significantly improve the quality of life after menopause.
Be careful with alcohol and fatty meat
Besides hormonal experts identify those factors that increase the risk of breast cancer:
- Dense foods with lots of animal saturated fats (butter, fatty meats, cheese, bacon). Recall, according to the international recommendations on a daily basis, you can eat no more than 22 grams of saturated fat, and, at this rate includes both animal and vegetable saturated fats, such as palm oil, which is often found in dairy and confectionery products.
- Smoking - Statistics gives the increase in breast cancer risk by 30%.
- Alcohol abuse: studies have shown that the daily use of 15 or more grams of alcohol in women activity of estrogen in the blood serum is dangerous increases, said doctor oncomammology Tatiana Chichkanova.
- Physical inactivity - sedentary lifestyle causes the body's internal changes, because of which develops up to 16% of all breast cancer cases.
- Night work and other "Vigil" at night, which is why there are failures of our internal biological clock, including hormonal balance is disturbed.
- Family history of breast cancer and /or ovarian cancer have relatives on the maternal line.
- Breast Diseases: nodal mastopathy, long mastalgia (pain in the breast) over 37 months.
- Mutations in genes BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 (determined according to the results of genetic testing). If you have found such a mutation do not panic ahead of time, soothe doctors-genetics. These deviations can only tell a predisposition to breast cancer and, generally, can start only the development of cancer in combination with other hazards. But to exercise increased vigilance, definitely worth it.
Primary prevention of cancer of the right breast
- If a woman regularly, but without the congestion and fanaticism involved in sports, it definitely improves the hormonal status, pleases oncomammology Tatiana Chichkanova. Recommended fiznagruzki pay not less than 4 hours a week. And not necessarily to sweat in the fitness room - you can replace it with morning exercises and walks briskly to reduce the air.
- Look to your diet. Foods with saturated fats, try to limit to the recommended standards, and fruits and vegetables that are rich in useful in fiber, lean back often.
- About what you should try to quit smoking and not abuse alcohol, you probably guessed themselves for a long time.
- Since 25 years, once a year undergoing clinical breast examination by a doctor-gynecologist.
- Starting from 39 in any case, do not ignore the mammogram, which is done in the framework of universal free health examinations every three years. If a woman has high risk factors, the doctor prescribes this and other surveys indicated, without waiting for the next clinical examination.
- As long as a woman has dense breast tissue - usually up to 35 while someone and 40 years to do a mammogram is meaningless, it is simply nothing "does not see" - warns MD, professor Natalia Kochergina. - For women of this age, with suspicious symptoms /or high-risk factors, the most effective survey - a breast ultrasound, and ideally - the most high-precision method "gold standard" - magnetic resonance imaging. And, certainly with the introduction of contrast medium and on the unit capacity of at least 1 T.