Winter is in full swing. The street is pretty cool, and the lower the temperature of the air outside the window, the greater the chance of getting hypothermia or frostbite part of the body while walking.
According GSCHS Ukraine signs of hypothermia is shivering, trembling, paleness, and then the blue skin, lips, pain in the fingers and toes. Prolonged frostbite develops supercooling (tissue damage resulting from exposure to low temperatures).
For more prone to frostbite fingers, hands, feet, ears and nose. In first-degree frostbite, the skin turns pale, it decreases the sensitivity of the affected areas, and after warming observed redness and swelling. At the second degree lesion skin becomes bluish-purple hue, and on its surface bubbles appear with a clear liquid.
To protect your health, rescuers recommended to follow a few basic rules:
- Do not drink alcoholic beverages - alcoholic intoxication promotes high heat loss and heat causes the illusion. Another negative factor is the inability to concentrate on the first sign of frostbite;
- Do not smoke in the cold - smoking reduces peripheral blood circulation and makes the limbs more vulnerable to the effects of cold;
- Wear loose clothing - it contributes to the normal circulation of the blood. Dress so that between the layers of clothing remained a layer of air, which holds heat. It is advisable to wear a robe that does not get wet. Tight shoes, insoles absence may create conditions of frostbite;
- Do not go out into the cold without gloves and scarf. Best Mode - glove fabric which repels water and breathable, fur inside. Gloves made of artificial materials do not protect from frost;
- In windy weather exposed areas lubricate a special cream;
- Do not wear the cold metal (including gold and silver) jewelry. Firstly, the metal is cooled to a lower temperature faster than the body, thereby possibly "sticking" of these objects with the appearance of the skin and the sensation of pain of cold injury. Secondly, the rings on the fingers hinder blood circulation and contribute to frostbite of extremities;
- Before going out in the cold, it is desirable to eat - you need more energy.
In order to prevent frostbite, wear several layers of clothing, which will help retain heat. Make sure that the top layer is made of waterproof fabric. Do not stay on the street, if the clothes got wet. At the first sign of numbness of limbs, you must immediately go to a warm place.
If a strong supercooling inside the skin cells, ice crystals are formed. When these crystals begin to melt, they damage cells. Thus, developing frostbite, which can occur within minutes.
Get frostbite can anyone who is a long time in the freezing weather outside the premises, who easily dressed or whose wet clothes.
The most vulnerable to the effects of low temperatures are children and the elderly, as well as those who have already got frostbite. Also at risk are patients with diabetes and other diseases that affect blood circulation, patients who take certain medications, such as beta-adrenergic blockers, reduce the intensity of the blood circulation in the skin.
Rescuers also note that thermoregulation in children has not been established, and in elderly patients with certain diseases disrupted. These categories are the most susceptible to frostbite and hypothermia, so consider this when planning trips in the winter.
Also remember that a child's stay in the cold should not exceed 15-20 minutes, then you need to warm it in a warm room.
With prolonged exposure to the cold, the body's blood circulation redistributed. In order to maintain a normal temperature increases blood flow to the vital organs. At the same blood flowing from the fingers, toes and nose, then they lose their sensitivity and change color. irreversible damage to the extremities occur in some cases.
One of the symptoms of frostbite - numbness or loss of sensation. The skin becomes rough, tough, waxy, white or grayish color. If you have any of these symptoms should immediately seek medical attention.
Frostbite can lead to cell death and tissue destruction, so that there is a need for amputation lesions. Patients may also experience frostbite hypothermia - a decrease in body temperature to dangerous levels.
To help with frostbite first step is to bring the victim into a warm room. Do not attempt to warm the affected area in the cold. The room must be removed from the victim's wet and tight clothing, release frostbitten body parts, immerse them in warm water for a maximum of 30 minutes or until until it resumes sensitivity. Longer procedure may cause pain, the affected area may swell or lose its color. Until medical help is necessary to give the victim a warm drink.
Never use hot water bottle, an open fire, a hair dryer or radiator for warming frostbitten skin, does not rub or massage the damaged tissue. If there were blisters - do not open and does not peel them. You should avoid walking on frostbitten feet.