Barbitalism - Based drug abuse of barbituric acid. It may occur as a result of long-term use of medicines prescribed by a doctor (for example, in chronic insomnia) or unsupervised use for the purpose of euphoria. Condition after taking barbiturates resembles alcohol intoxication, accompanied by disinhibition, increased mood, incoordination, decreased blood pressure and slowing heart rate. In overdose possible impairment of consciousness and death as a result of depression of the respiratory center.
insomnia. Currently, the area of application of these drugs decreased significantly, which resulted in a decrease in the prevalence of barbitalism. The risk of developing barbitalism are people who for medical reasons need to receive funds on the basis of barbituric acid. In addition, barbitalism frequently observed in patients with alcoholism and drug addiction.
Barbitalism distinctive feature is the wide variation in the time interval from the first administration of the drug until the abuse (of a few years when used for medical reasons up to a few weeks or months at uncontrolled reception). When barbitalism noted the rapid development of psycho-organic syndrome, there are frequent relapses. Prognosis is poor. barbitalism Treatment carried out by experts in the field of Addiction.
benzodiazepines, barbiturates funds from the group interact with specific receptors in the brain. The result of this interaction is to reduce the excitability of the nervous system and delay the transmission of nerve impulses. Barbiturates have a calming, sedative and antispasmodic action, promotes relaxation of muscles, reduce the level of anxiety and fear. When receiving moderate doses of drugs there is a condition that resembles alcohol intoxication.
When taken regularly for medical barbiturates (currently mainly as anticonvulsants) barbitalism develops slowly - usually within a few years. Abuse is stimulated by two factors: obsessive (not on narcotics) addiction and accidental discovery euphoric effects of the drug. Over time, the euphoria of becoming a major inner incentive for taking the medicine, and a doctor's appointment is seen as a "good reason" to justify his actions.
Fundamentally different situation is observed among people who abuse drugs or alcohol. They immediately start using barbiturates to achieve euphoria, often using them in combination with other psychoactive substances, which leads to the development of polydrug use. Physical dependence in such cases often develop over several months after the first dose. For this kind of characteristic rapid increase barbitalism dose. There is a high risk of overdose.
impairment of consciousness up to coma, death occurs in paralysis of the respiratory center.
With constant taking tolerance to barbiturates increases. The dose required to achieve euphoria, increases several times. Patients with barbitalism, there is a change of intoxication symptoms. Reduces the severity of euphoria. After the use of the drug occurs anger and irritability. There tendency to aggressive behavior: conflicts, fights, destruction of property. Violations of coordination over time become less pronounced. The combination of aggression while preserving the ability to control the body well do patients barbitalism dangerous for other people.
Over time, there are chronic symptoms of intoxication. Patients suffering barbitalism become scattered. They suffer from mood swings, have difficulty when trying to concentrate. When barbitalism often detected memory disorders, especially widespread fixation amnesia - the loss of the ability to remember only that the events (for example, the patient ate for lunch, where he went, what he did and who met a few hours ago, etc).
On the part of the patient barbitalism it may look like an indecisive man, not fully aware of where he was and what was happening to him. He did not understand the explanation and guidance of others, guided loosely in a changing situation. The meaning of his answer is unclear, slurred speech, gait is not hard. All this can give a false impression of helplessness and harmless. However, the mood of patients with barbitalism can change very fast. Their reactions are unpredictable. The possibility of sudden temper and fits of aggression (including physical).
On examination of patients with chronic neurological disorders barbitalism revealed: ataxic gait change, hand tremors, dysarthria, gipomimiya, blurred and illegible handwriting. Reduced tendon reflexes. In severe cases, against the background of progressive memory impairment, lack of criticism in his own state, intellectual decline and speech disorders in patients barbitalism arises clinical picture resembling psevdoparalich.
In case of cancellation of the drug in patients with barbitalism, develop severe withdrawal syndrome. It noted the growing weakness and fatigue. There may be paresthesia. At 2-3 day there are sleep disorders and severe anxiety in conjunction with the jerking of muscles. Subsequently to the fore fatigue combined with disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting). After 4-5 days, may develop generalized seizures, seizures resembling epilepsy. In between generalized seizures may clonic seizures without loss of consciousness. Some patients barbitalism observed acute psychotic disorders by type of delirium and hallucinosis.
Drug Treatment Hospital. Unlike other kinds of dependence, psychoactive substance cancel not once, but gradually, reducing the dose over 1-2 weeks. Sudden discontinuation of medications is contraindicated because of a high risk of developing psychosis and epileptiform seizures. After complete discontinuation of barbiturates perform detoxification activities. To combat the pathological inclination at barbitalism used psychotropic drugs, encoding using hypnosuggestive techniques and various psychotherapeutic methods. After discharge, all patients suffering barbitalism should be for 5 years to be observed at the psychiatrist.
Forecast at barbitalism unfavorable. At the use of barbiturates, there is a high risk of dangerous complications. Possibly fatal overdose, suicide attempts, accidents and criminal incidents. There have been frequent relapses. Intelligent reduction in combination with psycho-organic syndrome, reduce the chances of full social rehabilitation of patients barbitalism and increase the likelihood of failures. Possibility of treatment success is increased by intelligent active safety and the patient's desire to get rid of dependence.