Myopia in children - Visual defect caused by mismatch of the optical power of the cornea anterior-posterior axis of the eyeball, resulting in focusing images to the retina, rather than itself. When children are well myopia see near objects and distant - bad; They complain of eye fatigue, headaches. A survey of children with myopia includes assessing visual acuity, ophthalmoscopy, skiascopy, autorefractometry, US eyes. The treatment of myopia in children is carried out in a complex with the aid of glasses or contact lens, optical exercise, drug therapy, FTL, IRT; if necessary - scleroplasty.
Myopia in children
Ophthalmology. By 15-16 years of myopia is found in 25-30% of children. Myopia often detected in the child aged 9-12 years, and in adolescence it comes gain. When myopia parallel rays of light coming from distant objects are focused not on the retina, but in front of it, which leads to fuzziness, blurring, vagueness of the image.
Approximately 80-90% of full-term babies are born with hyperopia "reserve hyperopia» + 30 + 35 D. This is a short anteroposterior size of the eyeball in the newborn (17-18 mm). As the child grows, there is growth, and with it - to change the refractive power of the eye. Hyperopia gradually becomes smaller, approaching the normal (emmetropic), refraction, and in many cases (if not "reserve farsightedness" and less than 2.5 D), it goes into myopia - nearsightedness in children.
premature infants and children with congenital disorders of the cornea or lens, congenital glaucoma, Down's syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and others. congenital myopia is usually diagnosed in infants.
Acquired myopia in children occurs and progresses in the school years due to increased visual load, learning early reading and writing, failure to comply with hygiene, uncontrolled use of the computer or watching TV, lack of trace elements and vitamins in the diet, the rapid growth of the child. To promote the development of myopia in children may be generic spinal injury, rickets, infections (tonsillitis, sinusitis, tuberculosis, measles, diphtheria, scarlet fever, infectious hepatitis) and comorbidities (adenoids, diabetes, and others.), Disorders of the musculoskeletal system (scoliosis, flat feet).
cataract and diabetes, as well as in the defeat of the lens as a result of taking certain medications.
Pathological myopia in children (myopic disease) occurs when there is excessive growth of the eyeball in length and is characterized by a progressive decrease in visual acuity to several diopters per year. This form of nearsightedness in children occurs most malignant and often leads to disability-free.
As a direct mechanism of occurrence of myopia in children may be an axial (in the case of increasing the size of the anteroposterior eye> 25 mm and normal refraction), refractive (with an increase in refractive power and normal anteroposterior length of the eye) and mixed (a combination of both mechanisms).
By virtue of expression distinguish weak myopia in children (up -30 D), medium (up to -60 D) and high (over -60 D).
In older children, the presence of myopia allows a habit of screwing up his eyes to think, to wrinkle the forehead, blink often, bring toys close to the eyes, tilted his head low when drawing or reading. This close objects the child sees well, and remote - is worse. Typical complaints from children to discomfort and pain in the eyes, rapid visual fatigue, headache.
If time does not 'corrected myopia in children disturbed binocular vision, developing amblyopia and exotropia. The most serious complications of progressive myopia are vitreous detachment, retinal changes that lead to bleeding and its detachment.
From the true myopia in children should be distinguished false myopia (or spasm of accommodation) due to dysfunction of the eye muscles and is accompanied by the loss of the possibility of maintaining a clear vision of objects. Such a condition is potentially reversible, but if not promptly take appropriate measures, spasm of accommodation of children will grow into a true myopia.
pediatrician should take steps to survey the state of the child's visual function.
During outdoor child's eye examination ophthalmologist children draws attention to the shape, size and position of the eyeballs, eye fixation on bright toys. During biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy estimated condition of the cornea, anterior chamber, lens, fundus.
The presence of myopia in children 3 years of age to be confirmed by checking the visual acuity of near and distance, without corrective glasses, and with them. Improved vision with the negative and the deterioration of a positive lens indicates myopia. In the next step we study the clinical refraction using skiascopy and refractometry after pre atropine.
With the help of ultrasound eye determines the type of myopia in children (refractive or axial) is measured anteroposterior size of the eye.
To eliminate false myopia in children is determined by the volume and supply of accommodation. In identifying the spasm of accommodation the child should consult a children's neurologist, since this condition is common in children with vascular dystonia, asthenia, increased nervous excitability.
selection of glasses or contact lenses (for older children). When myopia mild to moderate glasses are used only for distance, the need for their constant wear there. In the case of high myopia or its progressive nature, required to wear glasses all the time.
Drug-free treatment of myopia in children include fortifying mode, balanced nutrition, visual exercises, treatment hardware (vacuum massage, laser therapy, electrical stimulation, training accommodation and convergence, and others.), Massage of cervical area, electrophoresis, acupuncture.
By way of medical treatment of myopia in children is assignment vitamin-mineral complexes, vasodilator drugs (nicotinic acid, pentoxifylline), instillation of eye drops that improve eye nutrition.
With the progression of, or high myopia in children, surgical treatment - scleroplasty that prevents further stretching of the sclera. Laser vision correction for myopia is performed after reaching a patient 18 years.
Prediction and prevention of myopia in children
If the myopia in children is not progressing and proceeds without complications, the outlook for a favorable view - such myopia lends itself well to the spectacle correction. In high myopia correction, even in conditions of visual acuity is often reduced. The worst prognosis for visual function has progressive myopia in children, leading to degenerative changes in the retina.
An important role in the prevention of myopia in children plays a hygiene view: the dosage of visual stress, proper organization of the working student place, prevention of pathological visual habits. For proper development of useful enough sleep, good nutrition, exposure to fresh air, exercise. Children with myopia should be examined by an ophthalmologist every six months.