Balantidiasis - Protozoan intestinal infection caused by ciliates - balantidiums. Clinical manifestations are a reflection balantidiasis inflammatory and ulcerative processes in the large intestine, and are characterized by abdominal pain, tenesmus, frequent loose stools with blood and pus, weight loss, intoxication syndrome. For diagnosis "balantidiasis" are important clinical and epidemiological data, the results of sigmoidoscopy, balantidiums detection in the faeces and swabs. Causal treatment is carried balantidiasis metronidazole, tinidazole, tetracycline antibiotics, monomitsin.
colitis, and general intoxication. Balantidiasis Outbreaks tend to occur in the southern regions, however, sporadic cases of infection are also recorded in rural areas with developed pig. Balantidiasis is characterized by severe, and at the late start of treatment - a high mortality rate due to intestinal complications, cachexia, sepsis accession. The spread balantidiasis promotes lack of vigilance on the part of healthcare professionals to this pathology, the low level of health culture of the population, a high infestation of the rural population (4-5%).
dysentery. Patients complain of progressive weakness, headache, febrile, nausea and vomiting. At the same time develop symptoms of colitis: cutting abdominal pain, diarrhea, tenesmus. The chair becomes fluid, muco-purulent, and then bloody; quickens up to 15-20 times a day; excrements have a putrid smell. In severe balantidiasis occurs rapid loss of body weight, up to cachexia.
Chronic balantidiasis flows with weak intoxication syndrome, palpitations (up to 2-5 times a day), loose stools, flatulence, pain and blind ascending colon palpation. Acute and chronic balantidiasis continuously may lead to the development of intestinal and extra-intestinal complications: bleeding, perforation of the colon ulcers, rectal prolapse, peritonitis, abscesses of the liver, hypochromic anemia. Without specific etiotrop treatment of acute balantidiasis very high risk of death. It is extremely difficult for balantidiasis observed when combined with helminths and intestinal infections.
infectious diseases. The disease may be suspected based on positive data epidemiological history and clinical manifestations; final confirmation and verification of the diagnosis is possible after a bowel endoscopy and laboratory tests.
In the acute stage balantidiasis during sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy detected focal infiltrative and ulcerative changes in the bowel wall; the chronic course - catarrhal-haemorrhagic or ulcerative lesions. Balantidiasis reliable evidence is the presence of vegetative forms balantidiums in freshly feces or scrapings from the affected areas of the intestine. Identify cysts indicates a transient carrier protozoal infections. During diagnostics balantidiasis differentiate bacterial dysentery, amebiasis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, dysbiosis, ulcerative colitis.
Patients with confirmed balanthidiasis be hospitalized in an infectious hospital. The antibacterial (monomitsin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin) or antiprotozoal drugs (metronidazole, tinidazole) are appointed as a causal treatment. Usually held 2-3 five-day cycle of therapy. Systemic drug therapy can be supplemented with enemas colloidally disperse salt norsulfazola. At the same time shows the detoxification therapy, vitamin therapy, adherence to a rational diet.
Treatment carriers protozoal infection as is strictly necessary. The criteria for cure balantidiasis considered the absence of colitis syndrome, negative scatological study on balantidiums, lack of ulcerative changes of the intestinal wall.
Prediction and prevention balantidiasis
Applicable to date methods of specific treatment balantidiasis promote the recovery of patients. In the case of late or inadequate treatment initiated mortality can reach 10-12%. Prevention balantidiasis consists of compliance with personal security (personal hygiene, boil water, wash vegetables and fruits, etc), As well as protection of the environment by fecal contamination (protection of water bodies, improvement zoohygienic conditions pig housing, disposal of manure, and so on. Etc. ) Specific preventive maintenance is not developed balantidiasis.