Morphinism - causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Morphinism - The regular use of opium alkaloids - morphine, accompanied by the development of mental and physical dependence. After receiving the drug arise euphoria, drowsiness, a feeling of relaxation and carelessness. There have reduced ability to concentrate and changes in thinking processes. Morphinism addiction is characterized by rapid and significant increase in tolerance. If you cancel developing severe withdrawal symptoms. Morphinism diagnosis is established on the basis of history, interviews, data inspection and test results for drugs. Treatment - pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, rehabilitation in a specialized center.

  • Causes of morphinism
  • Symptoms morphinism
  • Diagnosis and treatment of morphinism
  • Morphinism - treatment

  • Morphinism

    morphine opium. It is accompanied by a rapid increase in tolerance, the formation of severe physical and mental dependence. Dependence occurs when morphinism just 2-3 weeks of regular use. After 10-12 hours after the last dose develops marked withdrawal symptoms. In case of overdose possible death from respiratory arrest. Peak morphinism came in XIX century and early XX century. Currently use less heroin, morphine, but morphinism problem still has not lost its significance.

    Morphine was first isolated in 1805 but became widespread only in the second half of the XIX century, after the invention of the injection needle. Widely used during the American Civil War, which led to the development of morphinism more than 400 thousand. Man. The drug is often consumed without an indication doctors who believed that an understanding of the consequences morphinism avoids dependence, but this view was completely untenable. Currently, the morphine is used to eliminate pain in severe trauma, malignant tumors, other diseases and pathological conditions. The product is included in the first list of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. morphinism Treatment carried out by experts in the field of Addiction.

    The action of morphine in the body

    The main effect of morphine used as a medicament - anesthetic. The drug belongs to the group of opioids and is used to eliminate the pain associated with malignant tumors and other diseases. It has a certain anti-shock effect for injuries that caused a decrease in the excitability of pain receptors. It has a hypnotic effect, brightly marked with sleep disorders caused by pain. Reduces body temperature, basal metabolic rate slows down.

    Causes euphoria slows conditioned reflexes, increases the effects of local anesthetics, hypnotics and narcotic drugs. Depresses the respiratory and cough center, stimulates bradycardia and pupillary constriction. It increases the tone of smooth muscles. Due to the weakening of peristalsis and improve the tone of gastrointestinal sphincters provokes constipation. Sometimes the causes of bronchospasm. It stimulates the release of antidiuretic hormone, which may lead to a decrease in urine output. It inhibits the vomiting center. At constant reception causes an increase in tolerance. Patients suffering morphinism can take the drug in doses of 20-300 times greater than therapeutic.

    hashishism, in which patients are in a shared reality, patients morphinism isolated from the others and are immersed in their inner world.

    When the external examination revealed fever, redness of the skin, pupillary constriction, enhanced sweating, hypersalivation, decrease of muscle tone, increased blood pressure, increased heart rate and breathing. movement speed reduced. Coordination broken. Sexual activity in the early stages morphinism increased, long-term abuse of sexual disorders arise. During the period of euphoria need for food is absent or reduced, after the euphoria observed thirst and increased appetite. Unlike most other substance abuse, accompanied by a feeling of lethargy and weakness after sleep, sleep at morphinism calm, refreshing. In overdose possible respiratory disorders which are hazardous to life.

    Stage morphinism

    There are three stages morphinism. The duration of the first stage - 2-3 months. It marked reduction in the duration and depth of sleep, while maintaining the normal state of health. Appetite mostly reduced. Can urinary retention and constipation brief. After some time, increases tolerance. Patients morphinism quite easily tolerate the absence of the drug. When a reception in 1-2 days receive psychological discomfort, increased internal tension, there expressed a desire to enter a new dose.

    The second stage morphinism occurs within 3-4 months and can last for 5-10 years. The introduction of the drug becomes regular. Individual dose increases 100 and more times as compared with the therapeutic. Dream, chair and diuresis normalized. Gradually formed a withdrawal syndrome. Patients suffering morphinism try "turkey withdrawal" on their own or turn to doctors for the treatment of withdrawal symptoms, but often this is not done to stop using drugs, and to reduce the tolerance and dose reduction.

    The third stage morphinism develops after 5-10 years of regular drug use and is characterized by a predominance of the effects of chronic intoxication. Tolerance is gradually reduced. Morphine did not take to achieve a state of euphoria, and to improve the tone and prevent the development of withdrawal symptoms. Without the drug the patient morphinism so listless and devoid of energy that almost can not move. To stimulate sufficient 10-12% of the usual dose. After receiving the restored mobility and ability to work. The number of uses ranging from 3 to 5 times per day.

    Withdrawal symptoms when morphinism

    There are four phases of withdrawal symptoms when morphinism. The first phase occurs within 8-12 hours after the last use of morphine. It is characterized by increasing internal stress, dissatisfaction, loss of appetite, sleep disorders, sneezing, yawning and lacrimation. The second phase of the withdrawal begins when morphinism 1-1.5 days after the last use, accompanied by weakness, sweating, chills and periods of heat, tension and discomfort in the muscles. Yawning and sneezing become more pronounced.

    The third phase of withdrawal symptoms when morphinism develops within 2 days after the last use. Manifested by muscle spasms and pain in the muscles, decreasing while driving. Symptoms of the first two phases remain. Accrues dysphoria. The fourth phase occurs within 3 days after the last use of morphine and lasts 5-10 days. To join the already existing symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting. stool frequency up to 10-15 times a day. Subsequently, the phenomenon of withdrawal symptoms gradually decrease and disappear.

    Consequences morphinism

    Prolonged intake of morphine leads to a number of mental and physical changes. Patients morphinism there is a constant lack of energy, reduced ability to intellectual activity. Eventually formed functional dementia. There are dysphoria. Develop intoxication and withdrawal psychosis. For a long time this morphinism characterized by physical exhaustion, loss of skin elasticity, the deterioration of the teeth, nails and hair. Patients look older than their age. Possible infectious complications caused by use of non-sterile syringes and decreased immunity.

    Morphinism causes weakening of the heart muscle, and gastrointestinal disorders. Observed neurological disorders. Patients with morphinism develops psycho-organic syndrome characterized by weakness, exhaustion, decreased performance, unstable emotion, memory impairment and a decrease in criticism to their own state. Over time, the emotions of patients morphinism flattened, begins to dominate indifference or euphoria coupled with disinhibition of instincts.

    scars and traces of injections in the groin and on the elbow. Sometimes the injection should be found in unusual places, such as between the toes or under the tongue. In conducting tests in body fluids are detected opiates.

    morphinism treatment is advantageously carried out in a closed specialized center. Initially, the patients completely isolated from the outside world. Perform detoxification measures prescribed opioid receptor antagonists and drugs to restore the activities of all organs and systems. Medication morphinism carried out against the background of psychotherapy. Use both group sessions and individual consultations. After normalization of the patient in the treatment program was added occupational therapy and physiotherapy exercises. The minimum duration of treatment morphinism - 2-4 months recommended - 6 months or more.