Every seventh person knows first hand in the world, that is a migraine. Migraine - a hereditary disease, which is the main symptom - a throbbing pain in his head. Sometimes the pain is joined nausea and sensitivity of hearing and vision: the usual sounds and soft light seem harsh, irritating.
Sometimes a migraine is signaled neurological disorders: dizziness, temporary blurred vision, confusion.
Some types of migraines (eg, hemiplegic, where a feeling of weakness in one side of the body) caused by a mutation in a single gene. Because of it, people predisposed to hyperactivity of neurons. This means that areas of the brain that are responsible for the processing of sensory stimuli, easily excited.
But most forms of migraine polygenic, that is, on the run for several disease genes. Migraine depends on external stimuli: hunger, lack of sleep, feelings.
Scientists have yet to understand the neurological processes, but some parts of the puzzle are already forming into a meaningful picture. For example, new drugs that inhibit vasodilatation - a cause of migraine.
Scientists have only recently took up the study of migraine. Many doctors believed and believe that it is a psychosomatic illness that occurs in anxious people are not able to cope with stress, more often affects women than men. So it is not treated seriously.
In addition, the main symptom of migraine - pain, but this is a subjective feeling. Its nothing to measure, so people find it difficult to believe that it exists at all. In addition, the attacks begin and tested, and in between, a person looks healthy.
Migraine generally began to study in 1960 due to market "methysergide" drug. It was used to prevent recurrent attacks. medicine is not used now because of serious side effects, but it helped to study the disease. Causes of migraine stopped looking in psychology, because the physiological study found.
Medicines much. Migraine is widespread, lasts for years - is a gold mine for the pharmaceutical companies. And drug companies continue to fund research. But not enough, especially if you compare how much money is allocated for other diseases.
Migraine affects both sexes, but the statistics show that women are more likely to collide with it. Migraine affects up to 30% of all people in the world, women - about three times more often than men.
Scientists suspect that blame the hormones of the menstrual cycle. The sharp decline in estrogen and progesterone levels in the late phase of the cycle provokes migraine. As we age, hormones become smaller, their level is not jumping so slack and tested during a migraine menopause.
Women often diagnosed migraine, because they are increasingly turning to the doctor complaining of headaches. Some studies show that men put other diagnoses the symptoms of migraine. It's the fault of doctors, who do not see the real reason for the patient's complaints.
I have a migraine. What to do?
To begin to see a doctor and to specify the diagnosis: not all headache even stronger - a migraine. Your doctor can help you find medicines that alleviate suffering, and for the prevention of attacks, such as antidepressants.
Then you need to figure out what triggers the attack, that is, to understand what are your migraine triggers. The most common:
- Lack of sleep;
- Some foods: chocolate, sugar, coffee, salty, cheese, meat;
- Pungent smells, the sounds, the light;
- Too high a physical load;
- Weather change.
Try to eliminate these triggers of life. Can not rule out - get ready. If you feel a migraine approaching, do not wait until the pain will not move, and immediately take the drug, which is advised by the doctor. Try a couple of hours in a quiet place to hide and rest. If you make it in time, the migraine can retreat. It is better for a short while to break away from business than to suffer and fall down with a bout of pain, which can last several days.
If the attack does occur, try to go through it in comfort: in peace and tranquility, with tea in bed. Spend any procedures that help you: Make a cold compress on the forehead, massage, take a bath.
Head ever stop hurting?
Perhaps, in the elderly. Migraine is rampant among people 30-40 years old, when a man on the peak of productivity. In Europe, it is one of the most common reasons why people miss work. But with age migraine weakens.
In clinical practice, older people rarely complain of the same strong attacks as a young man. There are exceptions, but they are rare.
It is believed that the processes that cause migraines occur in the elderly are not so intensely. The walls of the blood vessels lose their elasticity, so bouts of vascular disorders are not as sharp.
How to get rid of the attacks?
Typically prescribed drugs from the group of triptans. However, they do not work for 30-40% of patients, especially if the patient is registered for the first time and have not found a drug from the group. Furthermore, triptans slowly relieve pain. To the drug to work, you need 45-90 minutes. Those whom triptans are not helping at all, few options. New drugs for migraine did not develop from the 90s, and other painkillers little help in the attacks.
In patients with chronic migraine (who suffers more than 15 days per month) drugs are weak, but can cause many side effects: dizziness, confusion, mood swings.
Most drugs do not come up with for the treatment of migraine. They were created to help patients with epilepsy or depression, and then it turned out that these drugs help and migraines.
When will learn to treat migraine?
It is unknown. Pharmaceutical companies are looking for drugs that can prevent the pain.
It was found that the neurotransmitter levels of CGRP, which dilates blood vessels, increases sharply during a migraine attack. Tests have been conducted CGRP-receptor antagonists that can block it. While the drug is tested in the form of injections to be administered once a month. The drug is not completely relieves migraine, but the frequency of attacks is reduced: patients who were ill for 18 days a month, began to hurt at 6.6 days less (those who used the placebo began to hurt at least 4 days).
But here is not all rosy: This medicine is only for half of the patients, and predict, will give you an injection or not, it has not yet happened. Yes, and it is unclear what long-term effects in blocking the neurotransmitter.
So too early to rejoice. New drugs are expensive, their side effects are not well understood. Maybe we are waiting for, and a breakthrough, but hard to tell when there exists a remedy for migraine.